יֵשׁ מֵהֶן פָּטוּר אֲבָל אָסוּר, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן מוּתָּר לְכַתְּחִלָּה. Some of the actions for which one is exempt by Torah law are nevertheless prohibited, and some of them are permitted ab initio.
רַב הוּנָא חֲצַדוּ לֵיהּ חֲצָדָא בְּמוֹעֲדָא. אֵיתִיבֵיהּ רַבָּה בַּר רַב הוּנָא לְרַב הוּנָא טוֹחֲנִין קֶמַח בַּמּוֹעֵד לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד, וְשֶׁלֹּא לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד — אָסוּר. דָּבָר שֶׁאָבוּד בַּמּוֹעֵד — מוּתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד, דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ אָבוּד בַּמּוֹעֵד — אָסוּר. § The Gemara relates that Rav Huna had his crop harvested for him on the intermediate days of a Festival. Rabba bar Rav Huna raised an objection to his father Rav Huna from a baraita: One may grind flour on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival, it is prohibited. With regard to a matter that, if unattended, will result in significant loss on the Festival, it is permitted to perform labor to prevent that loss on the intermediate days of the Festival. For a matter that will not result in loss if unattended during the intermediate days of the Festival, it is prohibited to perform labor.
בַּמָּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים — בִּתְלוּשִׁין מִן הַקַּרְקַע, אֲבָל מְחוּבָּר לַקַּרְקַע — אֲפִילּוּ כּוּלּוֹ אָבוּד אָסוּר. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל, קוֹצֵר וּמְעַמֵּר וְדָשׁ וְזוֹרֶה וּבוֹרֵר וְטוֹחֵן, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יָדוּשׁ בְּפָרוֹת! In what case is this statement said? In the case of crops that are already detached from the ground, but in the case of crops that are still attached to the ground, even if it all will be lost, labor is prohibited during the intermediate days of the Festival. And if one does not have anything to eat, then he may reap and bind sheaves, and thresh, and winnow the grain in the wind, and separate the grain from the chaff, and grind the grain into flour, provided that he does not thresh with cows, the way that threshing is performed on an ordinary weekday. Why, then, did Rav Huna, who certainly had enough to eat, allow his workers to reap the field during the Festival week?
אֲמַר לֵיהּ: יְחִידָאָה הִיא, וְלָא סְבִירָא לַן כְּווֹתֵיהּ. דְּתַנְיָא, כְּלָל אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי: דָּבָר הַתָּלוּשׁ מִן הַקַּרְקַע, אֲפִילּוּ מִקְצָתוֹ אָבוּד — מוּתָּר, וְהַמְחוּבָּר לַקַּרְקַע — אֲפִילּוּ כּוּלּוֹ אָבוּד אָסוּר. Rav Huna said to his son: The opinion expressed in this unattributed baraita is an individual opinion, and we do not hold in accordance with it; as it is taught in a different baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel stated a principle in the name of Rabbi Yosei: In the case of an item that is already detached from the ground, even if only a portion of it will be lost by not working during the Festival, it is permitted to perform labor to prevent the loss, whereas for crops that are still attached to the ground, even if all of them will be lost, it is prohibited to perform labor for them. The opinion that all labor is prohibited for crops that have not yet been harvested is the opinion of an individual authority, Rabbi Yosei, with whom the Rabbis disagree.
וְאִי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, יָדוּשׁ נָמֵי בְּפָרוֹת?! הָא אָמַר רַב יִצְחָק בַּר אַבָּא: מַאן תַּנָּא שִׁינּוּי בַּמּוֹעֵד בְּדָבָר הָאָבֵד — דְּלָא כְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי! The Gemara asks: But if the unattributed baraita reflects the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, and it is permitted to work when one has nothing to eat, let him thresh even with cows. Didn’t Rav Yitzḥak bar Abba say: Who is the tanna who taught that labor performed on the intermediate days of a Festival must be done in an altered manner even with regard to a matter that will involve a loss if unattended? It is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as Rabbi Yosei does not require altering the manner in which one performs the labor. Why, then, does the baraita say that the threshing must be done in an altered manner and not with cows?
אָמַר לָךְ: הָכָא נָמֵי, כֵּיוָן דְּכׇל יוֹמָא לָאו בְּפָרוֹת דָּיְישִׁי, הָאִידָּנָא נָמֵי לָאו שִׁינּוּי הוּא. The Gemara rejects this argument: Rabbi Yosei could have said to you: Here, too, since one does not always thresh with cows, threshing without them now on the intermediate days of the Festival is also not considered threshing in an altered manner. The prohibition against threshing with cows is not because one must perform that labor in an altered manner but in order to avoid attracting public attention to the fact that one is working during the Festival week.
תָּנוּ רַבָּנַן: טוֹחֲנִין בַּמּוֹעֵד לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד, וְשֶׁלֹּא לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד — אָסוּר. וְאִם טָחַן וְהוֹתִיר — הֲרֵי זֶה מוּתָּר. קוֹצְצִין עֵצִים בַּמּוֹעֵד לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד, וְשֶׁלֹּא לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד — אָסוּר, וְאִם קָצַץ וְהוֹתִיר — הֲרֵי זֶה מוּתָּר. The Sages taught in a baraita: One may grind flour on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival, it is prohibited. And if he ground and left some flour over, it is permitted for use after the Festival. Similarly, one may cut down trees on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival it is prohibited. And if he cut down trees for the Festival and left some wood over, it is permitted for use after the Festival.
מְטִילִין שֵׁכָר בַּמּוֹעֵד לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד, וְשֶׁלֹּא לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד — אָסוּר, וְאִם הֵטִיל וְהוֹתִיר — הֲרֵי זֶה מוּתָּר, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲרִים. The baraita continues: One may brew beer on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival, it is prohibited. And if he brewed beer for the sake of the Festival and left some over, it is permitted for use after the Festival provided that he does not employ an artifice, exploiting the allowance to work on a Festival by knowingly making more than was needed.
וּרְמִינְהוּ: מְטִילִין שֵׁכָר בַּמּוֹעֵד לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד, וְשֶׁלֹּא לְצוֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד — אָסוּר, אֶחָד שֵׁכַר תְּמָרִים, וְאֶחָד שֵׁכַר שְׂעוֹרִים. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ יָשָׁן, מַעֲרִים וְשׁוֹתֶה מִן הֶחָדָשׁ. תַּנָּאֵי הִיא. דְּתַנְיָא: אֵין מַעֲרִימִין בְּכָךְ, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר: מַעֲרִימִין. The Gemara raises a contradiction from a baraita: One may brew beer on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival, it is prohibited. This applies both to date beer and to barley beer. And even though he has old beer, he may employ an artifice and drink from the new beer, i.e., he may say he prefers new beer and brew a new batch, although he has enough old beer for the Festival. This statement contradicts the previous baraita that prohibited circumventing the prohibition against labor through artifice. The Gemara answers: This matter is a dispute between tanna’im, as it is taught in a baraita: One may not employ an artifice in this regard, i.e., to circumvent the prohibition against labor during the intermediate days of a Festival. Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: One may employ an artifice.
רַב חֲצַדוּ לֵיהּ חֲצָדָא בְּחוּלָּא דְמוֹעֲדָא. שְׁמַע שְׁמוּאֵל, אִיקְּפַד. לֵימָא שְׁמוּאֵל כִּיחִידָאָה סְבִירָא לֵיהּ? לָא, חֲצָדָא דְחִיטֵּי הֲוָה, דְּלָא הֲוָה פָּסֵיד. § The Gemara relates that Rav had his crop harvested on the intermediate days of a Festival. Shmuel heard about this and was dismayed. The Gemara asks: Shall we say that Shmuel holds in accordance with the individual opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who prohibits all labor for crops that are attached to the ground, even if inattention will result in significant loss? The Gemara answers: No, it was a crop of wheat, which would not have been ruined had the harvest been pushed off a week, and therefore Shmuel was offended.
וְרַב מַאי טַעְמָא עָבֵיד הָכִי? אֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל הֲוָה. וּשְׁמוּאֵל — לָא סַיְּימוּהָ קַמֵּיהּ. אִי נָמֵי, אָדָם חָשׁוּב שָׁאנֵי. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that Rav acted in this manner? The Gemara answers: Rav is in the category of one who does not have anything to eat, and that is why it was permitted to harvest his crops. The Gemara asks: And why, then, did Shmuel disapprove? The Gemara explains: The people who reported Rav’s actions to Shmuel did not complete the story for him. Alternatively, an important person such as Rav is different, and Shmuel thought Rav should have been stringent even in his difficult circumstances.
רַבִּי יְהוּדָה נְשִׂיאָה נְפַק בְּחוּמַרְתָּא דִמְדוּשָׁא, וְאִשְׁתִּי מַיָּא דְּאַחֵים קַפִּילָא אֲרַמָּאָה. שְׁמַע רַבִּי אַמֵּי, אִיקְּפַד. אָמַר רַב יוֹסֵף: מַאי טַעְמָא אִיקְּפַד? אִי מִשּׁוּם חוּמַרְתָּא דִמְדוּשָׁא, הָא תַּנְיָא: הַשִּׁירִין, הַנְּזָמִים וְהַטַּבָּעוֹת — הֲרֵי הֵן כְּכׇל הַכֵּלִים הַנִּיטָּלִין בֶּחָצֵר. It was further related that Rabbi Yehuda Nesia once went out on Shabbat with a coral seal [ḥumreta] on his ring and drank water heated by a gentile cook. Rabbi Ami heard about this and was dismayed about both things. Rav Yosef said: What is the reason that he was dismayed? If it was because of the coral seal, isn’t it taught in a baraita: Bracelets, nose rings, and rings are like all other utensils that may be carried in a courtyard? Therefore, Rabbi Yehuda Nesia’s action conformed to halakha.
אִי מִשּׁוּם דְּאִישְׁתִּי מַיָּא דְּאַחֵים קַפִּילָא אֲרַמָּאָה, הָא אָמַר שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר רַב: כֹּל שֶׁנֶּאֱכָל כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא חַי, אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בִּישּׁוּלֵי גוֹיִם! אָדָם חָשׁוּב שָׁאנֵי. And if Rabbi Ami was dismayed because Rabbi Yehuda Nesia drank water heated by a gentile cook [kapeila], didn’t Shmuel bar Yitzḥak say that Rav said: With regard to anything that is eaten raw, like water, even if it was cooked by a gentile, it is not subject to the prohibition against eating food cooked by gentiles? The Gemara resolves both difficulties: An important person is different, and Rabbi Ami believed that Rabbi Yehuda Nesia should have been more stringent.
אָמַר רַב חֲנַנְאֵל אָמַר רַב: קוֹצֵץ אָדָם דֶּקֶל בַּמּוֹעֵד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ אֶלָּא לַנְּסוֹרֶת שֶׁלּוֹ. לָיֵיט עֲלַהּ אַבָּיֵי. Rav Ḥananel said that Rav said: A person may chop down a palm tree on the intermediate days of a Festival, although he needs only its sawdust. The Gemara comments: Abaye cursed it, i.e., the behavior of one who exerts such effort on the Festival for so small a need.
רַב אָשֵׁי הֲוָה לֵיהּ אִבָּא בִּשְׁלַנְיָיא. אֲזַל לְמִיקְצְיֵיהּ בְּחוּלָּא דְמוֹעֲדָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַב שֵׁילָא מִשְּׁלַנְיָיא לְרַב אָשֵׁי: מַאי דַּעְתָּיךְ, דְּקָאָמַר רַב חֲנַנְאֵל אָמַר רַב: קוֹצֵץ אָדָם דֶּקֶל בַּמּוֹעֵד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ אֶלָּא לַנְּסוֹרֶת שֶׁלּוֹ — הָא לָיֵיט עֲלַהּ אַבָּיֵי! אֲמַר לֵיהּ: לָא שְׁמִיעַ לִי, כְּלוֹמַר, לָא סְבִירָא לִי. אִישְׁתְּמִיט נַרְגָּא, בָּעֵי לְמִיפְסְקֵיהּ לְשָׁקֵיהּ. שַׁבְקֵיהּ וַהֲדַר אֲתָא. The Gemara relates that Rav Ashi had a forest [ava] in Shelaniya. He went to cut it down on the intermediate days of the Festival. Rav Sheila from Shelaniya said to Rav Ashi: What is your opinion about what you are doing? Do you rely on that which Rav Ḥananel said that Rav said: A person may chop down a palm tree on the intermediate days of a Festival even though he needs only its sawdust? Didn’t Abaye curse such behavior? Rav Ashi said to him: I did not hear that Abaye said that; that is to say, in a delicate way, I do not hold in accordance with his opinion. The iron of Rav Ashi’s ax then slipped and was about to cut off his leg. He left it, ceasing his chopping, and came back again to chop down the forest only after the Festival.
רַב יְהוּדָה שְׁרָא לְמִיעְקַר כִּיתָּנָא וּלְמִיקְטַל כְּשׁוּתָא, וּלְמִיעְקַר שׁוּמְשְׁמֵי. אָמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי לְרַב יוֹסֵף: בִּשְׁלָמָא כִּיתָּנָא — חֲזֵי לַחֲפִיפָה, כְּשׁוּתָא — חֲזֵי לְשִׁיכְרָא, אֶלָּא שׁוּמְשְׁמֵי לְמַאי חֲזֵי? חֲזֵי לְנַזְיֵי דְּאִית בְּהוּ. The Gemara relates that Rav Yehuda permitted uprooting flax, cutting hops, and uprooting sesame plants on the intermediate days of a Festival. Abaye said to Rav Yosef: Granted, this is reasonable in the case of flax, which is suitable for use as a cover [ḥafifa] for various objects and therefore has a use even during the Festival, and so too hops, which are suitable for making beer, but for what are sesame plants suitable, since the sesame seeds require a long drying period before oil can be extracted from them? Rav Yosef said to him: They are suitable for the seeds [nazyei] on them, which can be consumed immediately.
רַבִּי יַנַּאי הֲוָה לֵיהּ הָהוּא פַּרְדֵּיסָא דִּמְטָא זִמְנֵיהּ בְּחוּלָּא דְמוֹעֲדָא, קַטְפֵיהּ. לְשָׁנָה שַׁהִיּוּה כּוּלֵּי עָלְמָא לְפַרְדֵּיסַיְיהוּ לְחוּלָּא דְמוֹעֲדָא. אַפְקְרֵיהּ רַבִּי יַנַּאי לְפַרְדֵּיסֵיהּ הָהִוא שַׁתָּא. It was further mentioned that Rabbi Yannai had an orchard whose time for harvesting the fruit arrived during the intermediate days of the Festival. He harvested it during the Festival, as the fruit would otherwise have spoiled. The following year, everyone delayed the harvest of their orchards until the intermediate days of the Festival. Rabbi Yannai declared the earnings from his orchard ownerless that year, since his harvesting of his fruit provided a misleading example for the public, causing many people to adopt an inappropriate leniency.
מַתְנִי׳ מַכְנִיס אָדָם פֵּירוֹתָיו מִפְּנֵי הַגַּנָּבִים, וְשׁוֹלֶה פִּשְׁתָּנוֹ מִן הַמִּשְׁרָה בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא תֹּאבַד, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְכַוֵּין אֶת מְלַאכְתּוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד. וְכוּלָּן אִם כִּוְּונוּ מְלַאכְתָּן בַּמּוֹעֵד — יֹאבֵדוּ. MISHNA: A person may bring his fruit in from the field on the intermediate days of the Festival because he is concerned about thieves, and he may draw his flax out of the soaking pool so that it is not ruined from soaking too long in the water, provided that he does not plan from the outset to perform his work on the intermediate days of the Festival. And with regard to all of these cases, if one planned from the outset to perform his labor on the intermediate days of the Festival, the fruit of that labor must be lost and no benefit may be derived from it.
גְּמָ׳ תָּנָא: וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיַּכְנִיסֵם בְּצִנְעָא לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ. GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita that one may bring in crops out of concern for thieves, provided that he brings them into his house discreetly.
רַב יוֹסֵף הֲוָה לֵיהּ כְּשׁוּרֵי, עַיְּילִינְהוּ בִּימָמָא. The Gemara relates: Rav Yosef had wooden beams, which he brought into his house during the day on one of the intermediate days of a Festival.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי, וְהָתַנְיָא: וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיַּכְנִיסֵם בְּצִנְעָא בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ! אֲמַר לֵיהּ: צִנְעָא דְּהָנֵי — יְמָמָא הוּא, כֵּיוָן דִּבְלֵילְיָא בָּעוּ גַּבְרֵי יַתִּירֵי, וּבָעוּ מַדְבּוּרֵי דְנוּרָא, אָוְושָׁא מִילְּתָא. Abaye said to him: But isn’t it taught in a baraita: One may bring in items provided that he brings them into his house discreetly? Rav Yosef said to him: Discretion with respect to these beams is moving them during the day, since at night more people are required, and also torchbearers [medokhrei denura] are needed, and the matter would be more noticeable.
וְשׁוֹלֶה פִּשְׁתָּנוֹ מִן הַמִּשְׁרָה כּוּ׳. בָּעֵי מִינֵּיהּ רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה מֵרַבִּי זֵירָא: כִּוֵּון מְלַאכְתּוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד וָמֵת, מַהוּ שֶׁיִּקְנְסוּ בָּנָיו אַחֲרָיו? The mishna states: And he may draw his flax out of the soaking pool so that it is not ruined from soaking too long in the water, provided that he does not plan from the outset to do his work on the intermediate days of the Festival. And with regard to anyone, if he planned from the outset to perform his labor on the intermediate days of the Festival, the fruit of that labor must be destroyed. Rabbi Yirmeya asked Rabbi Zeira: If one planned from the outset to perform his labor on the intermediate days of a Festival, and he died after doing so, what is the halakha? Should his children be penalized after him and have to lose the products of their father’s labor?
אִם תִּימְצֵי לוֹמַר Even if you might say that