Mishneh Torah, Virgin Maiden
Chapter 1א׳
1 א

מִי שֶׁפִּתָּה בְּתוּלָה קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ מִשְׁקַל חֲמִשִּׁים סְלָעִים שֶׁל כֶּסֶף מְזֻקָּק וְהוּא הַנִּקְרָא קְנָס. וְכֵן אִם אָנַס אוֹתָהּ. וּקְנָס זֶה מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְנָתַן הָאִישׁ הַשּׁוֹכֵב עִמָּהּ לַאֲבִי הַנַּעֲרָה חֲמִשִּׁים כֶּסֶף":

One who seduces a virgin maiden is fined fifty sela'im pure silver and this is a fine. And if he raped her the same penalty would be levied. This fine is a positive commandment from the Torah, as it says "the man who lay with her shall pay the girl’s father fifty [shekels of] silver":

2 ב

וְאֵי זֶה הוּא מְפַתֶּה וְאֵי זֶה הוּא אוֹנֵס. מְפַתֶּה לִרְצוֹנָהּ. אוֹנֵס שֶׁבָּא עָלֶיהָ בְּעַל כָּרְחָהּ. כָּל הַנִּבְעֶלֶת בַּשָּׂדֶה הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת אֲנוּסָה וְדָנִין אוֹתָהּ בְּדִין אֲנוּסָה עַד שֶׁיָּעִידוּ הָעֵדִים שֶׁבִּרְצוֹנָהּ נִבְעֲלָה. וְכָל הַנִּבְעֶלֶת בָּעִיר הֲרֵי זוֹ בְּחֶזְקַת מְפֻתָּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא זָעֲקָה עַד שֶׁיָּעִידוּ הָעֵדִים שֶׁהִיא אֲנוּסָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁשָּׁלַף לָהּ חֶרֶב וְאָמַר לָהּ אִם תִּזְעֲקִי אֶהֱרֹג אוֹתָךְ:

What is considered seduction and what is considered rape? Seduction is an encounter she desired. Rape is when he has relations with her against her will. Any woman who has relations in the field is presumed to have been raped and we treat such a case as a rape case until witnesses testify that she had relations of her own volition. And any woman who has relations in the city is presumed to have been seduced since she did not cry out in distress, unless witnesses testify that she was raped, for example if a man drew his sword and said "if you scream I will kill you."

3 ג

הַמְפֻתָּה שֶׁלֹּא רָצְתָה לְהִנָּשֵׂא לַמְפַתֶּה. אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא רָצָה אָבִיהָ לִתְּנָהּ לוֹ. אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא רָצָה הוּא לִכְנֹס. הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹתֵן קְנָס וְהוֹלֵךְ וְאֵין כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִכְנֹס. וְאִם רָצוּ וּכְנָסָהּ אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם קְנָס אֶלָּא כּוֹתֵב לָהּ כְּתֻבָּה כִּשְׁאָר הַבְּתוּלוֹת. אֲבָל הָאֲנוּסָה שֶׁלֹּא רָצְתָה הִיא אוֹ אָבִיהָ לְהִנָּשֵׂא לְאוֹנֵס הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדָם וְנוֹתֵן קְנָס וְהוֹלֵךְ. רָצְתָה הִיא וְאָבִיהָ וְלֹא רָצָה הוּא כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ וְכוֹנֵס וְנוֹתֵן קְנָס שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְלוֹ תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה" הֲרֵי זוֹ מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה. אֲפִלּוּ הִיא חִגֶּרֶת אוֹ סוּמָא אוֹ מְצֹרַעַת כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִכְנֹס וְאֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא לִרְצוֹנוֹ לְעוֹלָם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב יט) "לֹא יוּכַל לְשַׁלְּחָהּ כָּל יָמָיו" הֲרֵי זוֹ מִצְוַת לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה:

The seduced woman who doesn't want to marry her seducer, or if her father did not want her to wed him, or if the seducer didn't want to enter [into marriage]- the seducer pays the [fifty sela'im] penalty and goes on his way and we don't force him to marry her. However if he does want to marry her, he doesn't pay a fine rather he writes her a ketubah like one would for any virgin maiden. However regarding the woman who was raped, if she or her father don't want her to marry her rapist they can decline collect the [fifty sela'im] penalty and go on their way. If she and her father want her to marry her rapist but the rapist doesn't want to marry her, we force him to marry her and he has to pay the penalty, as it states: "she shall be his wife" and this is a positive commandment. Even if she is lame, blind, or has leprosy he is forced to marry her and he cannot divorce her forever, as it is stated: "he shall never have the right to divorce her." This is a negative commandment.

4 ד

וְאֵין לָהּ כְּתֻבָּה שֶׁלֹּא תִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים כְּתֻבָּה לְאִשָּׁה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה קַלָּה בְּעֵינָיו לְהוֹצִיאָהּ וְזֶה אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיאָהּ:

And this woman does not get a ketubah, since the only reason the Rabbis instituted a ketubah for a woman was so that she would not be viewed lightly and easy to divorce in her husband's eyes. And this husband (her rapist) is not allowed to divorce her.

5 ה

הָיְתָה אֲנוּסָה זוֹ אֲסוּרָה עָלָיו אֲפִלּוּ מֵחַיָּבֵי עֲשֵׂה וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁנִיָּה הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִשָּׂאֶנָּה. וְכֵן אִם נִמְצָא בָּהּ דְּבַר זִמָּה אַחַר שֶׁכָּנַס הֲרֵי זֶה יְגָרְשֶׁנָהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְלוֹ תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה". אִשָּׁה הָרְאוּיָה לוֹ:

If the girl he raped was forbidden to him, even if the reason is from a positive commandment, or id she were a shn'iyah (ie forbidden via Rabbinic prohibition) he should not marry her. Furthermore, if he witnesses immoral behavior of hers after he married her he should divorce her. As it states: "she shall be his wife." Namely a woman who is (halachically) fit for him.

6 ו

כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁאָנַס בְּתוּלָה אוֹ שֶׁפִּתָּה אוֹתָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִכְנֹס מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְצֻוֶּה לִקַּח אֶת הַבְּתוּלָה וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁיִּשָּׂא זוֹ אֵינָהּ בְּתוּלָה. וְאִם כָּנַס יוֹצִיא בְּגֵט:

A High Priest who raped or seduced a virgin maiden, is not allowed to marry her because he is commanded to marry a virgin maiden and when the time comes to marry her she is no longer a virgin maiden. If they did marry, he must give her a get.

7 ז

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּאוֹנֵס (דברים כב יט) "לֹא יוּכַל לְשַׁלְּחָהּ" כֵּיוָן שֶׁקְּדָמוֹ עֲשֵׂה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְלוֹ תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה" הֲרֵי זֶה נִתְּקוֹ לַעֲשֵׂה וְנִמְצֵאת זוֹ מִצְוַת לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה שֶׁנִּתְּקָהּ לַעֲשֵׂה שֶׁאֵין לוֹקִין עָלֶיהָ אֶלָּא אִם לֹא קִיֵּם עֲשֵׂה שֶׁבָּהּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּהִלְכוֹת סַנְהֶדְרִין. לְפִיכָךְ הָאוֹנֵס שֶׁעָבַר וְגֵרֵשׁ כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לְהַחֲזִיר וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. מֵתָה גְּרוּשָׁתוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּחְזִירֶנָּה אוֹ נִתְקַדְּשָׁה לְאַחֵר אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה כֹּהֵן שֶׁאָסוּר בִּגְרוּשָׁה הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה שֶׁהֲרֵי עָבַר עַל לֹא תַּעֲשֶׂה וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְקַיֵּם עֲשֵׂה שֶׁבָּהּ:

Even though it says by a rapist: "he shall never have the right to divorce her" since [this negative commandment] is preceded by a positive commandment of: "she shall be his wife" this is a negative commandment that can be fixed by fulfilling the positive commandment. Thus, lashes are only administered if he does not fulfill the associated positive commandment like I will explain in The Laws of Sanhedrin. Therefore a rapist who sinned by divorcing his wife is forced to return to her and we don't give him lashes. However if his divorcée dies before he could remarry her, or she became betrothed to someone else, or if he was a Kohein who's forbidden from marrying a divorcée- he would get lashes since he violated a negative commandment and he is unable to fulfill the accompanying positive commandment.

8 ח

אֵין הָאוֹנֵס אוֹ הַמְפַתֶּה חַיָּב בִּקְנָס עַד שֶׁיָּבוֹא עָלֶיהָ [כְּדַרְכָּהּ] וּבְעֵדִים וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ הַתְרָאָה. וּמֵאֵימָתַי יִהְיֶה לַבַּת קְנָס. מֵאַחַר שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים גְּמוּרוֹת עַד שֶׁתִּבְגֹּר. נִבְעֲלָה בְּתוֹךְ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים אֵין בִּיאָתָהּ בִּיאָה. בָּא עָלֶיהָ מִשֶּׁבָּגְרָה אֵין לָהּ קְנָס שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כח) "נַעֲרָה בְתוּלָה" לֹא הַבּוֹגֶרֶת:

The rapist or seducer isn't obligated to pay the fine until he has relations with her [in the ordinary fashion] with witnesses present, and he doesn't need to be forewarned. At what age is the girl eligible to receive the fine? After she is three full years until she reaches bagrus (twelve and a half). If she had relations before she was three this is not considered relations. If one were to have relations with her from when she's reaches bagrus there is no fine, as it states "virgin maiden" and not "bogeres".

9 ט

וְאַחַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ אָב וְאַחַת שֶׁאֵין לָהּ אָב יֵשׁ לָהּ קְנָס. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין לָהֶן קְנָס. הַבּוֹגֶרֶת וְהַמְמָאֶנֶת וְהָאַיְלוֹנִית וְהַשּׁוֹטָה וְהַחֵרֶשֶׁת. וּמִי שֶׁיָּצָא עָלֶיהָ שֵׁם רַע בְּיַלְדוּתָהּ וּבָאוּ שְׁנַיִם וְהֵעִידוּ שֶׁתָּבְעָה אוֹתָן לִזְנוֹת עִמָּהּ. וְהַמְגֹרֶשֶׁת מִן הַנִּשּׂוּאִין וַעֲדַיִן הִיא נַעֲרָה בְּתוּלָה. אֲבָל הַמְגֹרֶשֶׁת מִן הָאֵרוּסִין אִם נֶאֶנְסָה יֵשׁ לָהּ קְנָס וּקְנָסָהּ לְעַצְמָהּ. וְאִם נִתְפַּתְּתָה אֵין לָהּ קְנָס:

Whether she has a father or doesn't have a father there still is the fine. These women do not collect the fine: a bogeres (twelve and a half), a girl who has dissolved a marriage via mi'un, a woman who does not display biologically mature female characteristics, a mentally incompetent girl, a deaf mute, and a girl who had a bad name (ie reputation) when she was younger and two witnesses testified that she wanted to engage in relations with them, and a woman divorced from nisuin (chuppah, final stage of marriage) who is still a virgin maiden. However a woman divorced from eirusin (engagement, first part of marriage) if she was raped she's eligible to receive the fine, and she keeps the payment of the fine. However if she was seduced she's not entitled to the fine.

10 י

הַגִּיֹּרֶת וְהַשְּׁבוּיָה וְהַמְשֻׁחְרֶרֶת אִם נִתְגַּיְּרָה וְנִפְדֵית וְנִשְׁתַּחְרְרָה וְהִיא בַּת שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים אוֹ פָּחוֹת יֵשׁ לָהּ קְנָס. וְאִם הָיְתָה בַּת שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד כְּשֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרָה אוֹ כְּשֶׁנִּפְדֵּית אוֹ כְּשֶׁנִּשְׁתַּחְרְרָה אֵין לָהּ קְנָס הוֹאִיל וּבִיאָתָן בִּיאָה הֲרֵי הֵן כִּבְעוּלוֹת:

A convert, a girl who was taken captive, and a freed maidservant- if they converted, were redeemed or freed and she is three years old or less she can collect the fine. If she was three years old and a one day [ie older] when she converted, was freed, or redeemed she is not eligible to collect the fine. Since relations she has after this age are considered significant, she is like other non-virgins.

11 יא

הָיְתָה בְּתוּלָה זוֹ אֲסוּרָה עַל הָאוֹנֵס אוֹ הַמְפַתֶּה אִם הָיְתָה אַחַת מֵחַיָּבֵי כְּרֵתוֹת כְּגוֹן אֲחוֹתוֹ אוֹ דּוֹדָתוֹ וְהַנִּדָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה מֵחַיָּבֵי לָאוִין אִם הִתְרוּ בּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם קְנָס שֶׁאֵין אָדָם לוֹקֶה וּמְשַׁלֵּם. וְאִם לֹא הָיְתָה שָׁם הַתְרָאָה הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב מַלְקוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה מְשַׁלֵּם קְנָס:

If the virgin maiden was forbidden to the rapist or the seducer- if this prohibition's punishment was kareis, for example: his sister, his aunt, a niddah or similar types of unions- or she was forbidden to him due to a negative commandment [ie one that does not carry with it the penalty of kareis or death] if he was warned, he is administered lashes and doesn't pay the fine since a person isn't punished via both lashes and a monetary payment. However, if he was not warned, since he isn't liable for lashes he does pay the fine.

12 יב

הָיְתָה מֵחַיָּבֵי עֲשֵׂה אוֹ שְׁנִיָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁאֲסוּרָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. בֵּין הִתְרוּ בּוֹ בֵּין לֹא הִתְרוּ בּוֹ חַיָּב בִּקְנָס שֶׁאֵין כָּאן מַלְקוֹת:

If the woman was forbidden to him due to a positive commandment, or she was a sh'niyah or something similar that made her forbidden due to a Rabbinic enactment, whether he was or wasn't warned he is obligated to pay the fine since in these cases there is no punishment via lashes.

13 יג

הָיְתָה מֵחַיָּבֵי מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין כְּגוֹן בִּתּוֹ וְאֵשֶׁת בְּנוֹ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן בֵּין הִתְרוּ בּוֹ בֵּין לֹא הִתְרוּ בּוֹ פָּטוּר מִן הַקְּנָס שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כא כב) "וְלֹא יִהְיֶה אָסוֹן עָנוֹשׁ יֵעָנֵשׁ" הָא אִם הָיָה שָׁם אָסוֹן אֵין שָׁם עֹנֶשׁ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֲרִיגַת הָאִשָּׁה בִּשְׁגָגָה שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִתְכַּוְּנוּ לָהּ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כא כב) "כִּי יִנָּצוּ אֲנָשִׁים וְנָגְפוּ אִשָּׁה" הָא לָמַדְתָּ שֶׁלֹּא חִלֵּק הַכָּתוּב בְּאָסוֹן בֵּין שׁוֹגֵג לְמֵזִיד לְפָטְרוֹ מִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין. וַהֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר (ויקרא כד יח) "מַכֵּה נֶפֶשׁ בְּהֵמָה יְשַׁלְּמֶנָּה" (ויקרא כד כא) "וּמַכֵּה אָדָם יוּמָת" מָה מַכֵּה נֶפֶשׁ בְּהֵמָה לֹא חִלֵּק הַכָּתוּב בֵּין שׁוֹגֵג לְמֵזִיד לְחַיְּבוֹ בְּתַשְׁלוּמִין אַף מַכֵּה נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם לֹא חִלֵּק הַכָּתוּב בֵּין שׁוֹגֵג לְמֵזִיד לְפָטְרוֹ מִן הַתַּשְׁלוּמִין:

If the woman was forbidden to him due to a punishment of death by Beis Din, for example: his daughter, daughter-in-law, or similar- whether he was or wasn't warned he is exempt from paying the fine, as it states (Exodus 21:22): "If there will not be a [fatal] accident, he should be punished" the implication being that there was a fatal accident, no punishment would be administered. Even though this woman was killed unintentionally, the man didn't intend [to hurt] her as it is written [Ibid.]: "When men fight, and one of them pushes a woman" we learn from here that the Torah doesn't differentiate between an intentional and unintentional action to exempt him from a monetary obligation. And it says (Leviticus 24:18): "A person who fatally strikes an animal shall reimburse", and (Leviticus 24:21): "one who fatally strikes a person shall die." Just as by the killing of an animal the Torah didn't differentiate between an intentional and unintentional action regarding him be make him liable for payment, so too by the killing a person the Torah didn't differentiate between an intentional and unintentional to exempt him from payment.

14 יד

וְכֵן הַדִּין לְכָל עֲבֵרָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ תַּשְׁלוּמִין:

And this is the law regarding every transgression that carries a punishment of death by Beis Din- there is no financial obligation.

15 טו

בָּא עָלֶיהָ וּמֵתָה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַקְּנָס שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב כט) "וְנָתַן הָאִישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵב עִמָּהּ לַאֲבִי הַנַּעֲרָה" לֹא לַאֲבִי הַמֵּתָה. וְהוּא שֶׁתָּמוּת קֹדֶם שֶׁתַּעֲמֹד בַּדִּין:

If [the rapist or seducer] has relations with her and she dies, he is exempt from the fine, as it states (Deuteronomy 22:29): "the man who lay with her must give to the maiden's father"and not "the father of the dead maiden." This case is referring to when she died before the case would be brought to court.