וְקוֹרִין שִׁבְעָה וְיוֹצְאִין רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קׇרְחָה אוֹמֵר לֹא שֶׁיֵּלְכוּ וִיטַיְּילוּ בַּשּׁוּק אֶלָּא יוֹשְׁבִין וְדָוִוין and seven people read from the Torah. And then they leave and pray on their own. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: It is not that they stroll afterward in the marketplace, but rather they sit at home in silent mourning.
וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים שְׁמוּעָה וְאַגָּדָה בְּבֵית הָאֵבֶל אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָה בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל שֶׁהָיָה אוֹמֵר שְׁמוּעָה וְאַגָּדָה בְּבֵית הָאֵבֶל And furthermore, one may not speak about halakha or aggada in a house of mourning, as this is an activity that brings people joy. It was said of Rabbi Ḥananya ben Gamliel that he would speak about halakha and aggada in a house of mourning.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן אָבֵל שַׁבָּת רִאשׁוֹנָה אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִפֶּתַח בֵּיתוֹ שְׁנִיָּה יוֹצֵא וְאֵינוֹ יוֹשֵׁב בִּמְקוֹמוֹ שְׁלִישִׁית יוֹשֵׁב בִּמְקוֹמוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר רְבִיעִית הֲרֵי הוּא כְּכׇל אָדָם § The Sages taught the following baraita: During the first week after his bereavement, the mourner may not go out of the opening of his house. During the second week, he may go out, but he may not sit in his usual place in the synagogue. During the third week, he may sit in his usual place but he may not speak. During the fourth week, he is like any other person.
רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר לֹא הוּצְרְכוּ לוֹמַר שַׁבָּת רִאשׁוֹנָה לֹא יֵצֵא מִפֶּתַח בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי הַכֹּל נִכְנָסִין לְבֵיתוֹ לְנַחֲמוֹ אֶלָּא שְׁנִיָּה אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִפֶּתַח בֵּיתוֹ שְׁלִישִׁית יוֹצֵא וְאֵינוֹ יוֹשֵׁב בִּמְקוֹמוֹ רְבִיעִית יוֹשֵׁב בִּמְקוֹמוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר חֲמִישִׁית הֲרֵי הוּא כְּכׇל אָדָם Rabbi Yehuda says: They did not need to say that during the first week the mourner may not go out of the opening of his house. This teaches us nothing new, as at that time everyone goes into his house to console him. Rather, during the second week, he may not go out of the opening of his house. During the third week, he may go out, but he may not sit in his usual place in the synagogue. During the fourth week, he may sit in his usual place, but he may not speak. During the fifth week, he is like any other person.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן כׇּל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם לַנִּישּׂוּאִין מֵתָה אִשְׁתּוֹ אָסוּר לִישָּׂא אִשָּׁה אַחֶרֶת עַד שֶׁיַּעַבְרוּ עָלָיו שְׁלֹשָׁה רְגָלִים רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר רֶגֶל רִאשׁוֹן וְשֵׁנִי אָסוּר שְׁלִישִׁי מוּתָּר § The Sages taught another baraita: During the entire thirty-day period of mourning, it is prohibited to marry. If one’s wife died, it is prohibited to marry another wife until three Festivals pass since her death. Rabbi Yehuda says: Until the first and second Festivals have passed, he is prohibited from marrying; before the third Festival, however, he is permitted to do so.
וְאִם אֵין לוֹ בָּנִים מוּתָּר לִישָּׂא לְאַלְתַּר מִשּׁוּם בִּיטּוּל פְּרִיָּה וּרְבִיָּה הִנִּיחָה לוֹ בָּנִים קְטַנִּים מוּתָּר לִישָּׂא לְאַלְתַּר מִפְּנֵי פַרְנָסָתָן And if he does not have children, he is permitted to marry another wife immediately due to the need to not neglect the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. Since he has not yet fulfilled the mitzva of procreation, he is still required to marry a wife. Any delay might result in a lost opportunity for marriage. Similarly, if his wife died and left him young children, he is permitted to marry another wife immediately, so that she might take care of them.
מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁמֵּתָה אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף הַכֹּהֵן וְאָמַר לַאֲחוֹתָהּ בְּבֵית הַקְּבָרוֹת לְכִי וּפַרְנְסִי אֶת בְּנֵי אֲחוֹתֵךְ וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא בָּא עָלֶיהָ אֶלָּא לִזְמַן מְרוּבֶּה מַאי לִזְמַן מְרוּבֶּה אָמַר רַב פָּפָּא לְאַחַר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם There was an incident when the wife of Yosef the Priest died, and he said to her sister at the cemetery immediately after the funeral: Go and care for your sister’s children. In other words, he alluded that he wished to marry her immediately. But even though he married her immediately, he did not engage in sexual relations with her for a long time afterward. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term: A long time? Rav Pappa said: After thirty days.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן כׇּל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם לְגִיהוּץ אֶחָד כֵּלִים חֲדָשִׁים וְאֶחָד כֵּלִים יְשָׁנִים יוֹצְאִין מִתּוֹךְ הַמַּכְבֵּשׁ רַבִּי אוֹמֵר לֹא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא כֵּלִים חֲדָשִׁים בִּלְבָד רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר לֹא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא כֵּלִים חֲדָשִׁים לְבָנִים בִּלְבָד § The Sages taught yet another baraita: During the entire thirty-day period of mourning, it is prohibited to wear ironed garments, whether they are new garments or old garments taken out of the press, as ironed garments appear to be new. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi disagrees and says: The Sages prohibited wearing only new garments. Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, says: They prohibited wearing only new white garments.
אַבָּיֵי נָפֵיק בִּגְרָדָא דְסַרְבָּלָא כְּרַבִּי רָבָא נָפֵיק בְּחִימּוּצְתָּא רוֹמִיתָא סוּמַּקְתָּא חַדְתִּי כְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן: The Gemara relates that Abaye went out while he was in mourning in an old white garment, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Rava, on the other hand, went out in a new, red Roman cloak, as he acted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon.
מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָמְרוּ שַׁבָּת עוֹלָה וְאֵינָהּ מַפְסֶקֶת בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה וּבְנֵי גָלִילָא הָנֵי אָמְרִי It was taught in the mishna: This is because the Sages said that Shabbat counts as one of the days of mourning, but it does not interrupt the mourning period, which continues after Shabbat. It is stated that with regard to mourning on Shabbat, there is a difference in practice between the residents of Judea and the residents of the Galilee. These say: