Chapter 5ה׳
1 א

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָדָם מְצֻוֶּה בִּכְבוֹד אָבִיו וְיִרְאָתוֹ כָּךְ הוּא חַיָּב בִּכְבוֹד רַבּוֹ וְיִרְאָתוֹ יֶתֶר מֵאָבִיו. שֶׁאָבִיו מְבִיאוֹ לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְרַבּוֹ שֶׁלִּמְּדוֹ חָכְמָה מְבִיאוֹ לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. רָאָה אֲבֵדַת אָבִיו וַאֲבֵדַת רַבּוֹ שֶׁל רַבּוֹ קוֹדֶמֶת לְשֶׁל אָבִיו. אָבִיו וְרַבּוֹ נוֹשְׂאִים בְּמַשָּׂא מֵנִיחַ אֶת שֶׁל רַבּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ שֶׁל אָבִיו. אָבִיו וְרַבּוֹ שְׁבוּיִים בַּשִּׁבְיָה פּוֹדֶה אֶת רַבּוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ פּוֹדֶה אֶת אָבִיו. וְאִם הָיָה אָבִיו תַּלְמִיד חָכָם פּוֹדֶה אֶת אָבִיו תְּחִלָּה. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה אָבִיו תַּלְמִיד חָכָם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׁקוּל כְּנֶגֶד רַבּוֹ מֵשִׁיב אֲבֵדָתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵשִׁיב אֲבֵדַת רַבּוֹ. וְאֵין לְךָ כָּבוֹד גָּדוֹל מִכְּבוֹד הָרַב וְלֹא מוֹרָא מִמּוֹרָא הָרַב. אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים (משנה אבות ד יב) "מוֹרָא רַבָּךְ כְּמוֹרָא שָׁמַיִם". לְפִיכָךְ אָמְרוּ כָּל הַחוֹלֵק עַל רַבּוֹ כְּחוֹלֵק עַל הַשְּׁכִינָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כו ט) "בְּהַצֹּתָם עַל ה'". וְכָל הָעוֹשֶׂה מְרִיבָה עִם רַבּוֹ כְּעוֹשֶׂה מְרִיבָה עִם הַשְּׁכִינָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כ יג) "אֲשֶׁר רָבוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת ה' וַיִּקָּדֵשׁ בָּם". וְכָל הַמִּתְרַעֵם עַל רַבּוֹ כְּמִתְרַעֵם עַל ה' שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות טז ח) "לֹא עָלֵינוּ תְלֻנֹתֵיכֶם כִּי עַל ה'". וְכָל הַמְהַרְהֵר אַחַר רַבּוֹ כְּאִלּוּ מְהַרְהֵר אַחַר שְׁכִינָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כא ה) "וַיְדַבֵּר הָעָם בֵּאלֹהִים וּבְמשֶׁה":

Even as a man is under command to honor his father and fear him, so is he obliged to honor his master, but fear him yet more than his father; his father brought him to life upon this world but his master who taught him wisdom, brings him to life in the world to come. If he chances upon a lost article of his father and a lost article of his master, reclaiming that of his master precedes the one of his father. If his father and his master are burdened with a load, he should unburden the load of his master first and then that of his father. If his father and his master be incarcerated in a prison, he should free the master first and afterward free his father. If his father was a disciple of the wise, he should free his father first. Likewise if his father be a disciple of the wise, even though not weighty alongside his master, he should reclaim the lost article of his father first and after that reclaim the lost article of his master. There is no honor greater than the honor due a master, nor awe greater than the awe due a master. The sages said: "The awe of thy master is likened to the awe of Him Who is in heaven." (Pirke Abot, 4.15). They have, therefore, said: "He who differs with his master is likened unto one who differs with the Shekinah, even as it is said: 'When they strove against God'" (Num. 26.9; Sanhedrin, 110a). Whosoever strives with his master is like unto one who strives against the Shekinah, even as it is said: "Where the children of Israel strove with the Lord and He was sanctified in them" (Ibid. 20.13); and whosoever murmurs against his master is like unto one who murmurs against the Lord, even as it is said: "Your murmurs are not against us, but against the Lord" (Ex. 16.8); and whosoever has suspicious thoughts against his master is like unto one who has suspicious thoughts against the Shekinah, as it is said: "And the people spoke against God and against Moses" (Num. 25).1Baba Mezi’a, 33a; Horayot, 14b; The text herein is that of the Talmud Yer. C. G.

2 ב

אֵיזֶהוּ חוֹלֵק עַל רַבּוֹ. זֶה שֶׁקּוֹבֵעַ לוֹ מִדְרָשׁ וְיוֹשֵׁב וְדוֹרֵשׁ וּמְלַמֵּד שֶׁלֹּא בִּרְשׁוּת רַבּוֹ וְרַבּוֹ קַיָּם וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרַבּוֹ בִּמְדִינָה אַחֶרֶת. וְאָסוּר לָאָדָם לְהוֹרוֹת בִּפְנֵי רַבּוֹ לְעוֹלָם. וְכָל הַמּוֹרֶה הֲלָכָה בִּפְנֵי רַבּוֹ חַיָּב מִיתָה:

Who is considered differing from his master? It is he who establishes by himself a school and settles down to preach and instruct without having authority from his master to do so, and his master is living, even though in another state. It is even forbidden to render a decision in the presence of one's master, and whosoever renders a decision in the presence of his master is guilty of an offense punishable by death.2Sanhedrin, 5b; Erubin, 62b and 63a. Such disciple is considered a rebel.C.G.

3 ג

הָיָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין רַבּוֹ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר מִיל וְשָׁאַל לוֹ אָדָם דְּבַר הֲלָכָה מֻתָּר לְהָשִׁיב. וּלְהַפְרִישׁ מִן הָאִסּוּר אֲפִלּוּ בִּפְנֵי רַבּוֹ מֻתָּר לְהוֹרוֹת. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁרָאָה אָדָם עוֹשֶׂה דָּבָר הָאָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָדַע בְּאִסּוּרוֹ אוֹ מִפְּנֵי רִשְׁעוֹ יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהַפְרִישׁוֹ וְלוֹמַר לוֹ דָּבָר זֶה אָסוּר וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּפְנֵי רַבּוֹ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן לוֹ רַבּוֹ רְשׁוּת. שֶׁכָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ חִלּוּל הַשֵּׁם אֵין חוֹלְקִין כָּבוֹד לָרַב. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים. בְּדָבָר שֶׁנִּקְרָה מִקְרֶה. אֲבָל לִקְבֹּעַ עַצְמוֹ לְהוֹרָאָה וְלֵישֵׁב וּלְהוֹרוֹת לְכָל שׁוֹאֵל אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בְּסוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְרַבּוֹ בְּסוֹף הָעוֹלָם אָסוּר לוֹ לְהוֹרוֹת עַד שֶׁיָּמוּת רַבּוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נָטַל רְשׁוּת מֵרַבּוֹ. וְלֹא כָּל מִי שֶׁמֵּת רַבּוֹ מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵישֵׁב וּלְהוֹרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה תַּלְמִיד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְהוֹרָאָה:

If the distance between one and his master be twelve miles, and a man asked him a question, he is permitted to answer it. To separate one from committing a forbidden act, one may decide even in the presence of his master. For instance? Suppose he saw a man doing something which is really forbidden, because he did not know that it is forbidden, or because of his wickedness, he has authority to prevent him from doing it, and say to him: "This act is forbidden," even in the presence of his master, and even though his master did not give him the authority to act, for wherever there is a likelihood that the Name would be blasphemed, no honor is meted out to a master. Whereat are these words said? Only in matters which come to pass incidentally, but for one to establish himself for the purpose of rendering decisions, and to sit in a master's chair and render decisions to everyone who may ask of him, even though he be in one end of the world and his master be in the other end of the world, it is forbidden to do so prior to his master's demise, unless he obtained authority from his master. But not everyone whose master died may occupy a master's seat and teach the Torah, save if he be a disciple who attained judicial rank.3Sanhedrin, 5b; See Berakot, 63a and b. C. G.

4 ד

וְכָל תַּלְמִיד שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ לְהוֹרָאָה וּמוֹרֶה הֲרֵי זֶה רָשָׁע שׁוֹטֶה וְגַס הָרוּחַ. וְעָלָיו נֶאֱמַר (משלי ז כו) "כִּי רַבִּים חֲלָלִים הִפִּילָה" וְגוֹ'. וְכֵן חָכָם שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְהוֹרָאָה וְאֵינוֹ מוֹרֶה הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹנֵעַ תּוֹרָה וְנוֹתֵן מִכְשׁוֹלוֹת לִפְנֵי הָעִוְּרִים וְעָלָיו נֶאֱמַר (משלי ז כו) "וַעֲצֻמִים כָּל הֲרֻגֶיהָ". אֵלּוּ הַתַּלְמִידִים הַקְּטַנִּים שֶׁלֹּא הִרְבּוּ תּוֹרָה כָּרָאוּי וְהֵם מְבַקְּשִׁים לְהִתְגַּדֵּל בִּפְנֵי עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ וּבֵין אַנְשֵׁי עִירָם וְקוֹפְצִין וְיוֹשְׁבִין בָּרֹאשׁ לְדִין וּלְהוֹרוֹת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל הֵם הַמַּרְבִּים הַמַּחֲלֹקֶת וְהֵם הַמַּחֲרִיבִים אֶת הָעוֹלָם וְהַמְכַבִּין נֵרָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה וְהַמְחַבְּלִים כֶּרֶם ה' צְבָאוֹת. עֲלֵיהֶם אָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה בְּחָכְמָתוֹ (שיר השירים ב טו) "אֶחֱזוּ לָנוּ שׁוּעָלִים שׁוּעָלִים קְטַנִּים מְחַבְּלִים כְּרָמִים":

A student who did not attain judicial rank but renders decisions behold him, he is a wicked, arrogant fool, of whom it is said: "For she hath cast down many wounded" (Prov. 7.26). Likewise a sage who attained judicial rank but does not render decisions, behold him, he is withholding the Torah, and distributes obstacles in the path of the blind, concerning whom it is said: "Yea, many strong men have been slain by her" (Ibid.). Those petty students who have not increased their knowledge of the Torah as they should and yet are seeking to appear great before the ignorant, and among their towns-people, jumping forward to occupy a front seat to judge and instruct among Israel, are the ones who multiply strife, and the ones who destroy the world, who extinguish the light of the Torah, and despoil the vineyard of the Lord of Hosts, concerning whom Solomon in his wisdom said: "Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vineyards". (Song of Songs, 2.15.).4Abodah Zarah, 22b; Sotah, 19a.

5 ה

וְאָסוּר לוֹ לְתַלְמִיד לִקְרוֹת לְרַבּוֹ בִּשְׁמוֹ וַאֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בְּפָנָיו. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַשֵּׁם פֶּלְאִי שֶׁכָּל הַשּׁוֹמֵעַ יֵדַע שֶׁהוּא פְּלוֹנִי. וְלֹא יַזְכִּיר שְׁמוֹ בְּפָנָיו וַאֲפִלּוּ לִקְרוֹת לַאֲחֵרִים שֶׁשְּׁמָם כְּשֵׁם רַבּוֹ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בְּשֵׁם אָבִיו. אֶלָּא יְשַׁנֶּה אֶת שְׁמָם אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר מוֹתָם. וְלֹא יִתֵּן שָׁלוֹם לְרַבּוֹ אוֹ יַחֲזִיר לוֹ שָׁלוֹם כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנּוֹתְנִים לְרֵעִים וּמַחֲזִירִים זֶה לָזֶה. אֶלָּא שׁוֹחֶה לְפָנָיו וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ בְּיִרְאָה וְכָבוֹד שָׁלוֹם עָלֶיךָ רַבִּי. וְאִם נָתַן לוֹ רַבּוֹ שָׁלוֹם יַחֲזִיר לוֹ שָׁלוֹם עָלֶיךָ רַבִּי וּמוֹרִי:

A student is forbidden to call his master by name even out of his presence, provided the name be of note that whosoever hears it will know that it is he; neither should he mention his name in his presence, nor even call others whose name are identical with the name of his master, even as one does with respect to the name of his father; but he should always refer to them with a pseudonym even after their demise. He must not salute his master or return salutation in a manner companions give and return among themselves. The manner to salute a master is to bow before him and say to him in tones of awe and respect: "Peace be unto thee, my master!" If his master saluted him first, he should answer him: "Peace be unto thee, my lord and my teacher.5Sanhedrin, 100a; Kiddushin, 31b and 32a; Berakot, 28b. C. G.

6 ו

וְכֵן לֹא יַחֲלֹץ תְּפִלָּיו לִפְנֵי רַבּוֹ. וְלֹא יָסֵב אֶלָּא יוֹשֵׁב כְּיוֹשֵׁב לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ. וְלֹא יִתְפַּלֵּל לֹא לִפְנֵי רַבּוֹ וְלֹא לְאַחַר רַבּוֹ וְלֹא בְּצַד רַבּוֹ. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ לְהַלֵּךְ בְּצִדּוֹ. אֶלָּא יִתְרַחֵק לְאַחַר רַבּוֹ וְלֹא יְהֵא מְכַוֵּן כְּנֶגֶד אֲחוֹרָיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְפַּלֵּל. וְלֹא יִכָּנֵס עִם רַבּוֹ בַּמֶּרְחָץ. וְלֹא יֵשֵׁב בִּמְקוֹם רַבּוֹ. וְלֹא יַכְרִיעַ דְּבָרָיו בְּפָנָיו. וְלֹא יִסְתֹּר אֶת דְּבָרָיו. וְלֹא יֵשֵׁב לְפָנָיו עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר לוֹ שֵׁב. וְלֹא יַעֲמֹד מִלְּפָנָיו עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר לוֹ עֲמֹד אוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּטּל רְשׁוּת לַעֲמֹד. וּכְשֶׁיִּפָּטֵר מֵרַבּוֹ לֹא יַחֲזֹר לוֹ לַאֲחוֹרָיו אֶלָּא נִרְתָּע לַאֲחוֹרָיו וּפָנָיו כְּנֶגֶד פָּנָיו:

So should he not remove his phylacteries in the presence of his master, and not lean but sit as if he were sitting in the presence of a king. He should not pray in front of his master, back of his master, or by the side of his master; needless to say, that he is forbidden to walk beside him. But he should distance himself behind his master, yet not straight back of him, when after he may pray. He should not enter a bath-house together with his master, and not sit in his master's place, and neither decide an argument in his favor when he is present nor destroy his argument. He should not sit in his presence until he will tell him to sit down, nor stand up before him until he will tell him to stand up or until he will obtain permission to stand up. When he is to take leave from his master he should not turn around with his back to his master, but step backwards, his face toward his master's face.6Sanhedrin, 101b; Pesahim, 51a; Kiddushin, 31b; Yoma, 53a; Berakot, 28b. C. G.

7 ז

וְחַיָּב לַעֲמֹד מִפְּנֵי רַבּוֹ מִשֶּׁיִּרְאֶנּוּ מֵרָחוֹק מְלֹא עֵינָיו עַד שֶׁיִּתְכַּסֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא יִרְאֶה קוֹמָתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֵשֵׁב. וְחַיָּב אָדָם לְהַקְבִּיל פְּנֵי רַבּוֹ בָּרֶגֶל:

He is obliged to rise up before his master when he will behold his approach from as far a distance as his eyes can see and remain standing until his master's figure will disappear; but he must not behold his full figure pass by and immediately thereafter sit down. A man is obliged to visit his master on a holiday.7Kiddushin, 32a; Sukkah, 27b. C.

8 ח

אֵין חוֹלְקִין כָּבוֹד לְתַלְמִיד בִּפְנֵי רַבּוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן דֶּרֶךְ רַבּוֹ לַחֲלֹק לוֹ כָּבוֹד. וְכָל הַמְּלָאכוֹת שֶׁהָעֶבֶד עוֹשֶׂה לְרַבּוֹ תַּלְמִיד עוֹשֶׂה לְרַבּוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מַכִּירִין אוֹתוֹ וְלֹא הָיוּ לוֹ תְּפִלִּין וְחָשׁ שֶׁמָּא יֹאמְרוּ עֶבֶד הוּא אֵינוֹ נוֹעֵל לוֹ מִנְעָלוֹ וְאֵינוֹ חוֹלְצוֹ. וְכָל הַמּוֹנֵעַ תַּלְמִידוֹ מִלְּשַׁמְּשׁוֹ מוֹנֵעַ מִמֶּנּוּ חֶסֶד וּפוֹרֵק מִמֶּנּוּ יִרְאַת שָׁמַיִם. וְכָל תַּלְמִיד שֶׁמְּזַלְזֵל דָּבָר מִכָּל כְּבוֹד רַבּוֹ גּוֹרֵם לַשְּׁכִינָה שֶׁתִּסְתַּלֵּק מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל:

No deference should be given to a student in the presence of his master unless it was the custom of his master to treat him with deference. All manner of work which a man servant does for his master a student should do for his master. If, however, he happened to be in a place where he is unknown and he had no phylacteries on himself, fearing lest he be mistaken for a slave, he is not obliged to buckle on or remove his master's shoes. Whosoever prevents his disciples from rendering him service, deprives him of loving kindness and unyokes him of the fear of Him Who is in heaven. Any student who makes light of aught of all things pertaining to the honor of his master, causes the Shekinah to be removed from among Israel.8Baba Batra, 119a; Ketubot, 96b; Berakot, 26a. C.

9 ט

רָאָה רַבּוֹ עוֹבֵר עַל דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה אוֹמֵר לוֹ לִמַּדְתָּנוּ רַבֵּנוּ כָּךְ וְכָךְ. וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁמַּזְכִּיר שְׁמוּעָה בְּפָנָיו אוֹמֵר לוֹ כָּךְ לִמַּדְתָּנוּ רַבֵּנוּ. וְאַל יֹאמַר דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַע מֵרַבּוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּזְכִּיר שֵׁם אוֹמְרוֹ. וּכְשֶׁיָּמוּת רַבּוֹ קוֹרֵעַ כָּל בְּגָדָיו עַד שֶׁהוּא מְגַלֶּה אֶת לִבּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְאַחֶה לְעוֹלָם. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּרַבּוֹ מֻבְהָק שֶׁלָּמַד מִמֶּנּוּ רֹב חָכְמָתוֹ. אֲבָל אִם לֹא לָמַד מִמֶּנּוּ רֹב חָכְמָתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה תַּלְמִיד חָבֵר וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בִּכְבוֹדוֹ בְּכָל אֵלּוּ הַדְּבָרִים. אֲבָל עוֹמֵד מִלְּפָנָיו וְקוֹרֵעַ עָלָיו כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהוּא קוֹרֵעַ עַל כָּל הַמֵּתִים שֶׁהוּא מִתְאַבֵּל עֲלֵיהֶם. אֲפִלּוּ לֹא לָמַד מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא דָּבָר אֶחָד בֵּין קָטָן בֵּין גָּדוֹל עוֹמֵד מִלְּפָנָיו וְקוֹרֵעַ עָלָיו:

If one beholds his master transgressing the words of the Torah, he should say to him: "Our master, you have instructed us such and thus." Whenever he quotes a lecture in the presence of his master, he should say: "So have you, our master, instructed us." He must not repeat aught of his master's teachings unless he mentions the name of the one who said it. At the demise of his master, he should rend all of his garments until his chest be exposed, and he should never mend the garments. Whereat are these words directed? Only respecting his true master, of whom he learned most of his wisdom; but if he did not learn from him most of his wisdom, behold, he is no more to him than a fellow student and is not obliged to honor him in all the aforesaid matters. Nevertheless, he should rise before him, and at his demise, he should rend the garment even as he does rend at the demise of all whose loss he mourns. Even if one did not learn from his master but one word whether of great or of small importance, he should rise before him during his life-time and rend his garments at his demise.9Kiddushin, 32a; Berakot, 27b; Mo’ed Katan, 27a; Baba Mezi’a, 33a. C.

10 י

וְכָל תַּלְמִיד חָכָם שֶׁדֵּעוֹתָיו מְכֻוָּנוֹת אֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר בִּפְנֵי מִי שֶׁהוּא גָּדוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּחָכְמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא לָמַד מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלוּם:

Moreover, every disciple of the wise, of proper ideas does not speak in the presence of him who is greater than himself in wisdom, although he learned nothing at all from him.10Pir. Ab. 5. 10 C.

11 יא

הָרַב הַמֻּבְהָק שֶׁרָצָה לִמְחל עַל כְּבוֹדוֹ בְּכָל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ אוֹ בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן לְכָל תַּלְמִידָיו אוֹ לְאֶחָד מֵהֶן הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמָּחַל חַיָּב הַתַּלְמִיד לְהַדְּרוֹ וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמָּחַל:

An accredited Rabbi who desires to forego all of these attentions pertaining to his honor, or one of them, either to all of his disciples or to one of them, the discretion is in his own power. Nevertheless, the disciple is obliged to adore him even at the very time when he foregoes all honor due to him.11Kiddushin, 32b. C.

12 יב

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהַתַּלְמִידִים חַיָּבִין בִּכְבוֹד הָרַב כָּךְ הָרַב צָרִיךְ לְכַבֵּד אֶת תַּלְמִידָיו וּלְקָרְבָן. כָּךְ אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים (משנה אבות ד יב) "יְהִי כְּבוֹד תַּלְמִידְךָ חָבִיב עָלֶיךָ כְּשֶׁלְּךָ". וְצָרִיךְ אָדָם לְהִזָּהֵר בְּתַלְמִידָיו וּלְאָהֳבָם שֶׁהֵם הַבָּנִים הַמְהַנִּים לָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְלָעוֹלָם הַבָּא:

Even as the students are obliged to honor the master, so is the master obliged to treat his disciples with deference and to draw them near himself. Thus said the sages: "Ever let the honor of thy disciple be dear unto thee even as thine own." (Pirke Abot, 4.15). And it is essential for a man to care for his disciples and to love them, for they are the sons who make life enjoyable, both, in this world and in the world to come.

13 יג

הַתַּלְמִידִים מוֹסִיפִין חָכְמַת הָרַב וּמַרְחִיבִין לִבּוֹ. אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים הַרְבֵּה חָכְמָה לָמַדְתִּי מֵרַבּוֹתַי וְיוֹתֵר מֵחֲבֵרַי וּמִתַּלְמִידַי יוֹתֵר מִכֻּלָּם. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁעֵץ קָטָן מַדְלִיק אֶת הַגָּדוֹל כָּךְ תַּלְמִיד קָטָן מְחַדֵּד הָרַב עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ בִּשְׁאֵלוֹתָיו חָכְמָה מְפֹאָרָה:

The students increase the master's wisdom and broaden his heart. The sages said: "Much wisdom have I learned from my masters, more than that from my colleagues, but from my disciples more than from all of them combined." (Ta'anit, 7a). Even as a little fagot kindles the big one, so a small disciple sharpens the mind of the master to the end that he brings forth from him by his questions a beautified wisdom.13Makkot, 10a; Ta’anit 7b. C. G.