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2aב׳ א

מתני׳ משקין בית השלחין במועד ובשביעית בין ממעיין שיצא בתחילה בין ממעיין שלא יצא בתחילה אבל אין משקין לא ממי הגשמים ולא ממי הקילון

MISHNA: One may irrigate a field that requires irrigation on the intermediate days of a Festival as well as during the Sabbatical Year, both from a newly emerged spring that began to flow only during the Festival, and from a spring that did not just emerge and that has been flowing for some time. However, one may not irrigate a field with rainwater collected in a cistern, a procedure that requires excessive exertion, or with water drawn with a shadoof [kilon], a lever used to raise water with a bucket from deep down in a well.

ואין עושין עוגיות לגפנים ר' אלעזר בן עזריה אומר אין עושין את האמה בתחילה במועד ובשביעית וחכמים אומרים עושין את האמה בתחילה בשביעית ומתקנין את המקולקלות במועד

And one may not construct circular ditches around the bases of grapevines on the intermediate days of a Festival. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: One may not construct a new water channel during the intermediate days of a Festival or during the Sabbatical Year. And the Rabbis say: One may construct a new water channel during the Sabbatical Year and one may repair damaged water channels during the intermediate days of a Festival.

ומתקנין את קלקולי המים שברשות הרבים וחוטטין אותן ומתקנין את הדרכים ואת הרחובות ואת מקוות המים ועושין כל צורכי הרבים ומציינין את הקברות ויוצאין אף על הכלאים:

In addition to performing labor on one’s own property in order to avoid financial loss, it is also permitted to perform labor on the intermediate days of a Festival for the public welfare: One may repair damaged water cisterns that are in the public domain, and clean them out by removing the dirt and sediment that accumulated there; one may repair roads, streets, and ritual baths; and one may tend to all other public needs. So too, one may mark graves to inform the public of their ritual impurity, and inspectors may even go out to uproot the shoots of prohibited diverse kinds [kilayim] that grew in the fields during the rainy season.

גמ׳ השתא יש לומר ממעיין שיצא בתחילה דאתי לאינפולי משקין ממעיין שלא יצא בתחילה דלא אתי לאינפולי מיבעיא

GEMARA: The Gemara begins by questioning the wording of the mishna: Now that it has been said that on the intermediate days of a Festival one may irrigate a field from a newly emerged spring, whose walls have not yet stabilized and are likely to collapse, necessitating laborious repairs, is it necessary to mention that one may irrigate a field from a spring that did not just emerge, whose walls have already stabilized and are therefore not likely to collapse?

אמרי אצטריך אי תנא מעיין שיצא בתחילה הוה אמינא הכא הוא דבית השלחין אין בית הבעל לא משום דאתי לאינפולי אבל מעיין שלא יצא בתחילה דלא אתי לאינפולי אימא אפילו בית הבעל נמי

The Gemara answers: They say that it was necessary to mention the second case as well. For had the tanna taught us the halakha with regard to only a newly emerged spring, I would have said that here, in the case of a field that requires irrigation, yes, one is permitted to irrigate from such a spring, but in the case of a field that ordinarily suffices with rainwater, no, one is not permitted to do so, because it is likely to collapse. But with regard to a spring that did not just emerge, that is not likely to collapse, I might say that one may provide supplementary irrigation even in the case of a field that ordinarily suffices with rainwater.

קא משמע לן לא שנא מעיין שיצא בתחילה ולא שנא מעיין שלא יצא בתחילה בית השלחין אין בית הבעל לא

Therefore, the tanna teaches us that a newly emerged spring is no different from a spring that did not just emerge. In the case of a field that requires irrigation, yes, one may irrigate on the intermediate days of a Festival, while in the case of a field that ordinarily suffices with rainwater, no, one may not do so, even from an established spring.

ומאי משמע דהאי בית השלחין לישנא דצחותא היא דכתיב (דברים כה, יח) ואתה עיף ויגע ומתרגמינן ואת משלהי ולאי

The Gemara raises a question with regard to a linguistic issue: And from where may it be inferred that this term, beit hashelaḥin, a field that requires irrigation, is a term denoting thirst, implying that supplementary watering is necessary? The Gemara answers: As it is written: “And you were faint and weary” (Deuteronomy 25:18). The term faint is referring to the thirst of the Israelites in the desert. And, in the standard Aramaic translation, we translate the verse as: And you were thirsty [meshalhei] and weary. The letters ḥet and heh are sometimes interchanged, and therefore the term beit hashelaḥin connotes a thirsty field.

ומאי משמע דהאי בית הבעל לישנא דמייתבותא היא דכתיב (ישעיהו סב, ה) כי יבעל בחור בתולה ומתרגמינן ארי כמה דמיתותב עולם עם בתולתא יתייתבון בגויך בנייך

And from where may it be inferred that this term, beit haba’al, a field that suffices with rainwater, is a term denoting settlement, i.e., an established field that does not require extensive upkeep? As it is written: “For as a young man takes to himself [yiv’al] a virgin, so shall your sons take you to themselves” (Isaiah 62:5). And it is translated in the Aramaic translation: As a young man settles down with a virgin, so shall your sons become settled within you. Similarly, beit haba’al is referring to a settled field that suffices with rainwater.

מאן תנא דפסידא אין הרווחה לא ואפילו במקום פסידא מיטרח נמי לא טרחינן

The Gemara begins to clarify the underlying principle of the mishna, asking: Who is the anonymous tanna of the mishna who maintains that labor performed to prevent a considerable loss, such as watering a field that requires irrigation, yes, it is permitted on the intermediate days of a Festival; but labor performed to increase one’s profit, such as watering a field that ordinarily suffices with rainwater, no, it is not permitted? Furthermore, even in a case involving loss, one may not excessively exert oneself, as the tanna of the mishna renders prohibited all cases of watering fields with collected rainwater or with water drawn with a shadoof, even in a field that requires irrigation.

אמר רב הונא ר' אליעזר בן יעקב היא דתנן רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אומר מושכין את המים מאילן לאילן ובלבד שלא ישקה את השדה כולה

Rav Huna said: It is Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, as we learned in a mishna: Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: In a field filled with trees, one may draw water via channels from tree to tree, provided that in doing so he does not water the entire field. As this field ordinarily suffices with rainwater, it is prohibited to water the entire field. Therefore, it is evident that Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov renders prohibited work performed to increase profit on the intermediate days of a Festival.

אימור דשמעת ליה לרבי אליעזר הרווחה דלא טירחא במקום פסידא מי שמעת ליה

The Gemara challenges this comparison: Say that you heard that Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov holds that labor performed only to increase profit is not permitted. But did you hear him prohibit excessive exertion in a case of considerable loss? This aspect of the mishna finds no expression in the words of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov.

אלא אמר רב פפא הא מני רבי יהודה היא דתניא מעיין היוצא בתחילה משקין ממנו אפילו שדה בית הבעל דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר אין משקין אלא שדה בית השלחין שחרבה רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר לא כך ולא כך יתר על כן אמר רבי יהודה לא יפנה אדם אמת המים וישקה לגינתו ולחורבתו בחולו של מועד

Rather, Rav Pappa said: In accordance with whose opinion is this mishna? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as it is taught in a baraita: From a newly emerged spring one may irrigate even a field that ordinarily suffices with rainwater; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may irrigate only a field requiring irrigation that dried up and needs water. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: Neither the one nor the other. Furthermore, Rabbi Yehuda said: Owing to the exertion involved, one may not divert a water channel from its regular path in order to water his garden or his ruin, which is now being used for planting, during the intermediate days of a Festival.

מאי חרבה אילימא חרבה ממש למה לי דמשקי לה אמר אביי שחרבה ממעיין זה ויצא לה מעיין אחר

The Gemara first clarifies the case of the baraita: What does Rabbi Yehuda mean when he speaks of a field that is dried up? If we say that the field is literally dried up and the plants are already parched, why do I need to water it? Abaye said: It means that the one spring from which the field had been irrigated until now dried up, but in the meantime another spring emerged. If the field is not irrigated from this spring, it will be ruined.

רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר לא כך ולא כך לא שנא חרב מעיינה ולא שנא לא חרב מעיינה מעיין שיצא בתחילה לא

The Gemara explains the next clause of the baraita, which states: Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: Neither the one nor the other. By this he means that it is no different whether the original spring dried up or did not dry up. The guiding principle is: From a newly emerged spring one may not irrigate even a field that requires irrigation.

וממאי דלמא עד כאן לא קאמר רבי יהודה בית השלחין אין בית הבעל לא אלא מעיין שיצא בתחילה

In any event, Rabbi Yehuda seems to maintain an opinion that is like that of the mishna, i.e., that only a field that requires irrigation may be watered, but not a field that suffices with rainwater. And even in the case of a field that requires irrigation, excessive exertion is prohibited. The Gemara challenges this understanding: And from where do you conclude that the mishna reflects the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda? Perhaps Rabbi Yehuda stated that a field that requires irrigation, yes, one may irrigate it on the intermediate days of a Festival, and a field that suffices with rainwater, no, one may not do so, only with regard to a newly emerged spring,