לפי שאין המת משתכח מן הלב שלשים יום מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דקעביד בחנם:
It is because the dead is not forgotten from the heart and put out of mind for thirty days, and therefore, when one laments the loss of a deceased relative within thirty days before a Festival, the pain is still remembered on the Festival. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between the two reasons? The practical difference between them is in a case where the eulogizer performs the eulogy free of charge. In that case there is no worry that money that had been set aside for the Festival will be spent, but there is still room for concern about the lingering pain that will be felt on the Festival.
מתני׳ אין חופרין כוכין וקברות במועד אבל מחנכין את הכוכין במועד ועושין נברכת במועד וארון עם המת בחצר רבי יהודה אוסר אלא אם כן יש עמו נסרים:
MISHNA: One may not dig crypts or graves on the intermediate days of a Festival in preparation for those who are still alive, but one may adjust previously dug crypts on the intermediate days of a Festival in order to receive a particular corpse. And one may also construct a laundry pond on the intermediate days of a Festival as it does not involve excessive effort. And one may also prepare a coffin if he is together with the corpse in the same courtyard, as in that case everyone knows that he is preparing the coffin for the deceased. Rabbi Yehuda prohibits making the coffin unless one has wooden boards with him that had already been cut before the Festival and that need only to be attached.
גמ׳ מאי כוכין ומאי קברות אמר רב יהודה כוכין בחפירה וקברות בבנין תניא נמי הכי אלו הן כוכין ואלו הן קברות כוכין בחפירה וקברות בבנין:
GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What are crypts and what are graves, and what is the difference between them? Rav Yehuda said: Crypts are constructed by digging and graves are constructed by building. The Gemara adds: That is also taught in the following baraita: These are crypts and these are graves: Crypts are constructed by digging and graves are constructed by building.
אבל מחנכין את הכוכין: כיצד מחנכין אמר רב יהודה שאם היה ארוך מקצרו במתניתא תנא מאריך בו ומרחיב בו:
It is taught in the mishna: But one may adjust previously dug crypts on the intermediate days of a Festival. The Gemara asks: How does one adjust a crypt? Rav Yehuda said: If the crypt was longer than the corpse, he shortens it. With regard to this issue it was taught in a baraita: He lengthens the crypt and widens it to make it the right size for the particular corpse.
ועושין נברכת כו': מאי נברכת אמר רב יהודה זו בקיע והתניא הנברכת והבקיע אמר אביי ואיתימא רב כהנא גיהא ובר גיהא:
It was further taught in the mishna: And one may also construct a laundry pond on the intermediate days of a Festival. The Gemara asks: What is a laundry pond? Rav Yehuda said: This is a ditch dug in the ground for washing clothes. The Gemara raises a difficulty: Isn’t it taught in a baraita: A laundry pond and a laundry ditch, which indicates that they are different from one another? Abaye said, and some say that it was Rav Kahana who said: A pond and a small pond, i.e., the only difference between them is their size; a laundry pond is larger than a laundry ditch.
וארון עם המת בחצר: תנינא להא דתנו רבנן עושין כל צורכי המת גוזזין לו שערו ומכבסין לו כסותו ועושין לו ארון מנסרין המנוסרין מערב יו"ט רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אף מביאין עצים ומנסרן בצינעא בתוך ביתו:
It was taught in the mishna: And one may also prepare a coffin on the intermediate days of a Festival if he is together with the corpse in the same courtyard. The Gemara comments: We already learned this, as the Sages taught in the following baraita: One may tend to all the needs of the deceased on the intermediate days of a Festival: One may cut the deceased’s hair for him if it was too long, and one may wash his clothing, i.e., his shrouds, for him, and one may construct a coffin for him from boards that had already been cut from the eve of the Festival. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One may even bring timber and discreetly cut it into boards in the privacy of his house.
מתני׳ אין נושאין נשים במועד לא בתולות ולא אלמנות ולא מייבמין מפני ששמחה היא לו אבל מחזיר הוא את גרושתו
MISHNA: One may not marry a woman on the intermediate days of a Festival, not virgins and not widows, and one may not perform levirate marriage with his sister-in-law, if his brother died childless, because it is a joyous occasion for him. However, one may remarry his divorced wife on the intermediate days of a Festival, as this is not as great a joy for him.
ועושה אשה תכשיטיה במועד רבי יהודה אומר לא תסוד מפני שניוול הוא לה ההדיוט תופר כדרכו והאומן מכליב ומסרגין את המטות רבי יוסי אומר ממתחין:
And a woman may engage in all her usual cosmetic treatments to enhance her physical appearance on the intermediate days of a Festival. Rabbi Yehuda says: She may not apply lime to her skin because it is temporarily a disgrace to her, as she is unattractive before the lime is peeled off and will therefore be distressed during the Festival. The mishna continues: A layman, who is not a skilled tailor, may sew in his usual manner if necessary for the Festival, whereas a craftsman may form only temporary stitches. And one may interweave the cords attached to the frames of beds upon which a mattress is placed. Rabbi Yosei says: One may only tighten the cords but not interweave them.
גמ׳ וכי שמחה היא לו מאי הוי אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל וכן אמר רבי אלעזר אמר רבי אושעיא ואמרי לה אמר ר' אלעזר אמר ר' חנינא לפי שאין מערבין שמחה בשמחה רבה בר [רב] הונא אמר מפני שמניח שמחת הרגל ועוסק בשמחת אשתו
GEMARA: It was taught in the mishna that one may not marry a woman on the intermediate days of a Festival, because it is a source of joy for him. The Gemara asks: And if it is a source of joy for him, what of it? Isn’t there is a mitzva to rejoice on a Festival? Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said, and, so too, Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said, and some say that Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Ḥanina said: The reason that one may not get married on the intermediate days of a Festival is because one may not mix one joy with another joy, as each requires its own celebration. Rabba bar Rav Huna said: The reason is because he forsakes the rejoicing of the pilgrimage Festival and occupies himself with rejoicing with his wife.
אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף הא דרבה בר [רב] הונא דרב הוא דאמר רב דניאל בר קטינא אמר רב מנין שאין נושאין נשים במועד שנאמר (דברים טז, יד) ושמחת בחגך בחגך ולא באשתך
Abaye said to Rav Yosef: This statement of Rabba bar Rav Huna is actually a statement of Rav, as Rav Daniel bar Ketina said that Rav said: From where is it derived that one may not marry a woman on the intermediate days of a Festival? As it is stated: “And you shall rejoice in your Festival” (Deuteronomy 16:14). This verse emphasizes that you must rejoice in your Festival and not in your wife.
עולא אמר מפני הטורח רבי יצחק נפחא אמר מפני ביטול פריה ורביה
Ulla said: The reason one may not marry on the intermediate days of a Festival is due to the excessive exertion that the wedding preparations demand, which is prohibited during the Festival. Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said: The reason is due to the neglect of the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. If it were permissible to get married during the intermediate days of a Festival, people would delay getting married until then in order to save money by avoiding the necessity of preparing separate feasts for the Festival and for the wedding. In the meantime they would neglect the mitzva of procreation.
מיתיבי כל אלו שאמרו אסורין לישא במועד
The Gemara raises an objection from the following baraita: All those whom the Sages said are prohibited to marry on the intermediate days of a Festival