וְהָתַנְיָא מְבִיאִין כֵּלִים מִבֵּית הָאוּמָּן כְּגוֹן כַּד מִבֵּית הַכַּדָּר וְכוֹס מִבֵּית הַזַּגָּג אֲבָל לֹא צֶמֶר מִבֵּית הַצַּבָּע וְלֹא כֵּלִים מִבֵּית הָאוּמָּן וְאִם אֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל נוֹתֵן לוֹ שְׂכָרוֹ וּמַנִּיחוֹ אֶצְלוֹ וְאִם אֵינוֹ מַאֲמִינוֹ מַנִּיחוֹ בְּבַיִת הַסָּמוּךְ לוֹ וְאִם חוֹשֵׁשׁ לָהֶם שֶׁמָּא יִגָּנְבוּ מְפַנָּן לְחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת וְאִם אֵינוֹ מַאֲמִינוֹ מְבִיאָן בְּצִנְעָה בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ And so it is taught in a baraita: One may bring home utensils from the house of a craftsman; for example, a jug from the jug-makers house and a cup from the glass-blower’s house, as they will be used on the Festival itself. But he may not bring home wool from the dyer’s house or utensils from the craftsman’s house, as they are not needed on the Festival. But if the craftsman has nothing to eat, he may give him his wages during the Festival week and leave the utensil with him. And if he does not trust the craftsman to properly safeguard his utensil, he may take the utensil from the craftsman and leave it in a house near him. And if he is concerned about his utensils lest they be stolen, he may move them to another courtyard. And if he does not trust the owner of the other courtyard, he may bring them into his house discreetly.
תָּרֵצְתְּ מְבִיאִין מוֹלִיכִין קַשְׁיָא דְּקָתָנֵי אֵין מְבִיאִין וְכׇל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁאֵין מוֹלִיכִין אֶלָּא מְחַוַּורְתָּא כִּדְשַׁנַּיִין מֵעִיקָּרָא: The Gemara comments: You have adequately explained the contradiction between the mishnayot about whether one may bring home utensils from the house of a craftsman. The mishna that permits it can be understood as referring to a case where the craftsman is not to be trusted. But the mishna in Pesaḥim also states that one may take utensils to the house of a craftsman, and this is difficult, as the mishna above teaches: One may not bring home utensils from the house of a craftsman. And this indicates that all the more so, one may not take utensils from his house to that of the craftsman. Rather, it is clear as we answered initially that one mishna is referring to the eve of Passover and the other to the intermediate days of a Festival.
מַתְנִי׳ מְחַפִּין אֶת הַקְּצִיעוֹת בְּקַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר אַף מְעַבִּין מוֹכְרֵי פֵירוֹת כְּסוּת וְכֵלִים מוֹכְרִים בְּצִנְעָה לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד הַצַּיָּידִין וְהַדָּשׁוֹשׁוֹת וְהַגָּרוֹסוֹת עוֹשִׂין בְּצִנְעָה לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר הֵם הֶחֱמִירוּ עַל עַצְמָן: MISHNA: On the intermediate days of a Festival, figs that were spread out to dry may be covered with straw to protect them from rain and dew. Rabbi Yehuda says: One may even condense the figs. Those who sell produce, clothing, and utensils may sell them in private, for the sake of the Festival. Fishermen, and groats makers [dashoshot], and bean pounders, who pulverize the beans, may ply their trades in private for the sake of the Festival. Rabbi Yosei says: They were stringent with themselves to refrain from this work even with respect to what was needed for the Festival.
גְּמָ׳ פְּלִיגִי בַּהּ רַבִּי חִיָּיא בַּר אַבָּא וְרַבִּי אַסִּי וְתַרְוַיְיהוּ מִשְּׁמֵיהּ דְּחִזְקִיָּה וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן חַד אָמַר מְחַפִּין אַקְלוֹשֵׁי מְעַבִּין אַסְמוֹכֵי וְחַד אָמַר מְחַפִּין בֵּין אַקְלוֹשֵׁי בֵּין אַסְמוֹכֵי מְעַבִּין עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ כְּמִין כְּרִי תַּנְיָא נָמֵי הָכִי מְעַבִּין עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ כְּמִין כְּרִי דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה: GEMARA: Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba and Rabbi Asi disagree about the following issue, and both of them assert their opinions in the name of Ḥizkiyya and Rabbi Yoḥanan. One said: Cover the figs means to lightly cover them with straw, and condense means to spread straw over them densely. And the other one said: Cover means to spread straw over them whether lightly or densely, and condense means to amass the figs into a pile, making it as if it were a pile of grain. This is also taught in a baraita: One may condense, i.e., amass the figs into a pile, making it as if it were a pile of grain. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.
מוֹכְרֵי פֵירוֹת כְּסוּת וְכֵלִים מוֹכְרִין בְּצִנְעָה וְכוּ׳ אִיבַּעְיָא לְהוּ הֵן הֶחֱמִירוּ עַל עַצְמָן דְּלָא הֲווֹ עָבְדִי כְּלָל אוֹ דִלְמָא דַּהֲווֹ עָבְדִי בְּצִנְעָה § The mishna states: On the intermediate days of a Festival, those who sell produce, clothing, and utensils may sell them in private, for the sake of the Festival. Fishermen, groats makers, and bean pounders may ply their trades in private for the sake of the Festival. Rabbi Yosei says that they were stringent with themselves. The Sages were asked: When it says that they were stringent with themselves, does it mean that that they did not work at all on the intermediate days of a Festival, or perhaps it means that they did their work in private, though it is permitted to do it publicly?
תָּא שְׁמַע מוֹכְרֵי פֵירוֹת כְּסוּת וְכֵלִים מוֹכְרִין בְּצִנְעָה לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר תַּגָּרֵי טְבֶרְיָא הֵן הֶחֱמִירוּ עַל עַצְמָן שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ מוֹכְרִין כׇּל עִיקָּר צָדֵי חַיּוֹת וְעוֹפוֹת וְדָגִים צָדִין בְּצִנְעָה לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר צָדֵי עַכּוֹ הֵן הֶחֱמִירוּ עַל עַצְמָן שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ צָדִין כׇּל עִיקָּר דָּשׁוֹשֵׁי חִילְקָא טַרְגִּיס וְטִיסְנִי דּוֹשְׁשִׁין בְּצִנְעָה לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר דָּשׁוֹשֵׁי צִיפּוֹרִי הֵן הֶחְמִירוּ עַל עַצְמָן שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ דּוֹשְׁשִׁין כׇּל עִיקָּר The Gemara answers based on a baraita. Come and hear: Those who sell produce, clothing, and utensils may sell them in private, for the sake of the Festival. Rabbi Yosei says: The merchants of Tiberias were stringent with themselves not to sell at all, even in private. Hunters of animals, fowlers, and fishermen may hunt their quarry discreetly for the sake of the Festival. Rabbi Yosei says: The hunters of Akko were stringent with themselves not to hunt at all. Groats makers who crack grain into groats called ḥilka, targis, and tisanei, crack the grain in private for the sake of the Festival. Rabbi Yosei says: The groats makers of Tzippori were stringent with themselves not to crack grain at all. According to Rabbi Yosei, the stringencies involve refraining from work entirely.
אָמַר אַבָּיֵי חִילְקָא חֲדָא לְתַרְתֵּי טַרְגִּיס חֲדָא לִתְלָת טִיסְנִי חֲדָא לְאַרְבְּעָה כִּי אֲתָא רַב דִּימִי אָמַר כּוּנָּתָא Abaye said: The term ḥilka means one kernel that is broken into two; the term targis means one kernel that is broken into three; and the term tisanei means one grain that is broken into four. When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said: Ḥilka is referring to emmer wheat.
מֵיתִיבִי חִילְקָא טַרְגִּיס וְטִיסְנִי טְמֵאִין בְּכׇל מָקוֹם בִּשְׁלָמָא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר חֲדָא לְתַרְתֵּי לִתְלָת וּלְאַרְבְּעָה מִשּׁוּם הָכִי טְמֵאִין בְּכׇל מָקוֹם דְּאִתַּכְשׁוּר אֶלָּא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר כּוּנָּתָא אַמַּאי טְמֵאִין בְּכׇל מָקוֹם הָא לָא אִיתַּכְשׁוּר The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: Ḥilka, targis, and tisanei are susceptible to ritual impurity everywhere. Granted, according to the one who said that these are one grain broken into two, into three, and into four, due to that reason they are susceptible to impurity everywhere, as they have already become fit to contract ritual impurity by being rinsed with water in their processing. But according to the one who says that ḥilka is emmer wheat that has not necessarily been processed, why is it susceptible to ritual impurity everywhere, since it has not necessarily become fit to contract impurity by coming into contact with water?
כְּגוֹן דְּמִיקַּלְּפָן דְּאִי לָאו דִּשְׁרָא לְהוּ בְּמַיָּא לָא הֲוָה מִיקַּלְפָא וְאַמַּאי קָרֵי לֵיהּ חִילְקָא דְּשָׁקֵל חִלְקַיְהוּ The Gemara answers: The baraita is referring to a case where, for example, the emmer wheat was husked, since if it had not been previously soaked in water, it would not have been possible to husk it. And why, according to this opinion, is it called ḥilka? It is called this because their husks [ḥelkayhu] were removed.
מֵיתִיבִי הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַדָּגָן אָסוּר אַף בְּפוֹל הַמִּצְרִי יָבֵשׁ וּמוּתָּר בְּלַח וּמוּתָּר בְּאוֹרֶז בְּחִילְקָא וְטַרְגִּיס וְטִיסְנִי בִּשְׁלָמָא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר חֲדָא לְתַרְתֵּי חֲדָא לִתְלָת וַחֲדָא לְאַרְבְּעָה שַׁפִּיר דִּנְפַקוּ לְהוּ מִתּוֹרַת דָּגָן אֶלָּא לְמַאן דְּאָמַר כּוּנָּתָא דָּגָן מְעַלְּיָא הוּא קַשְׁיָא The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: One who vows to prohibit himself from eating grain [dagan] is prohibited to partake of even dry Egyptian beans, and it is permitted for him to partake of fresh beans. And it is permitted for him to partake of rice, as well as of ḥilka, and targeis, and tisnei. Granted, according to the one who said that these are one grain broken into two, one grain broken into three, and one grain broken into four, it is fine, as when the wheat is crushed into these it leaves the category of grain. But according to the one who says that ḥilka is emmer wheat, it is still a proper grain. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is difficult.
רַב הוּנָא שְׁרָא לְהוּ לְהָנְהוּ כְּרוּפְיָיתָא לְמֵיזַל לְזַבּוֹנֵי כִּי אוֹרְחַיְיהוּ בְּשׁוּקָא אֵיתִיבֵיהּ רַב כָּהֲנָא חֲנוּת פְּתוּחָה לִסְטָיו פּוֹתֵחַ וְנוֹעֵל כְּדַרְכּוֹ § The Gemara relates that Rav Huna permitted the spice merchants [kerufayata] to go and sell their products in their usual manner in the marketplace on the intermediate days of a Festival. Rav Kahana raised an objection to Rav Huna’s ruling from a baraita: If a store opens into a row of pillars that runs along the street, the storekeeper may open and close it in his usual manner on the intermediate days of a Festival, since it is not in the public’s view.
פְּתוּחָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים פּוֹתֵחַ אַחַת וְנוֹעֵל אַחַת וְעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל חַג מוֹצִיא וּמְעַטֵּר אֶת שׁוּקֵי הָעִיר בְּפֵירוֹת בִּשְׁבִיל כְּבוֹד יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן אִין שֶׁלֹּא מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד יוֹם טוֹב לָא However, if it is open to the public domain, he may open only one door and must close the other. And on the eve of the last day of the festival of Sukkot, he may take out his wares from the store and adorn the markets of the city with fruit in honor of the last day of the Festival. The Gemara infers: For the honor of the last day of the Festival, yes, it is permitted for him to open the store in order to give people the opportunity to prepare for the holiday, but when not for the honor of the Festival, i.e., during the other intermediate days of the Festival, he is not permitted to do so. How, then, did Rav Huna permit those spice merchants to sell as usual on the intermediate days of the Festival?
לָא קַשְׁיָא הָא בְּפֵירֵי הָא בְּתַבְלִין: The Gemara answers: This is not difficult: This baraita that prohibits selling in the usual manner is referring to the sale of fruit, which is usually bought in large quantities and could have been purchased before the Festival; people might therefore suspect the buyer of purchasing it for use after the Festival. In contrast, this lenient ruling of Rav Huna is referring to the sale of spices, which is permitted because people buy them only in small quantities for the sake of the Festival.
הֲדַרַן עֲלָךְ מִי שֶׁהָפַךְ
וְאֵלּוּ מְגַלְּחִין בַּמּוֹעֵד הַבָּא מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם וּמִבֵּית הַשִּׁבְיָה וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִבֵּית הָאֲסוּרִין וְהַמְנוּדֶּה שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים וְכֵן מִי שֶׁנִּשְׁאַל לְחָכָם וְהוּתַּר וְהַנָּזִיר וְהַמְּצוֹרָע מִטּוּמְאָתוֹ לְטׇהֳרָתוֹ MISHNA: And these may shave and cut their hair on the intermediate days of a Festival: One who comes from a country overseas; and one who is released from a house of captivity; and one who comes out of prison on the intermediate days of a Festival; and one who had been ostracized and therefore prohibited from cutting his hair, and the Sages released him from his decree of ostracism on the intermediate days of the Festival; and similarly, one who had vowed not to cut his hair and then requested of a Sage to dissolve his vow and was released from it on the intermediate days of the Festival; and the nazirite whose term of naziriteship ended on the intermediate days of a Festival; and the leper who needs to purify himself on the intermediate days and must shave his entire body in order to leave his state of ritual impurity and regain his ritual purity. Since these people were not able to cut their hair on the eve of the Festival, they are permitted to do so on the intermediate days of the Festival.
וְאֵלּוּ מְכַבְּסִין בַּמּוֹעֵד הַבָּא מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם וּמִבֵּית הַשִּׁבְיָה וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִבֵּית הָאֲסוּרִין And these may launder their clothes on the intermediate days of a Festival: One who comes from a country overseas; and one who is released from a house of captivity; and one who comes out of prison on the intermediate days of a Festival;