Chapter 10י׳
1 א

בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁשָּׁגַג בְּאַחַת מִמִּצְוֹתָיו פָּטוּר מִכְּלוּם. חוּץ מֵרוֹצֵחַ בִּשְׁגָגָה שֶׁאִם הֲרָגוֹ גּוֹאֵל הַדָּם אֵינוֹ נֶהֱרָג עָלָיו. וְאֵין לוֹ עִיר מִקְלָט. אֲבָל בָּתֵּי דִּינֵיהֶן אֵין מְמִיתִין אוֹתוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשָׁגַג בְּאַחַת מִמִּצְוֹת וְעָבַר בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה. כְּגוֹן שֶׁבָּעַל אֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ וְדִמָּה שֶׁהִיא אִשְׁתּוֹ אוֹ פְּנוּיָה. אֲבָל אִם יָדַע שֶׁהִיא אֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ וְלֹא יָדַע שֶׁהִיא אֲסוּרָה עָלָיו. אֶלָּא עָלָה עַל לִבּוֹ שֶׁדָּבָר זֶה מֻתָּר לוֹ. וְכֵן אִם הָרַג וְהוּא לֹא יָדַע שֶׁאָסוּר לַהֲרֹג. הֲרֵי זֶה קָרוֹב לְמֵזִיד וְנֶהֱרָג. וְלֹא תֵּחָשֵׁב זוֹ לָהֶם שְׁגָגָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לִלְמֹד וְלֹא לָמַד:

A Ben Noach that transgressed unintentionally is exempt (from punishment) from all of them (the transgressions) – except for an unintentional killer (for instance, if he was chopping down a tree and the ax head flew off the handle and killed someone nearby). That if the redeemer of blood (a blood relative that has the right to kill an unintentional killer) killed him (the unintentional killer) – he (the redeemer of blood) is not killed for (killing) him (the unintentional killer). And he (the unintentional killer) has no refuge cities (to escape to where an unintentional killer may not be killed by a redeemer of blood) - however the courts of justice cannot have him executed. What case are we talking about – [about ] unintentionally [transgressing] one of the commandments without intention, for instance he had relations with the wife of his fellow, and he [actually] thought that she was his wife or single. However if he knew that she was his fellow's wife yet he did not know that she was forbidden to him, rather it entered into his mind that this matter was permitted to him. And also if he killed and did not that it was forbidden to kill – behold this is close to being done intentionally – and he is executed. And this is not considered unintentional because he should have learned and he did not.

2 ב

בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁאֲנָסוֹ אַנָּס לַעֲבֹר עַל אַחַת מִמִּצְוֹתָיו. מֻתָּר לוֹ לַעֲבֹר. אֲפִלּוּ נֶאֱנַס לַעֲבֹד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה עוֹבֵד. לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן מְצֻוִּין עַל קִדּוּשׁ הַשֵּׁם. וּלְעוֹלָם אֵין עוֹנְשִׁין מֵהֶן לֹא קָטָן וְלֹא חֵרֵשׁ וְלֹא שׁוֹטֶה לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן בְּנֵי מִצְוֹת:

A Ben Noach that they forced a forced act to transgress on one of their commandments – it is permitted for him to transgress. Even if he is forced to transgress idol worship, for he is not commanded upon [giving his life] for the sanctification of Hashem. And we do not punish a child and not a deaf-mute and not a mentally incompetent person – for they are not obligated for mitzvot.

3 ג

בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּר וּמָל וְטָבַל וְאַחַר כָּךְ רָצָה לַחְזֹר מֵאַחֲרֵי ה' וְלִהְיוֹת גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב בִּלְבַד כְּשֶׁהָיָה מִקֹּדֶם. אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ. אֶלָּא יִהְיֶה כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְכָל דָּבָר אוֹ יֵהָרֵג. וְאִם הָיָה קָטָן כְּשֶׁהִטְבִּילוּהוּ בֵּית דִּין. יָכוֹל לִמְחוֹת בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיַּגְדִּיל וְיִהְיֶה גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב בִּלְבַד. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא מִחָה בִּשְׁעָתוֹ שׁוּב אֵינוֹ מוֹחֶה אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הוּא גֵּר צֶדֶק. לְפִיכָךְ אִם בָּא יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל קְטַנָּה שֶׁהִטְבִּילוּהָ בֵּית דִּין. כֶּסֶף כְּתֻבָּתָהּ אוֹ קְנָס אוֹנֵס אוֹ מְפַתֶּה יִהְיֶה הַכּל תַּחַת יַד בֵּית דִּין עַד שֶׁתַּגְדִּיל וְלֹא תִּמְחֶה בַּגֵּרוּת. שֶׁמָּא תִּטּל וְתַגְדִּיל וְתִמְחֶה וְנִמְצֵאת זוֹ אוֹכֶלֶת בְּגֵיוּתָהּ מָעוֹת שֶׁאֵין לָהּ זְכוּת בָּהֶן אֶלָּא בְּדִינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:

A ben noach that converted [to Judaism] and was circumcised and he immersed [in a mikve - ritual pool] and afterwards he wants to return from before Hashem – to be only a resident convert [who is only obligated for the 7 noahide laws] like he was previously – we do not listen to him. Rather he is treated like a Jew for all matters or he is executed. And if he was a minor when he was immersed [in a ritual bath] by the [Jewish] court of law – he can retract at the time he becomes an adult and he will be only a resident convert – and if he did not retract at the appropriate time – afterwards he cannot retract – behold he is a righteous convert [obligated for 613 commandments]. Therefor if a Jew had relations with a minor girl that performed [a ritual] immersion by the Beit Din [Jewish court of law], the money of her ketuva [marital contract] or of her penalty [payment she receives for] being violated or seduced [unlawfully] – will all be in the hands of the Beit Din until she reaches adulthood and she did not reject her conversion. Perhaps she wil take and become older and will reject [her conversion] and it will be found that the consumes money that she has no right to - only unless she was a lawfully Jewish.

4 ד

בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁבֵּרֵךְ אֶת הַשֵּׁם אוֹ שֶׁעָבַד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה אוֹ שֶׁבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהָרַג חֲבֵרוֹ וְנִתְגַּיֵּר. פָּטוּר. הָרַג בֶּן יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹ שֶׁבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִתְגַּיֵּר חַיָּב וְהוֹרְגִין אוֹתוֹ עַל בֶּן יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְחוֹנְקִין אוֹתוֹ עַל אֵשֶׁת יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁבָּעַל שֶׁהֲרֵי נִשְׁתַּנָּה דִּינוֹ:

A Ben Noach that blessed the Name [of G-d – ie, blasphemed] or that worshiped idols or went with the wife of his fellow or killed his fellow and then converted [to Judaism] – is exempt [from execution]. If he killed a Jew or he went with the wife of a Jew and he converted to Judaism is liable [for execution]. And we execute him with a sword for killing a Jew and strangle him for having relations with a wife of a Jew – for behold his law changes.

5 ה

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁכָּל מִיתַת בְּנֵי נֹחַ בְּסַיִף. אֶלָּא אִם בָּעַל אֵשֶׁת יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹ נַעֲרָה מְאֹרָסָה יִסָּקֵל. וְאִם בְּעָלָהּ אַחַר שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לַחֻפָּה קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּבָּעֵל יֵחָנֵק:

We already explained that all executions of Benei Noach are with the sword. Unless one had relations with a wife of a Jewish man that was betrothed by him – he will be stoned. And if he had relations after she entered the wedding canopy before she had relations [with her husband] – he will be strangled.

6 ו

מִפִּי הַקַּבָּלָה שֶׁבְּנֵי נֹחַ אֲסוּרִין בְּהַרְבָּעַת בְּהֵמָה וּבְהַרְכָּבַת אִילָן בִּלְבַד. וְאֵין נֶהֱרָגִין עֲלֵיהֶן. וְעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהִכָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲפִלּוּ חָבַל בּוֹ כָּל שֶׁהוּא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב מִיתָה אֵינוֹ נֶהֱרָג:

According to the tradition Benei Noach are forbidden to breed cattle and to graft trees only they are not executed for this. And a non-Jew that struck a Jew – even if he wounded him – even though he is liable for death – he is not executed.

7 ז

הַמִּילָה נִצְטַוָּה בָּהּ אַבְרָהָם וְזַרְעוֹ בִּלְבַד. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יז, ט) "אַתָּה וְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ". יָצָא זַרְעוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׁמָעֵאל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כא, יב) "כִּי בְיִצְחָק יִקָּרֵא לְךָ זָרַע". וְיָצָא עֵשָׂו שֶׁהֲרֵי יִצְחָק אָמַר לְיַעֲקֹב (בראשית כח, ד) "וְיִתֶּן לְךָ אֶת בִּרְכַּת אַבְרָהָם לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ". מִכְלַל שֶׁהוּא לְבַדּוֹ זַרְעוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם הַמַּחֲזִיק בְּדָתוֹ וּבְדַרְכּוֹ הַיְשָׁרָה. וְהֵם הַמְחֻיָּבִין בְּמִילָה:

The circumcision – was only commanded to Avraham and his descendants as it states "You and your descendants after you, for generations" (Bereshit / Genesis 17, 9). This excludes the descendants of Yishmael, as it states "Because with Yitshak will be called your descendants." (Bereshit / Genesis 21, 12) – This excludes Esav for behold Yitzhak (Isaac) said to Yaakov (Jacob) "And the blessing of Avraham will be given to you, you and your descendants." (Bereshit / Genesis 28, 4) – It comes to teach us that he (Yaakov / Jacob) only is the descendant of Avraham that upholds his religion and his righteous way and they (the descendants of Jacob) are obligated for circumcision.

8 ח

אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁבְּנֵי קְטוּרָה שֶׁהֵם זַרְעוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם שֶׁבָּא אַחַר יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְיִצְחָק חַיָּבִין בְּמִילָה. וְהוֹאִיל וְנִתְעָרְבוּ הַיּוֹם בְּנֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בִּבְנֵי קְטוּרָה יִתְחַיְּבוּ הַכּל בְּמִילָה בַּשְּׁמִינִי. וְאֵין נֶהֱרָגִין עָלֶיהָ:

Our sages of blessed memory said that the children of Keturah (Abraham's concubine) who are the descendants of Avraham that came after Yishmael and Yitzhak – are obligated on circumcision. They are all obligated of [completing]circumcision by the eighth day. And they are not executed for this.

9 ט

עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁעָסַק בַּתּוֹרָה חַיָּב מִיתָה. לֹא יַעֲסֹק אֶלָּא בְּשֶׁבַע מִצְוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן בִּלְבַד. וְכֵן עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁשָּׁבַת אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם מִימוֹת הַחל אִם עֲשָׂאָהוּ לְעַצְמוֹ כְּמוֹ שַׁבָּת חַיָּב מִיתָה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם עָשָׂה מוֹעֵד לְעַצְמוֹ. כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר אֵין מְנִיחִין אוֹתָן לְחַדֵּשׁ דָּת וְלַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוֹת לְעַצְמָן מִדַּעְתָּן. אֶלָּא אוֹ יִהְיֶה גֵּר צֶדֶק וִיקַבֵּל כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת. אוֹ יַעֲמֹד בְּתוֹרָתוֹ וְלֹא יוֹסִיף וְלֹא יִגְרַע. וְאִם עָסַק בַּתּוֹרָה אוֹ שָׁבַת אוֹ חִדֵּשׁ דָּבָר. מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ וְעוֹנְשִׁין אוֹתוֹ וּמוֹדִיעִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב מִיתָה עַל זֶה. אֲבָל אֵינוֹ נֶהֱרָג:

A non-Jew that learned Torah is liable for death. They shall only deal with the their seven commandments. And also a non-Jew that rested – even during a weekday (of the Jews) – if they made the day for themselves like a Sabbath – they are liable for death. And it is understood – also if they made it into a holiday for themselves (the same applies). The general rule is : we do not let them establish a new religion and to do commandments for themselves according to their understanding – rather they shall become a righteous convert and accept upon themselves all of the (613 Jewish) commandments or stand with their own book of laws (the seven commandments according to the Torah) and they shall not add or subtract. And if they did delve into the Torah or rested as per a Sabbath or created a new religion – we give them lashes and we punish them – and let them know that they are liable for death because of this. But we do not execute them.

10 י

בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁרָצָה לַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוָה מִשְּׁאָר מִצְוֹת הַתּוֹרָה כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל שָׂכָר. אֵין מוֹנְעִין אוֹתוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ כְּהִלְכָתָהּ. וְאִם הֵבִיא עוֹלָה מְקַבְּלִין מִמֶּנּוּ. נָתַן צְדָקָה מְקַבְּלִין מִמֶּנּוּ. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין אוֹתָהּ לַעֲנִיֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל. הוֹאִיל וְהוּא נִזּוֹן מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמִצְוָה עֲלֵיהֶם לְהַחְיוֹתוֹ. אֲבָל הָעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁנָּתַן צְדָקָה מְקַבְּלִין מִמֶּנּוּ וְנוֹתְנִין אוֹתָהּ לַעֲנִיֵּי עַכּוּ''ם:

A Ben Noach that wanted to do a mitzvah from the other mitzvahs of the Torah in order to receive a reward – we do not prevent them to do it according to the Jewish law. And if they brought an Olah (elevation) sacrifice (to the Temple – when it stood) we accept it from them. If they give charity we accept it from them. And it appears to me that we give it to the poor of Yisrael since he feeds a Jew and it is a Mitzvah upon them to sustain his life. However a non-Jew that gave charity – we accept it from them and give it to non-Jewish needy.

11 יא

חַיָּבִין בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת שׁוֹפְטִים לְאֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים הַתּוֹשָׁבִים לָדוּן לָהֶן עַל פִּי מִשְׁפָּטִים אֵלּוּ. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁחֵת הָעוֹלָם. אִם רָאוּ בֵּית דִּין שֶׁיַּעֲמִידוּ שׁוֹפְטֵיהֶם מֵהֶן מַעֲמִידִין. וְאִם רָאוּ שֶׁיַּעֲמִידוּ לָהֶן מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל מַעֲמִידִין:

The Jewish court of law is obligated to appoint Judges for the sojourning converts (ie, benai noach) to Judge them according to their laws in order that the world not be destroyed. If the court of law saw it fit to appoint judges from them (the benei noach) they may be appointed. And if they saw it fit to appoint (Judges) for them from the Jews – they may be appointed.

12 יב

שְׁנֵי עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁבָּאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ לָדוּן בְּדִינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְרָצוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן לָדוּן דִּין תּוֹרָה דָּנִין. הָאֶחָד רוֹצֶה וְהָאֶחָד אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה אֵין כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לָדוּן אֶלָּא בְּדִינֵיהֶן. הָיָה יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַכּוּ''ם אִם יֵשׁ זְכוּת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּדִינֵיהֶן דָּנִין לוֹ בְּדִינֵיהֶם. וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ כָּךְ דִּינֵיכֶם. וְאִם יֵשׁ זְכוּת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּדִינֵינוּ דָּנִין לוֹ דִּין תּוֹרָה וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ כָּךְ דִּינֵינוּ. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין כֵּן לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב אֶלָּא לְעוֹלָם דָּנִין לוֹ בְּדִינֵיהֶם. וְכֵן יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין עִם גֵּרֵי תּוֹשָׁב בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶרֶץ וּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. שֶׁהֲרֵי אָנוּ מְצֻוִּין לְהַחֲיוֹתָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יד, כא) "לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ תִּתְּנֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ". וְזֶה שֶׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים אֵין כּוֹפְלִין לָהֶן שָׁלוֹם בְּעַכּוּ''ם לֹא בְּגֵר תּוֹשָׁב. אֲפִלּוּ הָעַכּוּ''ם צִוּוּ חֲכָמִים לְבַקֵּר חוֹלֵיהֶם וְלִקְבֹּר מֵתֵיהֶם עִם מֵתֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּלְפַרְנֵס עֲנִיֵּיהֶם בִּכְלַל עֲנִיֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִפְּנֵי דַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. הֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר (תהילים קמה, ט) "טוֹב ה' לַכּל וְרַחֲמָיו עַל כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו". וְנֶאֱמַר (משלי ג, יז) "דְּרָכֶיהָ דַרְכֵי נֹעַם וְכָל נְתִיבוֹתֶיהָ שָׁלוֹם":

Two non-Jews that came before a Jewish court of law to be Judged according to the Jewish laws – and both of them agreed – we make a judgement from the Torah. If one wants and the other does not – we do not force him to be judged – unless it is for their own laws. If their was a Jew and a non-Jew if there is a merit for the Jew to be judged according to their laws we judge them with their laws and say to them this is [the verdict of] your law. And if there is a merit for the Jew in our laws – we judge them according to the Torah and say to them this is [the verdict of] our law. And thus it appears to me that we deal with the sojourning converts with proper conduct and acts of loving kindness like a Jew – for we are commanded to sustain them as it states "To the sojourner in your gates give it to them and let them eat" (Devarim / Deut. 14:21) and this as what our sages said – how do we double for them peace among the nations – not for a sojourning convert. And even for non-Jews – our sages commanded us to visit the sick and to bury their dead with the dead of the Jews and to give sustenance to their needy among the needy of the Jews – because of promoting peaceful ways. Behold there is the verse - "Hashem is good with all and he is merciful upon all of his works" (Tehilim / Psalms 145, 9) and it is said "And its ways are ways of pleasantness and all its paths are peace." (Mishle – Proverbs 3, 17)