Moed Katan 23aמועד קטן כ״ג א
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23aכ״ג א

וקורין שבעה ויוצאין רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר לא שילכו ויטיילו בשוק אלא יושבין ודומין

and seven people read from the Torah. And then they leave and pray on their own. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: It is not that they stroll afterward in the marketplace, but rather they sit at home in silent mourning.

ואין אומרים שמועה ואגדה בבית האבל אמרו עליו על ר' חנניה בן גמליאל שהיה אומר שמועה ואגדה בבית האבל

And furthermore, one may not speak about halakha or aggada in a house of mourning, as this is an activity that brings people joy. It was said of Rabbi Ḥananya ben Gamliel that he would speak about halakha and aggada in a house of mourning.

ת"ר אבל שבת ראשונה אינו יוצא מפתח ביתו שניה יוצא ואינו יושב במקומו שלישית יושב במקומו ואינו מדבר רביעית הרי הוא ככל אדם

§ The Sages taught the following baraita: During the first week after his bereavement, the mourner may not go out of the opening of his house. During the second week, he may go out, but he may not sit in his usual place in the synagogue. During the third week, he may sit in his usual place but he may not speak. During the fourth week, he is like any other person.

רבי יהודה אומר לא הוצרכו לומר שבת ראשונה לא יצא מפתח ביתו שהרי הכל נכנסין לביתו לנחמו אלא שניה אינו יוצא מפתח ביתו שלישית יוצא ואינו יושב במקומו רביעית יושב במקומו ואינו מדבר חמישית הרי הוא ככל אדם

Rabbi Yehuda says: They did not need to say that during the first week the mourner may not go out of the opening of his house. This teaches us nothing new, as at that time everyone goes into his house to console him. Rather, during the second week, he may not go out of the opening of his house. During the third week, he may go out, but he may not sit in his usual place in the synagogue. During the fourth week, he may sit in his usual place, but he may not speak. During the fifth week, he is like any other person.

ת"ר כל שלשים יום לנישואין מתה אשתו אסור לישא אשה אחרת עד שיעברו עליו שלשה רגלים רבי יהודה אומר רגל ראשון ושני אסור שלישי מותר

§ The Sages taught another baraita: During the entire thirty-day period of mourning, it is prohibited to marry. If one’s wife died, it is prohibited to marry another wife until three Festivals pass since her death. Rabbi Yehuda says: Until the first and second Festivals have passed, he is prohibited from marrying; before the third Festival, however, he is permitted to do so.

ואם אין לו בנים מותר לישא לאלתר משום ביטול פריה ורביה הניחה לו בנים קטנים מותר לישא לאלתר מפני פרנסתן

And if he does not have children, he is permitted to marry another wife immediately due to the need to not neglect the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. Since he has not yet fulfilled the mitzva of procreation, he is still required to marry a wife. Any delay might result in a lost opportunity for marriage. Similarly, if his wife died and left him young children, he is permitted to marry another wife immediately, so that she might take care of them.

מעשה שמתה אשתו של יוסף הכהן ואמר לאחותה בבית הקברות לכי ופרנסי את בני אחותך ואעפ"כ לא בא עליה אלא לזמן מרובה מאי לזמן מרובה אמר רב פפא לאחר שלשים יום

There was an incident when the wife of Yosef the Priest died, and he said to her sister at the cemetery immediately after the funeral: Go and care for your sister’s children. In other words, he alluded that he wished to marry her immediately. But even though he married her immediately, he did not engage in sexual relations with her for a long time afterward. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term: A long time? Rav Pappa said: After thirty days.

ת"ר כל שלשים יום לגיהוץ אחד כלים חדשים ואחד כלים ישנים יוצאין מתוך המכבש רבי אומר לא אסרו אלא כלים חדשים בלבד רבי אלעזר בר' שמעון אומר לא אסרו אלא כלים חדשים לבנים בלבד

§ The Sages taught yet another baraita: During the entire thirty-day period of mourning, it is prohibited to wear ironed garments, whether they are new garments or old garments taken out of the press, as ironed garments appear to be new. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi disagrees and says: The Sages prohibited wearing only new garments. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, says: They prohibited wearing only new white garments.

אביי נפיק בגרדא דסרבלא כרבי רבא נפיק בחימוצתא רומיתא סומקתא חדתי כרבי אלעזר בר' שמעון:

The Gemara relates that Abaye went out while he was in mourning in an old white garment, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rava, on the other hand, went out in a new, red Roman cloak, as he acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon.

מפני שאמרו שבת עולה ואינה מפסקת: בני יהודה ובני גלילא הני אמרי

It was taught in the mishna: This is because the Sages said that Shabbat counts as one of the days of mourning, but it does not interrupt the mourning period, which continues after Shabbat. It is stated that with regard to mourning on Shabbat, there is a difference in practice between the residents of Judea and the residents of the Galilee. These say: