Mishneh Torah, Eruvin
Chapter 1א׳
1 א

חָצֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ שְׁכֵנִים הַרְבֵּה כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶם בְּבַיִת לְעַצְמוֹ דִּין תּוֹרָה הוּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כֻּלָּן מֻתָּרִין לְטַלְטֵל בְּכָל הֶחָצֵר וּמִבָּתִּים לֶחָצֵר וּמֵהֶחָצֵר לַבָּתִּים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל הֶחָצֵר רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אַחַת וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל בְּכֻלָּהּ. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּמָבוֹי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ לֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כָּל בְּנֵי הַמָּבוֹי מֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטֵל בְּכֻלּוֹ וּמֵחֲצֵרוֹת לַמָּבוֹי וּמִמָּבוֹי לַחֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁכָּל הַמָּבוֹי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד הוּא. וְכֵן הַדִּין בִּמְדִינָה שֶׁהִיא מֻקֶּפֶת חוֹמָה גְּבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ דְּלָתוֹת וְנִנְעָלוֹת בַּלַּיְלָה שֶׁכֻּלָּהּ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד הִיא. זֶה הוּא דִּין תּוֹרָה:

According to biblical law, if a courtyard has many tenants, each living in a house of his own, they may all move objects throughout the courtyard as well as from the houses into the courtyard and from the courtyard into the houses, because the entire courtyard is a single private domain, so that it is permissible to move objects through the whole of it. The same rule applies to an alley that has courtyards opening into it on three sides and the fourth side opening into the public road. By fastening at this fourth side a stake in the ground or a cross-beam above, the alley and the courts opening into it become a single private domain, so that all the residents of the alley are permitted to transfer objects throughout the alley as well as from the courtyards into the alley and from the alley into the courtyards. And the same is the law in a city that is surrounded by a wall [at least] ten handbreadths tall that has gates that are locked at night, as it is all a private domain. This is the biblical (Torah) law.

2 ב

אֲבָל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אָסוּר לִשְׁכֵנִים לְטַלְטֵל בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ חֲלוּקָה בְּדִיּוּרִין עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ כָּל הַשְּׁכֵנִים כֻּלָּן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. אֶחָד חָצֵר וְאֶחָד מָבוֹי וְאֶחָד הַמְּדִינָה. וְדָבָר זֶה תַּקָּנַת שְׁלֹמֹה וּבֵית דִּינוֹ:

By rabbinical enactment, however, it is forbidden to transfer objects within a private domain where there is a separation of tenants, each living in a separate house, unless they create a symbolical fusion of all the tenants by preparing an eruv on Friday. It is all the same whether it is a courtyard, an alley or a town. This regulation was originated by Solomon and his legislative body.

3 ג

וְכֵן יוֹשְׁבֵי אֹהָלִים אוֹ סֻכּוֹת אוֹ מַחֲנֶה שֶׁהִקִּיפוּהוּ מְחִצָּה אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין מֵאֹהֶל לְאֹהֶל עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ כֻּלָּן. אֲבָל שַׁיָּרָא שֶׁהִקִּיפָה מְחִצָּה אֵין צְרִיכִין לְעָרֵב אֶלָּא מוֹצִיאִין מֵאֹהֶל לְאֹהֶל בְּלֹא עֵרוּב לְפִי שֶׁהֵן כֻּלָּן מְעֹרָבִין וְאֵין אוֹתָן אֹהָלִים קְבוּעִין לָהֶן:

And likewise may those dwelling in tents or huts or a camp that they encircled with a partition not carry from one tent to [another] tent until they all make an eruv. But [members] of a caravan that is surrounded by a partition do not need to make an eruv, but may rather transport from one tent to [another] tent without an eruv — since they are all [already] joined together (which is the function of an eruv), and those tents are not permanent [dwellings] for them.

4 ד

וּמִפְּנֵי מָה תִּקֵּן שְׁלֹמֹה דָּבָר זֶה. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִטְעוּ הָעָם וְיֹאמְרוּ כְּשֵׁם שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהוֹצִיא מִן הַחֲצֵרוֹת לִרְחוֹבוֹת הַמְּדִינָה וּשְׁוָקֶיהָ וּלְהַכְנִיס מֵהֶם לַחֲצֵרוֹת כָּךְ מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיא מִן הַמְּדִינָה לַשָּׂדֶה וּלְהַכְנִיס מִן הַשָּׂדֶה לַמְּדִינָה. וְיַחְשְׁבוּ שֶׁהַשְּׁוָקִים וְהָרְחוֹבוֹת הוֹאִיל וְהֵן רְשׁוּת לַכּל הֲרֵי הֵן כְּשָׂדוֹת וּכְמִדְבָּרוֹת וְיֹאמְרוּ שֶׁהַחֲצֵרוֹת בִּלְבַד הֵן רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וִידַמּוּ שֶׁאֵין הַהוֹצָאָה מְלָאכָה וְשֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהוֹצִיא וּלְהַכְנִיס מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים:

And for what [reason] did Solomon ordain this thing? So that the people would not err and say [that] in the same way as it is permissible to transport from the courtyards to the plazas of the city and its marketplaces; so is it permissible to transport from the city out to the field, or to transport from the field into the city. And they will [further] think that since the marketplaces and plazas are a domain for everyone, they are surely like the fields and the deserts. And they will say that only courtyards are a private domain; and it will appear to them that transporting is not a [forbidden type of] work and that it is permissible to bring [things] in and out from a private domain to a public domain.

5 ה

לְפִיכָךְ תִּקֵּן שֶׁכָּל רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד שֶׁתֶּחֱלַּק בְּדִיּוּרִין וְיֹאחַז כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בָּהּ רְשׁוּת לְעַצְמוֹ וְיִשָּׁאֵר מִמֶּנָּה מָקוֹם בִּרְשׁוּת כֻּלָּן וְיַד כֻּלָּן שָׁוָה בּוֹ כְּגוֹן חָצֵר לַבָּתִּים. שֶׁנַּחְשֹׁב אוֹתוֹ הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁיַּד כֻּלָּן שָׁוָה בּוֹ כְּאִלּוּ הוּא רְשׁוּת לָרַבִּים. וְנֶחְשָׁב כָּל מָקוֹם וּמָקוֹם שֶׁאָחַז כָּל אֶחָד מִן הַשְּׁכֵנִים וְחִלְּקוֹ לְעַצְמוֹ שֶׁהוּא בִּלְבַד רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד. וְיִהְיֶה אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת שֶׁחָלַק לְעַצְמוֹ לִרְשׁוּת שֶׁיַּד כֻּלָּם שָׁוָה בּוֹ. כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵין מוֹצִיאִין מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. אֶלָּא יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ כָּל אֶחָד בָּרְשׁוּת שֶׁחָלַק לְעַצְמוֹ בִּלְבַד עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ כֻּלָּן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַכּל רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד:

Hence he ordained that every private domain that is divided into domiciles, and each and every one holds [such a domicile] for himself, but a piece of it is left over for the needs of all and the power of all is equal in it — such as a courtyard for houses — that this place that the power of all is equal be considered like a public domain; and that each and every place that each one of the neighbors holds and separated out for himself — that it alone be considered a private domain. So it would be forbidden to transport from a domain that he separated out for himself into the domain in which the power of all is the same — in the way that we may not transport from a private domain into a public domain. Rather each one may only use the domain that he separated out for himself, until they all make an eruv — even though (without this ordinance,) it is all a private domain.

6 ו

וּמַה הוּא הָעֵרוּב הַזֶּה. הוּא שֶׁיִּתְעָרְבוּ בְּמַאֲכָל אֶחָד שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁכֻּלָּנוּ מְעֹרָבִין וְאֹכֶל אֶחָד לְכֻלָּנוּ וְאֵין כָּל אֶחָד מִמֶּנּוּ חוֹלֵק רְשׁוּת מֵחֲבֵרוֹ אֶלָּא כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיַּד כֻּלָּנוּ שָׁוָה בְּמָקוֹם זֶה שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר לְכֻלָּנוּ כָּךְ יַד כֻּלָּנוּ שָׁוָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֹּאחֵז כָּל אֶחָד לְעַצְמוֹ וַהֲרֵי כֻּלָּנוּ רְשׁוּת אֶחָד. וּבַמַּעֲשֶׂה הַזֶּה לֹא יָבוֹאוּ לִטְעוֹת וּלְדַמּוֹת שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהוֹצִיא וּלְהַכְנִיס מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים:

What is the form of the prescribed eruv? It consists of a quantity of food contributed by the residents jointly and deposited on Friday, as if to say: "We are all one fellowship, we all have the same food, and none of us keeps a domain distinct from that of his neighbor; just as we share equally the area of the eruv, so we have equal rights in each of the areas held by each individually; all of us are a single domain." This symbolical act serves to prevent people from falling into error and imagining that it is permissible to move objects from a private domain to a public domain.

7 ז

הָעֵרוּב שֶׁעוֹשִׂים בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר זֶה עִם זֶה הוּא הַנִּקְרָא עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת. וְשֶׁעוֹשִׂין אַנְשֵׁי מָבוֹי זֶה עִם זֶה אוֹ כָּל בְּנֵי הַמְּדִינָה הוּא הַנִּקְרָא שִׁתּוּף:

The eruv prepared by the tenants of a courtyard is called a courtyard eruv; the one prepared by the inhabitants of an alley or by all the residents of a town is called a shituf (cooperative eruv).

8 ח

אֵין מְעָרְבִין בַּחֲצֵרוֹת אֶלָּא בְּפַת שְׁלֵמָה בִּלְבַד. אֲפִלּוּ כִּכַּר מַאֲפֶה סְאָה וְהִיא פְּרוּסָה אֵין מְעָרְבִין בָּהּ. הָיְתָה שְׁלֵמָה וְהִיא כְּאִיסָר מְעָרְבִין בָּהּ. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁמְּעָרְבִין בְּפַת תְּבוּאָה כָּךְ מְעָרְבִין בְּפַת אֹרֶז וּבְפַת עֲדָשִׁים אֲבָל לֹא בְּפַת דֹּחַן. וְשִׁתּוּף בֵּין בְּפַת בֵּין בִּשְׁאָר אֳכָלִים. בְּכָל אֹכֶל מִשְׁתַּתְּפִין חוּץ מִן הַמַּיִם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן אוֹ מֶלַח בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. וְכֵן כְּמֵהִין וּפִטְרִיּוֹת אֵין מִשְׁתַּתְּפִין בָּהֶן שֶׁאֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִין כָּאֳכָלִים. עֵרֵב מַיִם עִם מֶלַח נַעֲשָׂה כְּמוּרְיָס וּמִשְׁתַּתְּפִין:

We only make an eruv with a complete [loaf of] bread. We may not make an eruv with even a loaf of a baked seah that is a sliced. [But] if it was complete, we may make an eruv with it, [even] if was an issar. And in the [same] way that we can make an eruv with the bread of grain, so may we make an eruv with the bread of rice or the bread of lentils; but not with the bread of millet. And a shituf is either with bread or with other foods. We may make a shituf with any food except for water by itself or salt by itself. And likewise may we not make a shituf with truffles or mushrooms, as they are not considered foods. If one mixes water with salt, it becomes like brine, so we may make a shituf [with it].

9 ט

וְכַמָּה שִׁעוּר הָאֹכֶל שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּתְּפִין בּוֹ. כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הַמָּבוֹי אוֹ מִבְּנֵי הַמְּדִינָה. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה אוֹ פָּחוֹת. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ מְרֻבִּים עַל זֶה שִׁעוּרוֹ שְׁתֵּי סְעֵדּוֹת שֶׁהֵן כִּשְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה גְּרוֹגָרוֹת שֶׁהֵן כְּשֵׁשׁ בֵּיצִים בֵּינוֹנִיּוֹת. אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ הַמִּשְׁתַּתְּפִין אֲלָפִים וּרְבָבוֹת שְׁתֵּי סְעֵדּוֹת לְכֻלָּן:

And what is the [requisite] amount with which we make a shituf? A dried fig-bulk for each and every one of the residents of the alley or of the city. And that is when they are eighteen or less. But when they are more numerous than that, its amount is [food for] two meals — which is like eighteen dried fig-bulks, which [in turn] is [the size of] six medium eggs — even if the participants are thousands and tens of thousands, it is two meals (that are this size) for all of them.

10 י

כָּל אֹכֶל שֶׁהוּא נֶאֱכָל כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא כְּגוֹן פַּת וּמִינֵי דָּגָן וּבָשָׂר חַי אִם נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בּוֹ שִׁעוּרוֹ מְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעֵדּוֹת. וְכָל שֶׁהוּא לִפְתָּן וְדֶרֶךְ הָעָם לֶאֱכל בּוֹ פִּתָּן כְּגוֹן יַיִן מְבֻשָּׁל וּבָשָׂר צָלִי וְחֹמֶץ וּמוּרְיָס וְזֵיתִים וְאִמָּהוֹת שֶׁל בְּצָלִים שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכל בּוֹ שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת:

If they made a shituf with any food that is eaten as it is (by itself), such as bread or types of grain or raw meat — its [requisite] amount is nourishment for two meals. But the amount of anything that is an accompaniment and the way of the people is to eat their bread with it — such as cooked wine or roast meat or vinegar or brine or olives or onion bulbs — is enough to eat two meals with it.

11 יא

נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בְּיַיִן חַי שִׁעוּרוֹ שְׁתֵּי רְבִיעִיּוֹת לְכֻלָּן. וְכֵן בְּשֵׁכָר שְׁתֵּי רְבִיעִיּוֹת. בֵּיצִים שְׁתַּיִם וּמִשְׁתַּתְּפִין בָּהֶן וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן חַיּוֹת. וְרִמּוֹנִים שְׁנַיִם. אֶתְרוֹג אֶחָד. חֲמִשָּׁה אֱגוֹזִים. חֲמִשָּׁה אֲפַרְסֵקִים. לִיטְרָא שֶׁל יָרָק בֵּין חַי בֵּין שָׁלוּק וְאִם הָיָה בָּשִׁיל וְלֹא בָּשִׁיל אֵין מְעָרְבִין בּוֹ לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה. עֵכְּלָא תַּבְלִין. קַב תְּמָרִים. קַב גְּרוֹגָרוֹת. מָנֶה דְּבֵלָה. קַב תַּפּוּחִין. כְּשׁוּת כִּמְלוֹא הַיָּד. פּוֹלִין לַחִין כִּמְלוֹא הַיָּד. חֲזִין לִיטְרָא. וְהַתְּרָדִין הֲרֵי הֵן בִּכְלַל הָיָּרָק וּמְעָרְבִין בָּהֶן. עֲלֵי בְּצָלִים אֵין מְעָרְבִין בָּהֶן. אֶלָּא אִם הִבְצִילוּ וְנַעֲשָׂה אֹרֶךְ כָּל עָלֶה מֵהֶן זֶרֶת. אֲבָל פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן אֵינוֹ אֹכֶל. וְכָל אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֲמוּרִין כְּלִפְתָּן הֵן. וּלְפִיכָךְ נָתְנוּ בָּהֶן שִׁעוּרִין אֵלּוּ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וכָּל הָאֳכָלִין מִצְטָרְפִין לְשִׁעוּר הַשִּׁתּוּף:

[If] they made a shituf with raw (unprocessed) wine, its amount is two reviit (each) for all of them; and likewise with beer, two reviit; two eggs — and we may make a shituf with them even if they are raw; two pomegranates; one citron; five nuts; five peaches; a liter of vegetables — whether raw or boiled, but we may not make a [shituf] with it if it was neither cooked nor uncooked, as it is not fit to eat; an ukla of spice; a kav of dates; a kav of dried figs; a maneh of pressed fig cake; a kav of apples; a handful of dodder; a handful of fresh beans; a liter of green grain. And beets are included in vegetables and we make a [shituf] with them. We may not make a [shituf] with onion leaves unless they have firmed up and the length of each of its leaves becomes a zeret. But less than that is not food. And all of these things mentioned are accompaniments. Hence [the Sages] gave these [requisite] amounts for them — and likewise, anything that is similar to them. And all foods combine for the [requisite] amount of the shituf.

12 יב

לִיטְרָא הָאֲמוּרָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם מְלֹא שְׁתֵּי רְבִיעִיּוֹת. וְעֻכְּלָא חֲצִי רְבִיעִית. וּמָנֶה הָאֲמוּרָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם מֵאָה דִּינָר. וְהַדִּינָר שֵׁשׁ מָעִין. וְהַמָּעָה מִשְׁקַל שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שְׂעוֹרוֹת. וְהַסֶּלַע אַרְבָּעָה דִּינָרִין. וְהָרְבִיעִית מַחְזֶקֶת מִן הַמַּיִם אוֹ מִן הַיַּיִן מִשְׁקַל שִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר דִּינָרִין וַחֲצִי דִּינָר בְּקֵרוּב. נִמְצָא הַלִּיטְרָא מִשְׁקַל חֲמִשָּׁה וּשְׁלֹשִׁים דִּינָר. וְהָעֻכְּלָא מִשְׁקַל תִּשְׁעָה דִּינָרִין פָּחוֹת רְבִיעַ:

The liter mentioned in every place is the fill of two reviit; and an ukla is half a reviit. And the maneh mentioned in every place is a hundred dinar. And a dinar is six maah. And the weight of a maah is sixteen barley seeds. And the sela is four dinar. And a reviit is that which contains [the amount] of water or of wine that weighs about seventeen and a half dinar. It comes out that the weight of a liter is thirty-five dinar; and the weight of an ukla is nine dinar less a fourth.

13 יג

סְאָה הָאֲמוּרָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֵׁשֶׁת קַבִּין. וְהַקַּב אַרְבָּעָה לוֹגִין. וְהַלּוֹג אַרְבַּע רְבִיעִיּוֹת. וּכְבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ מִדַּת הָרְבִיעִית וּמִשְׁקָלָהּ. וְאֵלּוּ הַשִּׁעוּרִין שֶׁאָדָם צָרִיךְ לִזְכֹּר אוֹתָן תָּמִיד:

The seah mentioned in every place is six kav; and the kav is four log; and the log is four reviit. And we have already explained the size of the reviit and its weight. These are the [requisite] amounts that one must always remember.

14 יד

אֹכֶל שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר לְזֶה הַמְעָרֵב הֲרֵי זֶה מְעָרֵב בּוֹ וּמִשְׁתַּתֵּף בּוֹ. כֵּיצַד. מִשְׁתַּתֵּף הַנָּזִיר בְּיַיִן וְיִשְׂרָאֵל בִּתְרוּמָה. וְכֵן הַנּוֹדֵר מֵאֹכֶל זֶה אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּע שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכְלֶנּוּ מְעָרֵב בּוֹ וּמִשְׁתַּתֵּף בּוֹ. שֶׁאִם אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָזֶה הֲרֵי הוּא רָאוּי לְאַחֵר:

One may make an eruv or make a shituf with food that is permissible to eat, even though it is forbidden to the one making the eruv. How is this? A nazerite may make a shituf with wine, and an Israelite [may do so] with priestly tithe. And likewise one who has made a vow from eating this, or sworn not to eat it, may make an eruv with it or make a shituf with it. For [even] if it is not fit for this one, it is fit for another.

15 טו

אֲבָל דָּבָר הָאָסוּר לַכּל כְּגוֹן טֶבֶל אֲפִלּוּ טֶבֶל שֶׁל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וְכֵן מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה תְּרוּמָתוֹ כַּהֹגֶן. וְכֵן מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדּוּ כַּהֲלָכָה. אֵין מְעָרְבִין וּמִשְׁתַּתְּפִין בָּהֶן. אֲבָל מְעָרְבִין וּמִשְׁתַּתְּפִין בִּדְמַאי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרָאוּי לָעֲנִיִּים. וּבְמַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁנִּטְּלָה תְּרוּמָתוֹ. וּבְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁנִּפְדּוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן אֶת הַחֹמֶשׁ שֶׁאֵין הַחֹמֶשׁ מְעַכֵּב. וּמְעָרְבִין בְּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי שָׁם לַאֲכִילָה אֲבָל לֹא בִּגְבוּלִין:

But we may not make an eruv or make a shituf with something that is forbidden to everyone, such as fruits that have not been tithed — even if they are only [obligated in rabbinic tithes] — or first tithe the priestly tithe of which has not been properly taken; and likewise second tithe and consecrated foods that have have not been redeemed according to the law. But we may make an eruv or make a shituf with demai, since it is fit for the poor; and with first tithe the priestly tithe of which has been taken; and second tithe and consecrated foods that have been redeemed, even though one did not [add the mandatory] fifth — as the fifth does not impinge [on its permissibility as food]. And we may make an eruv with second tithe in Jerusalem, since it is fit for food there; but not in the outlying areas (outside of Jerusalem).

16 טז

כֵּיצַד מְעָרְבִין בַּחֲצֵרוֹת. גּוֹבִין חַלָּה אַחַת שְׁלֵמָה מִכָּל בַּיִת וּבַיִת וּמַנִּיחִין הַכּל בִּכְלִי אֶחָד בְּבַיִת אֶחָד מִבָּתֵּי הֶחָצֵר אֲפִלּוּ בְּבֵית הַתֶּבֶן אוֹ בְּבֵית הַבָּקָר אוֹ בְּבֵית הָאוֹצָר. אֲבָל אִם נָתְנוּ בְּבֵית שַׁעַר אֲפִלּוּ בֵּית שַׁעַר שֶׁל יָחִיד אוֹ בְּאַכְסַדְרָה אוֹ בְּמִרְפֶּסֶת אוֹ בְּבַיִת שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת עַל אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. וּכְשֶׁמְּקַבֵּץ הָעֵרוּב מְבָרֵךְ בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל מִצְוַת עֵרוּב. וְאוֹמֵר בְּעֵרוּב זֶה יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לְכָל בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר לְהוֹצִיא וּלְהַכְנִיס מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת בְּשַׁבָּת. וְיֵשׁ לְקָטָן לִגְבּוֹת עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת. וּבַיִת שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין בּוֹ עֵרוּב אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן אֶת הַפַּת. וְאִם הָיוּ רְגִילִין לְהַנִּיחַ בּוֹ אֵין מְשַׁנִּין אוֹתוֹ מִפְּנֵי דַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם:

How is a courtyard eruv prepared? A whole loaf of bread is collected from each house, and all the loaves are placed within a single container and deposited in one of the dwellings of the courtyard. Even in a room for straw or a room for cattle or a storehouse. But if they put [it] in a gatehouse — even the gatehouse of an individual — or a veranda or a balcony or a room that does not consist of four ells by four ells, it is not an eruv. When gathering and depositing the food contributed by the various tenants, one should recite this benediction: "Blessed art thou, Lord our God, King of the universe, who hast sanctified us with thy commandments, and commanded us concerning the precept of eruv." He should then add: "By virtue of this eruv, all the residents of this courtyard will be permitted to transfer objects from house to house on the Sabbath." And a child may collect courtyard eruvs. And if they were accustomed to leave it in [one home], they should not change it — on account of [the need to maintain] the ways of peace.

17 יז

וְכֵיצַד מִשְׁתַּתְּפִין בְּמָבוֹי. גּוֹבֶה אֹכֶל כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת מִכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד אוֹ פָּחוֹת מִכִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת אִם הָיוּ מְרֻבִּין. וּמַנִּיחַ הַכּל בִּכְלִי אֶחָד בְּחָצֵר מֵחַצְרוֹת הַמָּבוֹי אוֹ בְּבַיִת מִן הַבָּתִּים אֲפִלּוּ בַּיִת קָטָן אוֹ אַכְסַדְרָה אוֹ מִרְפֶּסֶת הֲרֵי זֶה שִׁתּוּף. אֲבָל אִם הִנִּיחוֹ בַּאֲוִיר מָבוֹי אֵינוֹ שִׁתּוּף. וְאִם הִנִּיחַ הַכְּלִי בֶּחָצֵר צָרִיךְ לְהַגְבִּיהַּ הַכְּלִי מִן הַקַּרְקַע טֶפַח כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה נִכָּר. וּמְבָרֵךְ עַל מִצְוַת עֵרוּב. וְאוֹמֵר בְּזֶה הַשִּׁתּוּף יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לְכָל בְּנֵי הַמָּבוֹי לְהוֹצִיא וּלְהַכְנִיס מֵחֲצֵרוֹת לַמָּבוֹי בְּשַׁבָּת:

How should an alley eruv be prepared? One collects the smallest quantity of food, the size of a dry fig, from each resident, or even less than that if there are many residents, and puts it all into a single container; he then deposits it in one of the courtyards of the alley or in one of the houses, even in a small room or a veranda or a balcony, it is surely a shituf. But if he leaves it in the [empty] space of the alley, it is not a shituf. And if he left the vessel in the courtyard, he must raise the vessel a handbreadth from the ground, so that it be recognizable. And one recites the blessing, "on the commandment of eruv." And he says: "By virtue of this cooperative eruv, all residents of the alley are permitted to transfer objects between the courtyards and the alley on the Sabbath."

18 יח

חָלְקוּ אֶת הָעֵרוּב אוֹ אֶת הַשִּׁתּוּף אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא בְּבַיִת אֶחָד אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. אֲבָל אִם מִלְּאוּ אֶת הַכְּלִי מִן הָעֵרוּב וְנִשְׁאַר מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַט וְהִנִּיחוּהוּ בִּכְלִי אַחֵר מֻתָּר:

[If] they divided the eruv, it is not an eruv — even if it is in one house. But if they filled the vessel with the eruv and a little was left over — such that they put it in another vessel — it is permissible.

19 יט

הַמִּשְׁתַּתְּפִין בַּמָּבוֹי צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב בַּחֲצֵרוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁכְּחוּ הַתִּינוֹקוֹת תּוֹרַת עֵרוּב. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הַתִּינוֹקוֹת מַכִּירִין מַה נַּעֲשָׂה בַּמָּבוֹי. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בַּמָּבוֹי בְּפַת סוֹמְכִין עָלָיו וְאֵין צְרִיכִין לְעָרֵב בַּחֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי הַתִּינוֹקוֹת מַכִּירִין בַּפַּת. בְּנֵי חֲבוּרָה שֶׁהָיוּ מְסֻבִּין וְקָדַּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן הַיּוֹם פַּת שֶׁעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן סוֹמְכִין עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת. וְאִם רָצוּ לִסְמֹךְ עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם שִׁתּוּף סוֹמְכִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן מְסֻבִּין בֶּחָצֵר:

Those who make a shituf in an alley need to [nevertheless also] make an eruv in [each] of their courtyards, so that the infants will not forget the law of the eruv. Hence if they made the shituf in the alley with bread, they can rely upon it and need not make an eruv in [each] of their courtyards; as the infants will surely [notice it] with bread. [In the case of] members of a group that were dining [together] when the day became sanctified upon them (Shabbat began), they may rely upon the bread on the table for the eruv in their courtyards. And if they want, they may rely upon it for the shituf, even though they are dining in the courtyard.

20 כ

לָקַח אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר פַּת אַחַת וְאָמַר הֲרֵי זוֹ לְכָל בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר אוֹ שֶׁהוּא אֹכֶל כִּשְׁתֵּי סְעֵדּוֹת וְאָמַר הֲרֵי זֶה לְכָל בְּנֵי הַמָּבוֹי אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִגְבּוֹת מִכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד. אֲבָל צָרִיךְ לְזַכּוֹת לָהֶן בּוֹ עַל יְדֵי אַחֵר. וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לְזַכּוֹת עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַגְּדוֹלִים וְעַל יְדֵי עַבְדּוֹ הָעִבְרִי וְעַל יְדֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ. אֲבָל לֹא עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַקְּטַנִּים וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הַכְּנַעֲנִים מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּדָן כְּיָדוֹ. וְכֵן יֵשׁ לוֹ לְזַכּוֹת לָהֶן עַל יְדֵי שִׁפְחָתוֹ הָעִבְרִית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא קְטַנָּה. שֶׁהַקָּטָן זוֹכֶה לַאֲחֵרִים בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ לִבְנֵי הֶחָצֵר אוֹ לִבְנֵי הַמָּבוֹי שֶׁהֲרֵי זָכָה לָהֶן וְעֵרֵב עֲלֵיהֶן שֶׁזְּכוּת הִיא לָהֶן וְזָכִין לוֹ לְאָדָם שֶׁלֹּא בְּפָנָיו:

[If] one of the residents of the courtyard took a [loaf] of bread and said, "Behold this is for all of the residents of the courtyard"; or if it was [other] food, like [that of] two meals, and he said, "Behold this is for all the residents of the alley" — he does not need to collect [it] from each and every one. However he must acquire if for them through another (who will serve as their agent and receive it from him). And he may acquire it through his adult son or daughter or through his Hebrew slave or through his wife; but not through his minor son or daughter, nor through his Canaanite (gentile) slave or maidservant — since their hand (to acquire) is like his hand. But he may likewise acquire it for them through his Hebrew maidservant, even though she is a minor — as a minor may acquire for others with regards to something from the words of the Scribes (rabbinic). And he need not inform the residents of the courtyard or the residents of the alley that he surely acquired [it] for them, and made an eruv for them. For it is a benefit to them, and we may benefit [another] person not in his presence (without his knowledge).

21 כא

אֵין מְעָרְבִין וְלֹא מִשְׁתַּתְּפִין בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. וּמְעָרְבִין עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת וְשִׁתּוּפֵי מְבוֹאוֹת בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק מִן הַיּוֹם סָפֵק מִן הַלַּיְלָה. וּלְעוֹלָם צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא הָעֵרוּב אוֹ הַשִּׁתּוּף מָצוּי וְאֶפְשָׁר לְאָכְלוֹ כָּל בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נָפַל עָלָיו גַּל אוֹ אָבַד אוֹ נִשְׂרַף אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה תְּרוּמָה וְנִטְמֵאת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב. וְאִם סָפֵק הֲרֵי זֶה עֵרוּב שֶׁסְּפֵק הָעֵרוּב כָּשֵׁר:

We may not make an eruv nor make a shituf on Shabbat, but rather [must make them] while it is still day. And we may make an eruv or make a shituf at twilight — even though it is a doubt whether it is from the day or from the night. However the eruv or the shituf must always be present and possible to eat during the whole twilight period. Hence if a pile [of stones] fell upon it or it got lost or burnt or it was priestly tithe and became impure while it was still day, it is not an eruv. [But if one of these things happened] from when it got dark, it is surely an eruv. And if it is in doubt, it is an eruv — as an eruv in [a state of] doubt is an eruv.

22 כב

נָתַן הָעֵרוּב אוֹ הַשִּׁתּוּף בַּמִּגְדָּל וְנָעַל עָלָיו וְאָבַד הַמַּפְתֵּחַ קֹדֶם שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהוֹצִיא הָעֵרוּב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִי שֶׁאָבַד וְאֵינוֹ עֵרוּב שֶׁהֲרֵי אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְאָכְלוֹ. הִפְרִישׁ תְּרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר אוֹ תְּרוּמָה גְּדוֹלָה וְהִתְנָה עָלֶיהָ שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה תְּרוּמָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ אֵין מְעָרְבִין בָּהּ שֶׁעֲדַיִן הִיא טֶבֶל כָּל בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁתִּהְיֶה סְעֻדָּה הָרְאוּיָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם:

[If] one placed the eruv into a closet and locked it in, and [then] lost the key before it got dark: If it is impossible for him to remove the eruv unless he did a forbidden type of work at twilight, it is surely like it is lost and is not an eruv — as it is surely impossible to eat it. If he separated out the priestly tithe of the tithe or the great priestly tithe and stipulated about it that it not be priestly tithe until it gets dark, we may not make an eruv with it — as it is still untithed all of the twilight period; and it needs to be a fit meal from when it is still day.