גְּמָ׳ וַאֲפִילּוּ חָכָם וְהָתַנְיָא חָכָם שֶׁמֵּת הַכֹּל קְרוֹבָיו GEMARA: The mishna teaches that only the relatives of the deceased rend their clothes. The Gemara asks: And is this the case even if the deceased was a Torah Sage? But isn’t it taught otherwise in a baraita: When a Torah scholar dies, everyone is his relative.
הַכֹּל קְרוֹבָיו סָלְקָא דַּעְתָּךְ אֶלָּא הַכֹּל כִּקְרוֹבָיו הַכֹּל קוֹרְעִין עָלָיו וְהַכֹּל חוֹלְצִין עָלָיו וְהַכֹּל מַבְרִין עָלָיו בָּרְחָבָה לָא צְרִיכָא דְּלָאו חָכָם הוּא The Gemara clarifies: Does it enter your mind to say that everyone is his relative? Rather, this baraita should be understood as follows: Everyone is considered to be like his relative in the sense that everyone rends his garment in anguish over him, and everyone bares his shoulder over him in mourning, and everyone eats the mourner’s meal over him in the public square as mourners do. The death of a Torah scholar is a personal loss for every Jew. So why is the mishna limited to only relatives? The Gemara answers: No, it is necessary for the mishna to teach this halakha in a case where the deceased is not a Torah scholar.
וְאִי אָדָם כָּשֵׁר הוּא חַיּוֹבֵי מִיחַיַּיב לְמִיקְרַע דְּתַנְיָא מִפְּנֵי מָה בָּנָיו וּבְנוֹתָיו שֶׁל אָדָם מֵתִים כְּשֶׁהֵן קְטַנִּים כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּבְכֶּה וְיִתְאַבֵּל עַל אָדָם כָּשֵׁר The Gemara asks: And if the deceased was an upright person who feared Heaven and performed good deeds, then aren’t all those present at his death obligated to rend their garments over his death? As it is taught in a baraita: For what reason do a person’s sons and daughters die when they are young? They die so that he will cry and mourn over the death of an upright person.
יִבְכֶּה וְיִתְאַבֵּל עֶרְבוֹנָא קָא שָׁקֵיל מִינֵּיהּ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא בָּכָה וְהִתְאַבֵּל עַל אָדָם כָּשֵׁר שֶׁכׇּל הַבּוֹכֶה וּמִתְאַבֵּל עַל אָדָם כָּשֵׁר מוֹחֲלִין לוֹ עַל כׇּל עֲוֹנוֹתָיו בִּשְׁבִיל כָּבוֹד שֶׁעָשָׂה לוֹ דְּלָאו אָדָם כָּשֵׁר הוּא The Gemara questions the formulation: They die so that he will cry and mourn? Is security, i.e., his children, taken from him in advance to ensure that in the future he will mourn over the death of an upright person? Rather the baraita means as follows: His children died because he did not cry or mourn over an upright person who died. As with regard to anyone who cries and mourns over an upright person who died, they forgive him for all his transgressions because of the honor he accorded to the deceased. If this is the case, one also rends his clothes over an upright person. The Gemara answers: Rather, the mishna is referring only to one who was not an upright person.
אִי דְּקָאֵי הָתָם בִּשְׁעַת יְצִיאַת נְשָׁמָה חַיּוֹבֵי מִיחַיַּיב דְּתַנְיָא רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר הָעוֹמֵד עַל הַמֵּת בִּשְׁעַת יְצִיאַת נְשָׁמָה חַיָּיב לִקְרוֹעַ לְמָה זֶה דּוֹמֶה לְסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה שֶׁנִּשְׂרַף שֶׁחַיָּיב לִקְרוֹעַ The Gemara challenges: But if one was standing there at the time of the soul’s departure, i.e., at the time of death, he is also obligated to rend his clothes. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: One who stands over the deceased at the time of the soul’s departure is obligated to rend his clothes. To what may this be likened? To a Torah scroll that is burned, for which anyone present is obligated to rend his clothes.
דְּלָא קָאֵי הָתָם בִּשְׁעַת יְצִיאַת נְשָׁמָה The Gemara answers: The mishna must be referring to a person who was not standing there at the time of the soul’s departure but who heard that someone who is not a close relative died, and the deceased was neither a Torah scholar nor an upright person.
כִּי נָח נַפְשֵׁיהּ דְּרַב סָפְרָא לָא קְרַעוּ רַבָּנַן עֲלֵיהּ אָמְרִי לָא גָּמְרִינַן מִינֵּיהּ אֲמַר לְהוּ אַבָּיֵי מִי תַּנְיָא הָרַב שֶׁמֵּת חָכָם שֶׁמֵּת תַּנְיָא וְעוֹד כֹּל יוֹמָא שְׁמַעְתָּתֵיהּ בְּפוּמִּין בְּבֵי מִדְרְשָׁא § The Gemara relates that when Rav Safra passed away the other Sages did not rend their garments over him. They said: We did not learn from him, as he did not disseminate his Torah knowledge to the public. Abaye berated them and said to them: Is it taught in the baraita: If one’s teacher died? It is taught: If a Torah scholar died, and Rav Safra was certainly a Torah scholar. And furthermore, every day his teachings are in our mouths in the study hall, so that even if we did not learn directly from him, we should still be considered his students.
סְבוּר מָה דַּהֲוָה הֲוָה אֲמַר לְהוּ אַבָּיֵי תְּנֵינָא חָכָם כׇּל זְמַן שֶׁעוֹסְקִין בְּהֶסְפֵּד חַיָּיבִין לִקְרוֹעַ סְבוּר לְמִיקְרַע לְאַלְתַּר אָמַר לְהוּ אַבָּיֵי תַּנְיָא חָכָם כְּבוֹדוֹ בְּהֶסְפֵּידוֹ The other Sages thought that what was done was done, and it was now too late for them to rend their garments. Abaye said to them: We learned: With regard to a Torah scholar, as long as they are engaged in eulogizing him, then people are obligated to rend their garments, even after the time of his death. They then thought to rend their garments immediately. Abaye said to them: It is taught in a baraita: A Torah scholar’s honor is at the time of his eulogy, and so you should wait until the time of the eulogy before rending your garments.
כִּי נָח נַפְשֵׁיהּ דְּרַב הוּנָא סְבוּר לְאוֹתוֹבֵי סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה אַפּוּרְיֵיהּ אֲמַר לְהוּ רַב חִסְדָּא מִילְּתָא דִּבְחַיֵּיהּ לָא סְבִירָא לֵיהּ הַשְׁתָּא לֵיקוּם לֵיהּ לֶיעְבַּד לֵיהּ דְּאָמַר רַב תַּחְלִיפָא אֲנָא חֲזֵיתֵיהּ לְרַב הוּנָא דְּבָעֵי לְמֵיתַב אַפּוּרְיֵיהּ וַהֲוָה מַנַּח סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה עֲלֵיהּ וְכַף כַּדָּא אַאַרְעָא וְאוֹתֵיב סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה עִילָּוֵיהּ אַלְמָא קָסָבַר אָסוּר לֵישֵׁב עַל גַּבֵּי מִטָּה שֶׁסֵּפֶר תּוֹרָה מוּנָּח עָלֶיהָ § The Gemara relates another incident: When Rav Huna died they thought to place a Torah scroll on his bier, as was commonly done after the death of a Torah scholar, as if to say that the deceased fulfilled everything written in the scroll. Rav Ḥisda said to them: This is a practice that he did not hold with during his lifetime; now should we stand up and do it for him when he is dead? As Rav Taḥlifa said: I myself saw Rav Huna, who wished to sit on his bed, and there was a Torah scroll placed on it. And he turned a jug over and placed the Torah scroll on it so that he could then sit on the bed. Apparently he holds that it is prohibited to sit on a bed upon which a Torah scroll lies. Therefore, it would be inappropriate to lay a Torah scroll next to his body after he died.
לָא הֲוָה נָפֵיק פּוּרְיָא מִבָּבָא סְבוּר לְשַׁלְשׁוֹלֵי דֶּרֶךְ גַּגִּין אֲמַר לְהוּ רַב חִסְדָּא הָא גְּמִירְנָא מִינֵּיהּ חָכָם כְּבוֹדוֹ דֶּרֶךְ פֶּתַח When they tried to remove his corpse from his house for the burial, the bier would not fit through the narrow door. They then thought to lower the bier from the roof. Rav Ḥisda said to them: This I learned from him, Rav Huna himself: A scholar’s honor is for him to be taken out through the main opening, and not in any other manner.
סְבוּר לְאַשְׁנוֹיֵי מִפּוּרְיָא לְפוּרְיָא אֲמַר לְהוּ רַב חִסְדָּא הָכִי גְּמִירְנָא מִינֵּיהּ חָכָם כְּבוֹדוֹ בְּמִטָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה דְּאָמַר רַב יְהוּדָה אָמַר רַב מִנַּיִן לְחָכָם שֶׁכְּבוֹדוֹ בְּמִטָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיַּרְכִּיבוּ אֶת אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל עֲגָלָה חֲדָשָׁה פְּרוּס בָּבָא וְאַפְּקוּהּ They then thought to move him from his bier to a narrower bier so that it would fit through the door. But Rav Ḥisda said to them: I learned from him, Rav Huna himself, as follows: A scholar’s honor is for him to be taken out on the first bier. As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: From where is it derived that a scholar’s honor is for him to be taken out on the first bier? As it is stated: “And they set the Ark of God upon a new cart” (II Samuel 6:3). When taking the Ark to Jerusalem, King David had it placed back on the cart upon which it had been returned by the Philistines, and a Torah scholar is considered to be similar to the Ark of the Covenant. When they saw that there was nothing else that they could do, they broke the doorway and took him out through it.
פְּתַח עֲלֵיהּ רַבִּי אַבָּא רָאוּי הָיָה רַבֵּינוּ שֶׁתִּשְׁרֶה עָלָיו שְׁכִינָה אֶלָּא שֶׁבָּבֶל גָּרְמָה לוֹ Rabbi Abba opened his eulogy for him: Our Rabbi was worthy that the Divine Presence should rest upon him, except for the fact that Babylonia caused it not to rest. In other words, it was only because he lived in Babylonia and not in Eretz Yisrael that the Divine Presence did not rest upon him.
מֵתִיב רַב נַחְמָן בַּר חִסְדָּא וְאָמְרִי לַהּ רַב חָנָן בַּר חִסְדָּא הָיֹה הָיָה דְבַר ה׳ אֶל יְחֶזְקֵאל בֶּן בּוּזִי הַכֹּהֵן בְּאֶרֶץ כַּשְׂדִּים Rav Naḥman bar Ḥisda raised an objection against this, and some say that it was Rav Ḥanan bar Ḥisda: Is it not stated: “The word of the Lord came [hayo haya] to Ezekiel the priest, son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans” (Ezekiel 1:3), thereby implying that a prophet can prophesy outside of Eretz Yisrael?
טְפַח לֵיהּ אֲבוּהּ בְּסַנְדָּלֵיהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָאו אָמֵינָא לָךְ לָא תִּיטְרוֹד עָלְמָא מַאי הָיָה שֶׁהָיָה כְּבָר His father tapped him with his sandal on his foot, thereby hinting to him that he should be quiet. He said to him: Have I not told you not to trouble everyone with questions in the middle of a eulogy? The Gemara answers the question: What is the meaning of the doubling of the word “came [hayo haya]”? It implies that it had already come before, i.e., that Ezekiel had already begun to prophesy in Eretz Yisrael, and his prophecy in Babylonia was merely a continuation of that prophecy.
כִּי אַסְּקוּהּ לְהָתָם אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ לְרַבִּי אַמֵּי וּלְרַבִּי אַסִּי רַב הוּנָא אָתֵי אֲמַרוּ כִּי הֲוֵינַן הָתָם לָא הֲוָה לַן לְדַלּוֹיֵי רֵישִׁין מִינֵּיהּ הַשְׁתָּא אָתֵינַן הָכָא אֲתָא בָּתְרִין § The Gemara relates that when they took Rav Huna there, to Eretz Yisrael, for burial they said to Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi: Rav Huna has come, and they misunderstood and thought that he was still alive. They said: When we were there, in Babylonia, we did not have strength to lift our heads before him. Now that we have come here, has he come after us?
אֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ אֲרוֹנוֹ בָּא רַבִּי אַמֵּי וְרַבִּי אַסִּי נְפוּק רַבִּי אִילָא וְרַבִּי חֲנִינָא לָא נְפוּק אִיכָּא דְּאָמְרִי רַבִּי אִילָא נְפַק רַבִּי חֲנִינָא לָא נְפַק They said to them: His coffin has come. Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi went out to meet his funeral procession. Rabbi Ila and Rabbi Ḥanina did not go out. Some say that Rabbi Ila went out, but Rabbi Ḥanina did not go out.
דִּנְפַק מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ דְּתַנְיָא אָרוֹן הָעוֹבֵר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם עוֹמְדִים עָלָיו בְּשׁוּרָה וְאוֹמְרִים עָלָיו בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים וְתַנְחוּמֵי אֲבֵלִים דְּלָא נְפַק מַאי טַעְמָא דְּתַנְיָא אָרוֹן הָעוֹבֵר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם אֵין עוֹמְדִין עָלָיו בְּשׁוּרָה וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים עָלָיו בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים וְתַנְחוּמֵי אֲבֵלִים The Gemara asks: Those who went out, what is the reason that they went? As it is taught in a baraita: When a coffin is passing from place to place, the people stand in a line to show respect for the deceased, and they recite the mourners’ blessing and the consolation of the mourners over it. Those who did not go out, what is the reason that they did not? As it is taught in another baraita: When a coffin is passing from place to place, they do not stand in a line to show respect for the deceased, and they do not recite the mourners’ blessing or the consolation of the mourners for him.
קַשְׁיָין אַהֲדָדֵי לָא קַשְׁיָא כָּאן שֶׁשִּׁלְדּוֹ קַיֶּימֶת כָּאן בְּשֶׁאֵין שִׁלְדּוֹ קַיֶּימֶת וְרַב הוּנָא שִׁלְדּוֹ קַיֶּימֶת הֲוָה דְּלָא נְפַק לָא סַיְּימוּהָ קַמֵּיהּ The Gemara asks: If so, these two tannaitic statements contradict each other. The Gemara answers: It is not difficult: Here, the baraita is referring to a case where the skeleton of the deceased is still intact, and the mourning practices must be observed. And there the baraita is referring to a case where the skeleton of the deceased is no longer intact, and it is not necessary to observe the customs of mourning. And Rav Huna’s skeleton was still intact. The reason that the one Sage did not go out was that they did not confirm for him that the skeleton was still intact.
אָמְרִי הֵיכָא נַינְּחֵיהּ רַב הוּנָא רִיבֵּץ תּוֹרָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וְרַבִּי חִיָּיא רִיבֵּץ תּוֹרָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל הֲוָה The Sages of Eretz Yisrael said: Where shall we bury him? They concluded: Rav Huna disseminated Torah to the people of Israel, and similarly Rabbi Ḥiyya disseminated Torah to the people of Israel; therefore, it is appropriate to bury Rav Huna next to Rabbi Ḥiyya.
מַאן מְעַיֵּיל לֵיהּ אֲמַר לְהוּ רַב חַגָּא אֲנָא מְעַיֵּילְנָא לֵיהּ דְּאוֹקֵמְתֵּיהּ לְתַלְמוּדַאי כִּי הֲוֵינָא בַּר תַּמְנֵי סְרֵי שְׁנִין וְלָא חֲזֵי לִי קֶרִי וּמְשַׁמַּע לִי(ה) קַמֵּיהּ וִידַעִי בְּעוֹבָדֵיהּ דְּיוֹמָא חַד אִתְהֲפִיכָא לֵיהּ רְצוּעָה דִתְפִילִּין וִיתֵיב עֲלַהּ אַרְבְּעִין תַּעֲנִיָּתָא They asked: Who will take him in to Rabbi Ḥiyya’s burial cave, as few are fit to enter it? Rav Ḥagga said to them: I will take him into the cave, for I presented my studies before him when I was just eighteen, never having experiencing a seminal emission. And so too I attended to him and knew his great deeds. For example, one day one of the straps of his phylacteries turned around, the unpainted side being turned outward, and he observed forty fasts for this, as he had acted negligently, allowing the black side to face inward.
עַיְּילֵיהּ הֲוָה גָּנֵי יְהוּדָה מִיַּמִּינֵיהּ דַּאֲבוּהּ וְחִזְקִיָּה מִשְּׂמָאלֵיהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ יְהוּדָה לְחִזְקִיָּה קוּם מִדּוּכְתִּיךְ דְּלָאו אוֹרַח אַרְעָא דְּקָאֵים רַב הוּנָא בַּהֲדֵי דְּקָאֵים קָם בַּהֲדֵיהּ עַמּוּדָא דְנוּרָא חַזְיֵיהּ רַב חַגָּא אִיבְּעִית זַקְפֵיהּ לַאֲרוֹנֵיהּ וּנְפַק אֲתָא וְהַאי דְּלָא אִיעֲנַשׁ (ענש) מִשּׁוּם דְּזַקְפֵיהּ לַאֲרוֹנֵיהּ דְּרַב הוּנָא Rav Ḥagga took him in. The body of Rabbi Ḥiyya’s son Yehuda lay buried to the right of his father, and the body of his other son Ḥizkiyya lay to his left. The spirit of Yehuda said to the spirit of Ḥizkiyya: Rise from your place, as it is not proper conduct to remain lying when the body of Rav Huna is standing here. When Ḥizkiyya’s corpse stood up, a pillar of fire rose with him. When Rabbi Ḥagga saw this, he was frightened by what he saw, and so he stood up Rav Huna’s coffin and went away. The Gemara comments: And he was not punished or harmed by this pillar of fire because he set up Rav Huna’s coffin as protection for himself.
כִּי נָח נַפְשֵׁיהּ דְּרַב חִסְדָּא סְבוּר לְאוֹתוֹבֵי סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה אַפּוּרְיֵיהּ אֲמַר לְהוּ רַבִּי יִצְחָק מִילְּתָא דִּלְרַבֵּיהּ לָא סְבִירָא לֵיהּ אֲנַן נֵיקוּם נַעֲבֵיד לֵיהּ § The Gemara relates another story about the burial of one of the Sages: When Rav Ḥisda died they thought to place a Torah scroll on his bier. Rabbi Yitzḥak said to them: This is a practice that this Rabbi did not hold with during his lifetime; should we stand up and do it for him now that he is dead?
סְבוּר דְּלָא לְמִישְׁלַל קִרְעַיְיהוּ אֲמַר לְהוּ רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר אַמֵּי חָכָם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶחְזִירוּ פְּנֵיהֶם מֵאֲחוֹרֵי הַמִּטָּה שׁוֹלְלִין They then thought not to tack, i.e., sew up, the tears that they had made in their clothes. Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Ami said to them: When the deceased is a Torah Sage, they may tack the tears once they turn their faces from the bier.
כִּי נָח נַפְשֵׁיהּ דְּרַבָּה בַּר הוּנָא וְרַב הַמְנוּנָא אַסְּקוּנְהוּ לְהָתָם The Gemara relates that when Rabba bar Huna and Rav Hamnuna died, they took them both up there, to Eretz Yisrael.