לְיָרִיד שֶׁל גּוֹיִם וְלוֹקְחִים בְּהֵמָה עֲבָדִים וּשְׁפָחוֹת בָּתִּים שָׂדוֹת וּכְרָמִים וְכוֹתֵב וּמַעֲלֶה בָּעַרְכָּאוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְּמַצִּיל מִיָּדָן to a fair of pagan gentiles held on a day they have designated for idol worship and buy animals, slaves, maidservants, houses, fields, and vineyards from them. And he may write the necessary deeds and confirm them in their courts [arkaot] by verifying the signatures on the documents to prevent the sellers from appealing and retracting the sale. Although this behavior might be construed as a display of respect for the gentiles and their idols, it is nevertheless permitted because it is as if he were rescuing his property from their hands, as he would not have another opportunity to acquire these items. This indicates that time-sensitive transactions are considered like cases where one might suffer financial loss, and are permitted.
רַב שְׁרָא לְחִיָּיא בַּר אָשֵׁי לְמִיגְדַּל אוּהָרִי בְּחוּלָּא דְמוֹעֲדָא מַאי טַעְמָא מַעֲשֵׂה הֶדְיוֹט הוּא אֲבָל אִיזְלֵי אָסוּר מַאי טַעְמָא מַעֲשֵׂה אוּמָּן הוּא It was related that Rav permitted Ḥiyya bar Ashi to weave simple traps [oharei] on the intermediate days of a Festival. The Gemara explains: What is the reason for this? It is because it is the work of a layman. However, complex nets [izlei] are prohibited. What is the reason? It is the work of a craftsman, which is prohibited on the intermediate days of a Festival.
רַב יְהוּדָה שְׁרָא לְאַמֵּי תַּנּוּרָאָה לְמִיגְדַּל תַּנּוּרֵי וּלְרַבָּה בַּר עִשְׂבִּי לְמִיגְדַּל מַהוֹלָתָא אִינִי וְהָא תָּנֵי רַבָּה בַּר שְׁמוּאֵל וְשָׁוִין שֶׁאֵין גּוֹדְלִין תַּנּוּר לְכַתְּחִילָּה לָא קַשְׁיָא כָּאן בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה כָּאן בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים: It was further related that Rav Yehuda permitted Ami the oven maker to construct ovens on the intermediate days of a Festival and Rabba bar Ashabi to craft sieves. The Gemara asks: Is that really so? Didn’t Rabba bar Shmuel teach the following baraita: And they all agree that one may not construct a new oven on the intermediate days of a Festival. The Gemara answers that this is not difficult: Here, where Rav Yehuda permitted constructing an oven, he was referring to the summer, i.e., when the weather is hot and dry, so the oven can dry out and already be fit for use on the Festival; there, where the baraita prohibits constructing an oven, it is referring to the rainy season, i.e., when the weather is such that the oven will not be ready for use on the Festival.
מַתְנִי׳ עוֹשִׂין מַעֲקֶה לַגַּג וְלַמִּרְפֶּסֶת מַעֲשֵׂה הֶדְיוֹט אֲבָל לֹא מַעֲשֵׂה אוּמָּן שָׁפִין אֶת הַסְּדָקִין וּמַעֲגִילִין אוֹתָן בַּמַּעֲגִילָה בַּיָּד וּבָרֶגֶל אֲבָל לֹא בְּמַחְלָצַיִם MISHNA: One may construct a railing for a roof or a balcony if it is done in a nonprofessional manner, as the work of a layman, but not if it is done skillfully, as the work of a craftsman. One may plaster the cracks in an oven and roll over them with a roller, a wooden tool used to smooth out clay, with a hand or a foot, but not with a presser, a tool that is specially designed for this task.
הַצִּיר וְהַצִּינּוֹר וְהַקּוֹרָה וְהַמַּנְעוּל וְהַמַּפְתֵּחַ שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ מְתַקְּנָן בַּמּוֹעֵד וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְכַּוֵּין לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלַאכְתּוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד With regard to the hinge of a door, and the cylinder of the hinge, and the cross beam that holds the door, and a lock and a key that broke, one may fix them on the intermediate days of a Festival as these items are essential for the Festival and their repair cannot be delayed. This is permitted, provided that he does not intend ahead of time to do his labor on the Festival and delay it until that time.
וְכׇל כְּבָשִׁין שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לֶאֱכוֹל מֵהֶן בַּמּוֹעֵד כּוֹבְשָׁן: And with regard to all preserved food from which one can eat on the Festival, since they become ready to be eaten in a short amount of time, he may preserve them on the intermediate days of a Festival.
גְּמָ׳ הֵיכִי דָמֵי מַעֲשֵׂה הֶדְיוֹט רַב יוֹסֵף אָמַר בְּהוּצָא וְדַפְנָא בְּמַתְנִיתָא תָּנָא צָר בִּצְרוֹר וְאֵינוֹ טָח בְּטִיט: GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances in which a railing is considered the work of a layman? Rav Yosef said: When it is made with palm branches and the branches of bay trees, which do not create a permanent structure. It was taught in a baraita that he fills in the space with stone but he does not plaster the stones with clay.
שָׁפִין אֶת הַסְּדָקִין וּמַעֲגִילִין אוֹתָן בַּמַּעֲגִילָה הַשְׁתָּא בְּמַעֲגִילָה אָמְרַתְּ שְׁרֵי בַּיָּד וּבָרֶגֶל מִיבַּעְיָא הָכִי קָאָמַר שָׁפִין אֶת הַסְּדָקִין וּמַעֲגִילִין אוֹתָן כְּעֵין מַעֲגִילָה בַּיָּד וּבָרֶגֶל אֲבָל לֹא בְּמַחְלָצַיִם: It was taught in the mishna: One may plaster the cracks in an oven and roll over them with a roller, with a hand or a foot, but not with a presser. The Gemara asks: Now that you said that it is permitted to roll over the cracks with a roller, is it necessary to say that one may plaster the cracks with a hand or a foot? The Gemara answers that this is what the mishna is saying: One may plaster the cracks in an oven and roll over them as if with a roller, meaning with a hand or a foot, but not with a presser, which is a craftsman’s tool made especially for this.
הַצִּיר וְהַצִּינּוֹר וְהַקּוֹרָה וְהַמַּנְעוּל וְהַמַּפְתֵּחַ שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרוּ מְתַקְּנָן בַּמּוֹעֵד וּרְמִינְהִי עַד יָמָיו הָיָה פַּטִּישׁ מַכֶּה בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם כּוּ׳ עַד יָמָיו אִין מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ לָא It was taught in the mishna: With regard to the hinge of a door, and the cylinder of the hinge, and the cross beam that holds the door, and a lock and a key that broke, one may fix them on the intermediate days of a Festival. The Gemara raises a contradiction to this from a different mishna (Ma’aser Sheni 5:15): Until the days of Yoḥanan the High Priest, workmen’s hammers would beat in Jerusalem on the intermediate days of a Festival. One can deduce from this mishna that until his days, yes, the workmen’s hammers would beat, but from then on, no, because Yoḥanan the High Priest banned such work. This seems to contradict the mishna here that permits fixing certain items on the intermediate days of the Festival.
לָא קַשְׁיָא כָּאן בִּדְנַפָּחֵי כָּאן בִּדְנַגָּרֵי The Gemara answers: This is not difficult: There, when it is prohibited, it is referring to the work of smiths, which generates a great deal of noise; here, where it is permitted, it is referring to the work of carpenters, which is much quieter.
מַתְקֵיף לַהּ רַב חִסְדָּא יֹאמְרוּ קָלָא רַבָּה אֲסִיר קָלָא זוּטְרָא שְׁרֵי אֶלָּא אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא לָא קַשְׁיָא הָא בְּמַגָּלֵי הָא בַּחֲצִינֵי רַב פָּפָּא אָמַר כָּאן קוֹדֶם גְּזֵירָה כָּאן לְאַחַר גְּזֵירָה Rav Ḥisda strongly objects to this: If so, people will say that a loud noise is prohibited, but a soft noise is permitted. Rather, Rav Ḥisda said that the apparent contradiction is not difficult for a different reason: This mishna that permits labor is referring to sickles, as sickles emit no noise at all; whereas that mishna that prohibits labor is referring to chisels. Rav Pappa said: Here in the mishna it is referring to the period before the decree of Yoḥanan the High Priest; whereas there in the other mishna it is referring to the period after the decree.
רַב אָשֵׁי אָמַר הָא רַבִּי יְהוּדָה הָא רַבִּי יוֹסֵי דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר אַבְדִּימִי מַאן תַּנָּא שִׁינּוּי בַּמּוֹעֵד בְּדָבָר הָאָבֵד דְּלָא כְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי Rav Ashi said: That mishna, which prohibits this labor, was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda; while this mishna was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. As Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said: Who is the tanna who taught that all labor performed on the intermediate days of a Festival must be done with a change, i.e., in an altered manner, even with regard to a matter that will be lost if timely action is not taken? It is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as Rabbi Yosei permits doing labor that will prevent financial loss even when it is done in the usual manner.
אָמַר רָבִינָא כְּמַאן מְדַלִּינַן הָאִידָּנָא קִבְּיוָתָא דְּדַשָּׁא בְּחוּלָּא דְמוֹעֲדָא כְּמַאן כְּרַבִּי יוֹסֵי: Ravina said: In accordance with whose opinion do we now lift the lintel above the door in order to drive in the nails that had loosened on the intermediate days of a Festival in the usual manner? In accordance with whose opinion is this done? It is done in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who permits labor that will prevent financial loss even when it is done in the usual manner.
כְּבָשִׁין שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לֶאֱכוֹל בַּמּוֹעֵד כּוֹבְשָׁן בְּדִיתָא לְבַאי כְּווֹרֵי אֲזוּל כּוּלֵּי עָלְמָא צוּד אַיְיתוֹ כְּווֹרֵי שְׁרָא לְהוּ רָבָא לְמִימְלַח מִינַּיְיהוּ § It was taught in the mishna: With regard to all preserved food from which he can eat on the Festival, he may preserve them on the intermediate days of a Festival. The Gemara relates that the Bedita River once overflowed, depositing large quantities of fish in small water deposits on the river bank on the intermediate days of a Festival. Everyone went and trapped and brought home fish, and Rava permitted them to salt some of the fish.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי וְהָא תְּנַן כְּבָשִׁין שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לֶאֱכוֹל מֵהֶן בַּמּוֹעֵד כּוֹבְשָׁן אֲמַר לֵיהּ כֵּיוָן דְּמֵעִיקָּרָא אַדַּעְתָּא דַאֲכִילָה אַיְיתִינְהוּ וְאִי שָׁבֵיק לְהוּ פָּסְדִי כִּפְרַקְמַטְיָא הָאָבֵד דָּמֵי וּשְׁרֵי Abaye said to him: Didn’t we learn in the mishna: With regard to all preserved food from which he can eat on the Festival, he may preserve them on the intermediate days of a Festival? In this case it was impossible to eat that much fish on the Festival, and therefore preserving them should have been prohibited. Rava said to him: Since they initially brought these fish with the intention of eating them on the Festival, and it only became clear afterward that they had brought too many, and if one would leave them without salting them they would be ruined, they are treated like merchandise that will be lost, and therefore preserving them is permitted.
וְאִיכָּא דְּאָמְרִי שְׁרָא לְהוּ רָבָא מֵיצָד מֵיזָל אַיְיתוֹיֵי וּמִימְלָח אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַבָּיֵי וְהָא אֲנַן כְּבָשִׁין שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לֶאֱכוֹל מֵהֶן כּוֹבְשָׁן תְּנַן And some say that it did not happen in this manner, rather, Rava permitted them to trap the fish, to bring them home, and to salt them. Abaye said to him: Didn’t we learn in the mishna: With regard to all preserved food from which he can eat on the Festival, he may preserve them on the intermediate days of a Festival? These fish were heavily salted and consequently could not be eaten until they thoroughly dried out.
אֲמַר לֵיהּ הָנֵי נָמֵי מִיתְאַכְלִי אַגַּב אִיצָצָא כִּי הָא דִּשְׁמוּאֵל עֲבַדוּ לֵיהּ שִׁיתִּין אִיצָצֵי וַאֲכַל רָבָא אִיקְּלַע לְבֵי רֵישׁ גָּלוּתָא עָבְדִי לֵיהּ שִׁיתִּין אִיצָצֵי וַאֲכַל Rava said to him: These fish that were just salted can also be eaten now, by pressing out the salt and brine, and therefore, they too are fit to be eaten on the Festival, as in that case of Shmuel, where they prepared recently salted fish for him by pressing it sixty times and he ate the fish. The Gemara relates that Rava happened to come to the house of the Exilarch and they prepared freshly salted fish for him by pressing it sixty times, and he ate it.
רַב אִיקְּלַע לְבֵי רַב שַׁפִּיר אַיְיתוֹ לְקַמַּיְיהוּ הָהוּא כְּווֹרָא תִּילְתָּא בִּישּׁוּלָא תִּילְתָּא מִילְחָא וְתִילְתָּא טַוְויָא Apropos eating fish in various ways, the Gemara relates that Rav once happened to come to the house of Rav Shapir, and they brought before him a certain fish, of which one- third was cooked, one-third was salted and made edible via pressing, and one-third was broiled.
אָמַר רַב אֲמַר לִי אַדָּא צַיָּידָא כְּווֹרָא סָמוּךְ לְמִיסְרְחֵיהּ מְעַלֵּי וְאָמַר רַב אֲמַר לִי אַדָּא צַיָּידָא כְּווֹרָא טַוְויָיא בַּאֲחוּהּ אַסּוֹקֵיהּ בַּאֲבוּהּ מֵיכְלֵי[הּ] בִּבְרֵיהּ מִשְׁתֵּי עֲלֵיהּ אֲבוּהּ Rav said: Adda the fisherman told me that a fish that has sat for some time and is close to spoiling is at its best. And Rav also said: Adda the fisherman told me: With regard to a fish, broil it with its brother, i.e., with salt, which, like fish, also comes from the sea; place it in its father, i.e., in water; and eat it with its son, i.e., with fish brine which comes from it; and drink after it its father, i.e., water.
וְאָמַר רַב אֲמַר לִי אַדָּא צַיָּידָא כְּווֹרָא תַּחְלֵי וַחֲלָבָא לִיטְעוֹן גּוּפָא וְלָא לִיטְעוֹן פּוּרְיָא וְאָמַר רַב אֲמַר לִי אַדָּא צַיָּידָא כְּווֹרָא תַּחְלֵי וַחֲלָבָא מַיָּא וְלָא שִׁיכְרָא שִׁיכְרָא וְלָא חַמְרָא: And in addition Rav said: Adda the fisherman told me: After eating fish, cress, and milk, let the body carry them and let not the bed carry them, i.e., it is advisable to go for a walk after eating them, rather than immediately going to sleep. And Rav said: Adda the fisherman told me: After eating fish, cress, and milk, it is better to drink water and not beer, and if he has no water, he should drink beer and not wine, in order to avoid harming his body.
הֲדַרַן עֲלָךְ מַשְׁקִין בֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִין