Chapter 8ח׳
1 א

הַחוֹרֵשׁ כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב. הַמְנַכֵּשׁ בְּעִקְּרֵי הָאִילָנוֹת וְהַמְקַרְסֵם עֲשָׂבִים אוֹ הַמְזָרֵד אֶת הַשָּׂרִיגִים כְּדֵי לְיַפּוֹת אֶת הַקַּרְקַע הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת חוֹרֵשׁ וּמִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב. וְכֵן הַמַּשְׁוֶה פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִשְׁפִּיל הַתֵּל וְרִדְּדוֹ אוֹ מִלֵּא הַגַּיְא חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם חוֹרֵשׁ. וְשִׁעוּרוֹ כָּל שֶׁהוּא. וְכֵן כָּל הַמַּשְׁוֶה גֻּמּוֹת שִׁעוּרוֹ כָּל שֶׁהוּא:

1 One who plows a minimal amount is liable. One who weeds around tree roots, one who removes grass and one who prunes twigs to beautify the land are surely [doing] a subcategory of plowing; so from when he does a minimal amount, he is liable. Likewise, one who evens out the surface of a field – such as one who lowered a mound and flattened it or one who filled in a gully – is liable on account of plowing, and its [requisite] amount is a minimal amount. Likewise the [requisite] amount for anyone who evens out hole is a minimal amount.

2 ב

הַזּוֹרֵעַ כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב. הַזּוֹמֵר אֶת הָאִילָן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּצְמַח הֲרֵי זֶה מֵעֵין זוֹרֵעַ. אֲבָל הַמַּשְׁקֶה צְמָחִין וְאִילָנוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת זוֹרֵעַ וְחַיָּב בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. וְכֵן הַשּׁוֹרֶה חִטִּין וּשְׂעוֹרִין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן בַּמַּיִם הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת זוֹרֵעַ וְחַיָּב בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא:

2 One who sows a minimal amount is liable. One who prunes a tree in order for it to grow is surely [doing a] derivative of sowing. But one who waters plants and trees on Shabbat is surely [doing a] subcategory of sowing, so he is [also] liable with a minimal amount. Likewise, one who soaks wheat and barley and that which is similar to them in water is surely [doing a] subcategory of sowing, so he is liable with a minimal amount.

3 ג

הַקּוֹצֵר כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת חַיָּב. וְתוֹלֵשׁ תּוֹלֶדֶת קוֹצֵר הוּא. וְכָל הָעוֹקֵר דָּבָר מִגִּדּוּלוֹ חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם קוֹצֵר. לְפִיכָךְ צְרוֹר שֶׁעָלוּ בּוֹ עֲשָׂבִים וּכְשׁוּת שֶׁעָלָה בַּסְּנֶה וַעֲשָׂבִים שֶׁצָּמְחוּ עַל גַּב הֶחָבִית. הַתּוֹלֵשׁ מֵהֶן חַיָּב שֶׁזֶּה הוּא מְקוֹם גִּדּוּלָן. אֲבָל הַתּוֹלֵשׁ מֵעָצִיץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב פָּטוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין זֶה מְקוֹם גִּדּוּלוֹ. וְעָצִיץ נָקוּב בִּכְדֵי שֹׁרֶשׁ קָטָן הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאֶרֶץ וְהַתּוֹלֵשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ חַיָּב:

3 One who reaps [something] the size of a dried fig is liable. And one who severs [a plant] is [doing a] subcategory of reaping. And anyone who uproots something from [the source of] its growth is liable for reaping. Hence one who severs grass from a rock, dodder that grew on a bush or grass that grew on top of a barrel is liable – as this the place of their growth. But one who severs [a plant] from a pot without a hole is exempt, as this is not the place of its growth. However one who severs [it] from a pot with a hole [big enough] for a small root is liable – since it is surely like the ground.

4 ד

כָּל זֶרַע שֶׁקְּצִירָתוֹ מַצְמַחַת אוֹתוֹ וּמְגַדַּלְתּוֹ כְּגוֹן אַסְפַּסְתָּא וְסִלְקָא. הַקּוֹצְרוֹ בִּשְׁגָגָה חַיָּב שְׁתֵּי חַטָּאוֹת. אַחַת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא קוֹצֵר וְאַחַת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא נוֹטֵעַ. וְכֵן הַזּוֹמֵר וְהוּא צָרִיךְ לָעֵצִים חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם קוֹצֵר וּמִשּׁוּם נוֹטֵעַ. גַּבְשׁוּשִׁית שֶׁל עָפָר שֶׁעָלוּ בָּהּ עֲשָׂבִים, הִגְבִּיהָהּ מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ וְהִנִּיחָהּ עַל גַּבֵּי יְתֵדוֹת חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם תּוֹלֵשׁ. הָיְתָה עַל גַּבֵּי יְתֵדוֹת וְהִנִּיחָהּ עַל הָאָרֶץ חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם זוֹרֵעַ. תְּאֵנִים שֶׁיָּבְשׁוּ בְּאִבֵּיהֶן וְכֵן אִילָן שֶׁיָּבְשׁוּ פֵּרוֹתָיו בּוֹ. הַתּוֹלֵשׁ מֵהֶן בְּשַׁבָּת חַיָּב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן כַּעֲקוּרִין לְעִנְיַן טֻמְאָה:

4 One who inadvertently reaps any plant, the reaping of which makes it flourish and grow – such as alfalfa or beets – is liable for two sin-offerings. One is on account that he is reaping and [the other] is on account that he is planting. Likewise one who reaps and needs the wood [of the branches] that he cuts is liable on account of harvesting and on account of planting. [If] one lifted a clod of dirt upon which grass grew from the ground and placed it on stakes, he is liable on account of severing. If it was on the stakes and he put on the ground, he is liable on account of planting. One who on Shabbat severs figs that have dried in their source (the tree), and likewise the fruit of any tree that has dried upon it, is liable – even though they are [considered] uprooted regarding impurity.

5 ה

הַתּוֹלֵשׁ עֻלְשִׁין הַמְזָרֵד זְרָדִין. אִם לַאֲכִילָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. וְאִם לִבְהֵמָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כִּמְלוֹא פִּי גְּדִי. וְאִם לְהַסָּקָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל בֵּיצָה. הַמְעַמֵּר אֳכָלִין אִם לַאֲכִילָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. וְאִם עִמֵּר לִבְהֵמָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כִּמְלוֹא פִּי גְּדִי. וְאִם לְהַסָּקָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל בֵּיצָה. וּבֵיצָה הָאֲמוּרָה בְּכָל מָקוֹם הִיא בֵּיצָה בֵּינוֹנִית שֶׁל תַּרְנְגוֹלִין. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל בֵּיצָה הוּא כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת מִבֵּיצָה וּגְרוֹגֶרֶת אֶחָד מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה בְּבֵיצָה. וְאֵין עִמּוּר אֶלָּא בְּגִדּוּלֵי קַרְקַע:

5 [In the case of] one who severs endives [or] who prunes reeds: If he does it for eating [by humans], its [requisite] amount is like a dried fig. But if it is for an animal [to eat], its amount] is the fill of a small goat’s mouth. And if it was for burning (fuel), its amount is enough to cook an egg. [In the case of] one who binds edibles: If he does it for eating [by humans], its [requisite] amount is like a dried fig. But if he bound [it] for an animal [to eat], its amount is the fill of a small goat’s mouth. And if it was for burning, its amount is enough to cook an egg. And the egg that is mentioned in every place is a medium egg of a chicken. And every places that it says, “enough to cook an egg,” it [means] enough to cook the size of a dried fig from the egg. And the size of a dried fig is a third of an egg. And [the prohibition] of binding is only with that which grows from the ground.

6 ו

הַמְקַבֵּץ דְּבֵלָה וְעָשָׂה מִמֶּנָּה עִגּוּלָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּקֵּב תְּאֵנִים וְהִכְנִיס הַחֶבֶל בָּהֶן עַד שֶׁנִּתְקַבְּצוּ גּוּף אֶחָד. הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת מְעַמֵּר וְחַיָּב. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

6 One who gathers together a cake of dried figs and makes a circle from it or pierces dates and strings them together to the point that are gathered into one body is surely [doing] a subcategory of binding, so he is liable. And likewise anything that is similar to this.

7 ז

הַדָּשׁ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת חַיָּב וְאֵין דִּישָׁה אֶלָּא בְּגִדּוּלֵי קַרְקַע. וְהַמְפָרֵק הֲרֵי הִיא תּוֹלֶדֶת הַדָּשׁ וְחַיָּב וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. הַחוֹלֵב אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק וְכֵן הַחוֹבֵל בְּחַי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ עוֹר חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה צָרִיךְ לַדָּם שֶׁיֵּצֵא מִן הַחַבּוּרָה. אֲבָל אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַזִּיק בִּלְבַד פָּטוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְקַלְקֵל. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בַּדָּם אוֹ בַּחָלָב שֶׁהוֹצִיא כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת:

7 One who threshes [something] the size of a dried fig is liable. And [the prohibition] of threshing is only with that which grows from the ground. And one who extracts [something] is [doing] a subcategory of threshing, so he is liable. And likewise anything that is similar to this. One who milks an animal is liable on account of extracting. One who wounds something living that has a skin is likewise liable on account of extracting. And that is when he needs the blood that comes out from the wound. But if he only intended to damage [it], he is exempt – as he is destroying. And he is only liable once the blood or milk that he extracted is the amount of a dried fig.

8 ח

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּחוֹבֵל בִּבְהֵמָה וְחַיָּה וְעוֹף וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם. אֲבָל הַחוֹבֵל בַּחֲבֵרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לְהַזִּיק חַיָּב מִפְּנֵי נַחַת רוּחוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְקָרְרָה דַּעְתּוֹ וְשָׁכְכָה חֲמָתוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְתַקֵּן. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַדָּם שֶׁהוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ חַיָּב:

8 To what are these words applicable? To one who wounds a beast, an animal or a bird and what is similar to them. But one who wounds his fellow is liable – even though he intends to damage – because of his emotional satisfaction, for his mind is put at ease and his anger is assuaged. And so it is like he is improving [something]. And even though he does not need the blood that he extracts from him, he is liable.

9 ט

שְׁמוֹנָה שְׁרָצִים הָאֲמוּרִים בַּתּוֹרָה הֵן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶן עוֹרוֹת לְעִנְיַן שַׁבָּת כְּמוֹ חַיָּה וּבְהֵמָה וְעוֹף. אֲבָל שְׁאָר שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים אֵין לָהֶן עוֹר. לְפִיכָךְ הַחוֹבֵל בָּהֶן פָּטוּר. וְאֶחָד הַחוֹבֵל בִּבְהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף אוֹ בִּשְׁמוֹנָה שְׁרָצִים וְעָשָׂה בָּהֶן חַבּוּרָה וְיָצָא מֵהֶם דָּם אוֹ שֶׁנִּצְרַר הַדָּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא חַיָּב:

9 The eight swarming animals (sheratsim) that are mentioned in the Torah are ones that [are considered to] have skins with regards to Shabbat – like beasts, animals and birds. But other repugnant creatures and creeping things [are not considered to] have skins. Hence one who wounds them is exempt. And it is the same whether one wounds a beast, an animal, a bird or one of the eight swarming animals and blood comes out of them; or if the blood is [only] collected [internally to one spot], even though it does not come out – he is liable.

10 י

הַסּוֹחֵט אֶת הַפֵּרוֹת לְהוֹצִיא מֵימֵיהֶן חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְפָרֵק. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בַּמַּשְׁקִין שֶׁסָּחַט כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. וְאֵין חַיָּבִים מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא עַל דְּרִיכַת זֵיתִים וַעֲנָבִים בִּלְבַד. וּמֻתָּר לִסְחֹט אֶשְׁכּוֹל שֶׁל עֲנָבִים לְתוֹךְ הָאֹכֶל. שֶׁמַּשְׁקֶה הַבָּא לְאֹכֶל אֹכֶל הוּא וְנִמְצָא כִּמְפָרֵק אֹכֶל מֵאֹכֶל. אֲבָל אִם סָחַט לִכְלִי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אֹכֶל הֲרֵי זֶה דּוֹרֵךְ וְחַיָּב. וְהַחוֹלֵב לְתוֹךְ הָאֹכֶל אוֹ הַיּוֹנֵק בְּפִיו פָּטוּר וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּחֲלֹב לְתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי:

10 One who squeezes fruit to extract their juices is liable on account of extracting; and he is only liable once the liquids that he squeezed constitute the amount of a dried fig. And we are only liable from the Torah for the crushing of olives and grapes alone. But it is permissible to crush a cluster of grapes into [solid] food. For liquid that goes into food is food – and it comes out that he is extracting food from food [which is not true extraction]. However if he squeezes [it] into a vessel that has no food, he is surely crushing, so he is liable. And one who milks into food or suckles into his mouth is exempt; and he is only liable once he milks into a vessel.

11 יא

הַזּוֹרֶה אוֹ הַבּוֹרֵר כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת חַיָּב. וְהַמְחַבֵּץ הֲרֵי הוּא תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹרֵר. וְכֵן הַבּוֹרֵר שְׁמָרִים מִתּוֹךְ הַמַּשְׁקִין הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹרֵר אוֹ תּוֹלֶדֶת מְרַקֵּד וְחַיָּב. שֶׁהַזּוֹרֶה וְהַבּוֹרֵר וְהַמְרַקֵּד דּוֹמִין עִנְיְנֵיהֶם זֶה לָזֶה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה מָנוּ אוֹתָן בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּמִּשְׁכָּן מוֹנִין אוֹתָהּ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ:

11 One who winnows or sorts [something] the size of a dried fig is liable. And one who churns is surely [doing] a subcategory of sorting. Likewise one who sorts sediments from liquids is surely [doing] a subcategory of sorting or a subcategory of sifting, so he is liable. For the function of winnowing, sorting and sifting are similar to one another. [So] why did they count them as three [categories]? Because we count each type of work that was [done] in the [preparation of the] Tabernacle on its own.

12 יב

הַבּוֹרֵר אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ פְּסלֶת אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁנֵי מִינֵי אֳכָלִין וּבֵרֵר מִין מִמִּין אַחֵר בְּנָפָה וּבִכְבָרָה חַיָּב. בְּקָנוֹן אוֹ בְּתַמְחוּי פָּטוּר. וְאִם בֵּרֵר בְּיָדוֹ לֶאֱכל לְאַלְתַּר מֻתָּר:

12 [In the case of] one who sorts food from the residue, or one who sorts one type of food from another when there are two types in front of him: With a sieve or with a sifter, he is liable. [But] with a tray or with a plate, he is exempt. And if he sorted with his hand to eat immediately, it is permissible.

13 יג

וְהַבּוֹרֵר פְּסלֶת מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹכֶל וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּיָדוֹ אַחַת חַיָּב. וְהַבּוֹרֵר תֻּרְמוֹסִין מִתּוֹךְ פְּסלֶת שֶׁלָּהֶן חַיָּב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַפְּסלֶת שֶׁלָּהֶן מְמַתֶּקֶת אוֹתָן כְּשֶׁיִּשְׁלְקוּ אוֹתָן עִמָּהֶם וְנִמְצָא כְּבוֹרֵר פְּסלֶת מִתּוֹךְ אֹכֶל וְחַיָּב. הַבּוֹרֵר אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ פְּסלֶת בְּיָדוֹ לְהַנִּיחוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְבוֹ בַּיּוֹם נַעֲשָׂה כְּבוֹרֵר לָאוֹצָר וְחַיָּב. הָיוּ לְפָנָיו שְׁנֵי מִינֵי אֳכָלִין מְעֹרָבִין בּוֹרֵר אֶחָד מֵאַחֵר וּמַנִּיחַ לֶאֱכל מִיָּד. וְאִם בֵּרֵר וְהִנִּיחַ לְאַחַר זְמַן אֲפִלּוּ לְבוֹ בַּיּוֹם כְּגוֹן שֶׁבֵּרֵר בְּשַׁחֲרִית לֶאֱכל בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם חַיָּב:

13 One who sorts the residue from the food – even with one of his hands – is liable. And one who sorts lupines from their residue is [also] liable, since their residue sweetens them when they are cooked with it. [Hence] it comes out as if [he] sorts residue from food, so he is liable. One who sorts food from residue with his hand to leave it even [only] for that day is as if sorting for storage, so he is liable. When there are two types of food mixed up in front of him, he may sort one type of food from another and leave it to eat immediately. But if he sorted and left [it] even [only] for that day – such as if he sorted in the morning to eat it in the afternoon – he is liable.

14 יד

המְשַׁמֵּר יַיִן אוֹ שֶׁמֶן אוֹ מַיִם וְכֵן שְׁאָר הַמַּשְׁקִין בַּמְּשַׁמֶּרֶת שֶׁלָּהֶן חַיָּב. וְהוּא שֶׁיְּשַׁמֵּר כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. אֲבָל מְסַנְּנִין יַיִן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ שְׁמָרִים אוֹ מַיִם צְלוּלִין בְּסוּדָרִין וּבִכְפִיפָה מִצְרִית כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא צָלוּל בְּיוֹתֵר. וְנוֹתְנִין מַיִם עַל גַּבֵּי שְׁמָרִים בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּצּוֹלוּ. וְנוֹתְנִין בֵּיצָה טְרוּפָה לִמְסַנֶּנֶת שֶׁל חַרְדָּל כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּצָּלֵל. חַרְדָּל שֶׁלָּשׁוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. לְמָחָר מְמַחֶה וְשׁוֹתֶה בֵּין בַּיָּד בֵּין בִּכְלִי. וְכֵן יַיִן מִגִּתּוֹ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא תּוֹסֵס טוֹרֵף חָבִית בִּשְׁמָרֶיהָ וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ הַסּוּדָרִין. שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִפְרְשׁוּ הַשְּׁמָרִים מִן הַיַּיִן יָפֶה יָפֶה וְכָל הַיַּיִן כְּגוּף אֶחָד הוּא. וְכֵן הַחַרְדָּל וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ:

14 One who strains wine, oil, water as well as other liquids in their strainer is liable – and that is when he strains the [amount] of a dried fig. But we may filter wine that has no sediment or clear water through a handkerchief or an Egyptian basket so that it will become very clear. And we may [pour] water over sediments [until the water] will become clear. And we may place a beaten egg in a mustard strainer so that it will become clear. [In the case of] mustard that one kneaded on the eve of Shabbat, he may dissolve it and drink [it] on the next day – whether by hand or with a vessel. Likewise wine in the press – the whole time that it is fermenting – he may agitate the barrel with its sediments and [pour] it over handkerchiefs. For the sediments have not yet properly separated from the wine, such that all of the wine is like one substance. And likewise mustard, and anything that is similar to it.

15 טו

הַטּוֹחֵן כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת חַיָּב. וְכָל הַשּׁוֹחֵק תַּבְלִין וְסַמָּנִין בְּמַכְתֶּשֶׁת הֲרֵי זֶה טוֹחֵן וְחַיָּב. הַמְחַתֵּךְ יָרָק תָּלוּשׁ הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת טוֹחֵן. וְכֵן הַנּוֹסֵר עֵצִים לֵהָנוֹת בִּנְסֹרֶת שֶׁלָּהֶן אוֹ הַשָּׁף לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת חַיָּב מִשֶּׁיָּשׁוּף כָּל שֶׁהוּא. אֲבָל הַמְחַתֵּךְ עֵצִים אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיְּדַקְדֵּק מֵהֶן כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת מִבֵּיצָה:

15 One who grinds [something] the size of a dried fig is liable. And anyone who pounds spices or herbs in a mortar is surely grinding, so he is liable. One who cuts a vegetable severed [from the plant] is surely [doing] a subcategory of grinding. Likewise one who saws woods to benefit from its sawdust or one who rubs a strip of metal is liable from once he rubs off a minimal amount. But one who chops wood is not liable until he has measured out [the amount of wood] with which to cook the amount of a dried fig from an egg.

16 טז

הַמְרַקֵּד כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת חַיָּב. הַלָּשׁ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת חַיָּב הַמְגַבֵּל אֶת הֶעָפָר הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת לָשׁ. וְכַמָּה שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת פִּי כּוּר שֶׁל צוֹרְפֵי זָהָב. וְאֵין גִּבּוּל בְּאֵפֶר וְלֹא בְּחוֹל הַגַּס וְלֹא בְּמֻרְסָן וְלֹא בְּכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וְהַנּוֹתֵן זֶרַע שֻׁמְשְׁמִין אוֹ זֶרַע פִּשְׁתָּן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן בְּמַיִם חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם לָשׁ. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מִתְעָרְבִין וְנִתְלִין זֶה בָּזֶה:

16 One who sifts [something] the size of a dried fig is liable. One who kneads [something] the size of a dried fig is liable. One who kneads [mud] is [doing] a subcategory of kneading. And what is its [requisite] amount? [That which is] enough to make a goldsmith’s crucible. And there is no [such thing as] kneading of ashes or of sand or of bran or of anything that is similar to them. One who places sesame seeds or flax seeds or that which is similar to them in water is liable on account of kneading – as they [then] become mixed up and connect to one another.