Chapter 6ו׳
1 א

אָסוּר לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת לָנוּ מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְצֻוֶּה עַל הַשַּׁבָּת. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ מִקֹּדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְאוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה אֶלָּא לְאַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. וְדָבָר זֶה אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה שַׁבָּת קַלָּה בְּעֵינֵיהֶן וְיָבוֹאוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּעַצְמָן:

It is forbidden to say to a non-Jew to do labor for us on Shabbat despite that he was not commanded regarding Shabbat and despite that he said to him [to do the labor] before Shabbat and despite that there is no need for this labor other than [until] after Shabbat. And this matter is forbidden according to the words of the Rabbis so that Shabbat will not be light in their eyes and they will come to do [labor] themselves.

2 ב

נָכְרִי שֶׁעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה מֵעַצְמוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אִם בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל עָשָׂה אוֹתָהּ אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת בְּאוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְיַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁתֵּעָשֶׂה. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הַדָּבָר בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא עַד שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ בּוֹ רַבִּים שֶׁדָּבָר זֶה בִּשְׁבִיל פְּלוֹנִי הוּא נַעֲשָׂה בְּשַׁבָּת. וְאִם בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ בִּלְבַד עָשָׂה מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת:

2 [In the case of] a gentile who did forbidden work on his own on Shabbat: If he did it for the sake of a Jew, it is forbidden to benefit from that work until the conclusion of Shabbat; and he waits [the time it would take] in order to make it. And that is when the thing is not in public to the point that many know that this thing was done on Shabbat for the sake of x. But if he did it for himself alone, it is permissible to benefit from it on Shabbat.

3 ג

כֵּיצַד. נָכְרִי שֶׁהִדְלִיק אֶת הַנֵּר מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִם בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר. עָשָׂה נָכְרִי כֶּבֶשׁ לֵירֵד בּוֹ מִן הַסְּפִינָה יֵרֵד אַחֲרָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִם בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר. מִלֵּא מַיִם לְהַשְׁקוֹת בְּהֶמְתּוֹ מַשְׁקֶה אַחֲרָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִם בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר. לִקֵּט עֲשָׂבִים לְהַאֲכִיל לִבְהֶמְתּוֹ מַנִּיחַ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהֶמְתּוֹ לֶאֱכל מֵהֶן. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא אוֹתוֹ הַנָּכְרִי מַכִּיר לְאוֹתוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמָּא יַרְבֶּה בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ בִּשְׁבִילוֹ וְנִמְצָא עוֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְכֵן כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהַרְבּוֹת בּוֹ לֹא יֵהָנֶה בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אֵינוֹ מַכִּירוֹ:

3 How is this? A Jew is permitted to use the light that was lit by a gentile. But if it was for the sake of a Jew, it is forbidden. [If] a gentile made a ramp upon which to descend from a ship, the Jew can descend after him. But if it was for the sake of a Jew, it is forbidden. [If] he filled water to give drink to his animal, the Jews can give [his animal] to drink after him. But if it was for the sake of a Jew, it is forbidden. [If] he plucked grasses to feed his animal, the Jews may place his animal [adjacent] so he can eat from them. And that is when that gentile does not know that Jew – lest he increase his work for his sake; and it come out that he did it for the Jew. Likewise [with] anything which he can increase, [the Jew] can only benefit from it on Shabbat if he does not know him.

4 ד

אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ לְהַרְבּוֹת וּלְמַעֵט כְּגוֹן נֵר וְכֶבֶשׁ הוֹאִיל וְעָשָׂה בִּשְׁבִיל עַצְמוֹ נֶהֱנֶה אַחֲרָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּשַׁבָּת וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מַכִּירוֹ. נֵר הַדָּלוּק בִּמְסִבָּה בְּשַׁבָּת. אִם רֹב יִשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרָהּ שֶׁהַמַּדְלִיק עַל דַּעַת הָרֹב מַדְלִיק. וְאִם רֹב נָכְרִים מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרָהּ. מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה אָסוּר. נָפְלָה דְּלֵקָה בְּשַׁבָּת וּבָא נָכְרִי לְכַבּוֹת אֵין אוֹמְרִין לוֹ כַּבֵּה וְאַל תְּכַבֶּה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין שְׁבִיתָתוֹ עָלֵינוּ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

4 But something which cannot be increased or decreased, such as a light and a ramp; since he did it for himself, the Jew can benefit [from it] after him on Shabbat, even though he knows him. [In the case of] a lamp lit at a party on Shabbat: If the majority are Jews, it is forbidden to use its light – as one who lights, lights with the majority in mind. But if the majority are gentiles, it is permissible to use its light; half and half, it is forbidden. [If] a fire broke out on Shabbat and a gentile comes to extinguish it, we do not say to him, “Extinguish,” or “Do not Extinguish,” since his rest is not upon (commanded to) us. And likewise anything that is similar to this.

5 ה

מֵת שֶׁעָשׂוּ לוֹ נָכְרִים אָרוֹן וְחָפְרוּ לוֹ קֶבֶר בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹ הֵבִיאוּ לוֹ חֲלִילִין לִסְפֹּד בָּהֶן. אִם בְּצִנְעָה יַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת וְיִקָּבֵר בּוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה הַקֶּבֶר בִּסְרַטְיָא גְּדוֹלָה וְהָאָרוֹן עַל גַּבָּיו וְכָל הָעוֹבְרִין וְהַשָּׁבִין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁזֶּה שֶׁהַנָּכְרִים עוֹשִׂין עַכְשָׁו בְּשַׁבָּת לִפְלוֹנִי הוּא. הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִקָּבֵר בּוֹ אוֹתוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹלָמִית. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא. וּמֻתָּר לִקְבֹּר בּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר וְהוּא שֶׁיַּמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

5 [In the case of] a dead person for which the gentiles made a coffin and dug a grave on Shabbat or brought flutes to eulogize him with them: If [this was done] in private, he waits in order to make it at the conclusion of Shabbat and he buries him. But if the grave was on a large boulevard and the coffin was on top of it and all of the passers-by are saying that this which the gentiles are doing now on Shabbat is for x – that Jew should surely never be buried in it, as it is in public. But it is permissible to bury another Jew in it, and that is when he waits in order to make it. And likewise anything that is similar to this.

6 ו

נָכְרִי שֶׁהֵבִיא חֲלִילִין בְּשַׁבָּת לְמֵת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֱבִיאָן מִצַּד הַחוֹמָה יַמְתִּין לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיָּבוֹא מִמָּקוֹם קָרוֹב וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִסְפְּדוּ בָּהֶן. שֶׁמָּא בַּלַּיְלָה הֱבִיאוּם מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר עַד הַחוֹמָה וּבַבֹּקֶר נִכְנְסוּ בָּהֶן. וְאִם יָדַע בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁמִּמָּקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי הֱבִיאוּם בְּשַׁבָּת יַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ מֵאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הַדָּבָר בִּסְרַטְיָא גְּדוֹלָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ:

6 [In the case of] a gentile that brought flutes for a dead person on Shabbat – even though he brought them from next to the [city] wall, he must wait at the conclusion of Shabbat [the time needed] in order to bring it from a place close by. And afterwards they can eulogize with them. [This is] lest they brought them to the wall from another place at night, and they brought them in during the morning. And if he knew with certainty that they brought them from place x on Shabbat, he must wait after the Shabbat in order to bring if from that place. And that is when the thing is not on a big boulevard, like we said.

7 ז

עִיר שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְנָכְרִים דָּרִין בְּתוֹכָהּ וְהָיְתָה בָּהּ מֶרְחָץ הַמַּרְחֶצֶת בְּשַׁבָּת. אִם רֹב נָכְרִים מֻתָּר לִרְחֹץ בָּהּ לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד. וְאִם רֹב יִשְׂרָאֵל יַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּחַמּוּ חַמִּין. שֶׁבִּשְׁבִיל הָרֹב הוּחַמּוּ. מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה יַמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּחַמּוּ חַמִּין. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

7 [In the case of] a city that Jews and gentiles lived in it and there was a bathhouse that was [used] on Shabbat: If the majority are gentiles, it is permissible to bathe in it at the conclusion of Shabbat immediately. But if the majority are Jews, he waits in order that the hot waters be heated – since it was heated for the sake of the majority. [If it was] half and half, he waits in order that the hot waters be heated. And likewise anything that is similar to this.

8 ח

יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁאָמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ מְלָאכָה זוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָבַר וּמַכִּין אוֹתוֹ מַכַּת מַרְדּוּת מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת בְּאוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה לָעֶרֶב אַחַר שֶׁיַּמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁתֵּעָשֶׂה. וְלֹא אָסְרוּ בְּכָל מָקוֹם עַד שֶׁיַּמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי דָּבָר זֶה. שֶׁאִם תֹּאמַר יְהֵא מֻתָּר מִיָּד שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ וְיִמְצָא הַדָּבָר מוּכָן מִיָּד. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאָסְרוּ עַד שֶׁיַּמְתִּין בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשׂוּ לֹא יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ מִשְׂתַּכֵּר כְּלוּם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִתְעַכֵּב לָעֶרֶב בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה דָּבָר זֶה שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בְּשַׁבָּת:

8 [If] a Jew said to a gentile to do forbidden work for him on Shabbat – even though he transgressed and we strike him with lashes of rebellion – he is permitted to benefit from that work in the evening after he waits [the time needed] in order to make it. And in every place, they only forbade after he waits [the time needed] in order to make it, for the sake of this thing: As if you say that it be immediately permissible – lest he will say to a gentile to make it for him, and he will find the thing ready immediately [after the Shabbat]. But since they forbade until after he waits in order to make it, he will not say to a gentile to make it for him – as he surely does not gain anything. For he is [regardless] delayed in the evening, [the time needed] in order to make this thing that was made on Shabbat.

9 ט

דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְלָאכָה וְאֵין אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת מֻתָּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שָׁם מִקְצָת חלִי אוֹ יִהְיֶה צָרִיךְ לַדָּבָר צֹרֶךְ הַרְבֵּה אוֹ מִפְּנֵי מִצְוָה:

9 It is permissible to tell a gentile to do something that is not a forbidden type of work and is only forbidden to do on Shabbat on account of a rabbinic decree. And that is when there is a little illness or there be a great need for the thing, or on account of [the performance of] a commandment.

10 י

כֵּיצַד. אוֹמֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל לְנָכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת לַעֲלוֹת בָּאִילָן אוֹ לָשׁוּט עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם כְּדֵי לְהָבִיא לוֹ שׁוֹפָר. אוֹ סַכִּין לְמִילָה. אוֹ מֵבִיא לוֹ מֵחָצֵר לְחָצֵר שֶׁאֵין עֵרוּב בֵּינֵיהֶן מַיִם חַמִּין לְהַרְחִיץ בָּהֶם קָטָן וּמִצְטַעֵר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

10 How is this? The Jew says to the gentile on Shabbat to climb a tree or swim on the face of the waters in order to bring him a shofar (to blow on Rosh Hashanah), or a knife for a circumcision; or to bring him water from [one] courtyard to [another] courtyard, that does not have aneruv [connecting] them, to wash an infant or someone in pain. And likewise anything that is similar to this.

11 יא

הַלּוֹקֵחַ בַּיִת בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן הַנָּכְרִי מֻתָּר לוֹ לוֹמַר לַנָּכְרִי לִכְתֹּב לוֹ שְׁטָר בְּשַׁבָּת. שֶׁאֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת אֲסוּרָה מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם וּמִשּׁוּם יִשּׁוּב אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא גָּזְרוּ בְּדָבָר זֶה. וְכֵן הַלּוֹקֵחַ בַּיִת מֵהֶם בְּסוּרְיָא, שֶׁסּוּרְיָא כְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְדָבָר זֶה:

11 It is permissible for one who buys a house in the Land of Israel from a gentile to say to the gentile to write him a deed on Shabbat. For speaking to a gentile [to do forbidden work] is [only] forbidden from the words [of the Rabbis]; and they did not decree it in this matter, on account of the settlement of the Land of Israel. Likewise, one who buys a house in Syria from one of them – as Syria is like the Land of Israel regarding this matter.

12 יב

פּוֹסֵק אָדָם עִם הַנָּכְרִי עַל הַמְּלָאכָה וְקוֹצֵץ דָּמִים וְהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה לְעַצְמוֹ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת מֻתָּר. וְכֵן הַשּׂוֹכֵר אֶת הַנָּכְרִי לְיָמִים הַרְבֵּה מֻתָּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּשַׁבָּת. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁשָּׂכַר הַנָּכְרִי לְשָׁנָה אוֹ לִשְׁתַּיִם שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב לוֹ אוֹ שֶׁיֶּאֱרֹג לוֹ. הֲרֵי זֶה כּוֹתֵב וְאוֹרֵג בְּשַׁבָּת וּמֻתָּר כְּאִלּוּ קָצַץ עִמּוֹ שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב לוֹ סֵפֶר אוֹ שֶׁיֶּאֱרֹג לוֹ בֶּגֶד שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יַחְשֹׁב עִמּוֹ יוֹם יוֹם:

12 It is permissible for a man to come to an agreement with a gentile about work and determine the money [he will pay] and the gentile does [the work] for himself, even though he does [it] on Shabbat. Likewise is it permissible for one to hire a gentile for an extended period, even though he does it [the work] on Shabbat. How is this? For example, he hired the gentile for a year or two to write for him or weave for him; and he surely writes and weaves on Shabbat, and [yet] it is permissible. [It is] is as if he determined with him that he write a book for him or weave a garment for him at any time that he wants. And that [it is permitted] is when he does not calculate [the payment] of each day with him (such that he would be paid by the day, including Shabbat).

13 יג

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּצִנְעָה שֶׁאֵין מַכִּירִים הַכּל שֶׁזּוֹ הַמְּלָאכָה הַנַּעֲשֵׂית בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל הִיא. אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה יְדוּעָה וּגְלוּיָה וּמְפֻרְסֶמֶת אֲסוּרָה שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה אֶת הַנָּכְרִי עוֹסֵק אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁקָּצַץ וְאוֹמֵר שֶׁפְּלוֹנִי שָׂכַר הַנָּכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת:

13 To what are these words applicable? In private, such that everyone not knows that this work being done on Shabbat is for the Jew. But if it was well-known, revealed and publicized, it is forbidden. For one who sees the gentile occupied [with the work], does not know that he determined [permissible terms] and [will] say that x hired the gentile to do work for him on Shabbat.

14 יד

לְפִיכָךְ הַפּוֹסֵק עִם הַנָּכְרִי לִבְנוֹת לוֹ חֲצֵרוֹ אוֹ כָּתְלוֹ אוֹ לִקְצֹר אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ אוֹ שֶׁשְּׂכָרוֹ שָׁנָה אוֹ שְׁתַּיִם לִבְנוֹת לוֹ חָצֵר אוֹ לִטַּע לוֹ כֶּרֶם. אִם הָיְתָה הַמְּלָאכָה בַּמְּדִינָה אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם אָסוּר לוֹ לַהֲנִיחָן לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי הָרוֹאִים שֶׁאֵינָם יוֹדְעִים שֶׁפָּסַק. וְאִם הָיְתָה הַמְּלָאכָה חוּץ לַתְּחוּם מֻתָּר שֶׁאֵין שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיִּרְאֶה אֶת הַפּוֹעֲלִין כְּשֶׁהֵן עוֹשִׂין בְּשַׁבָּת:

14 Hence [in the case of] one who comes to an agreement with a gentile to build him his courtyard or his wall or to harvest his field, or hired him for a year or two to build him a courtyard or to plant him a vineyard: If the work was in the city or within the perimeter (techum), it is forbidden for him to allow [the gentile] to do [work]on Shabbat, on account of those that see him that do not know that he agreed [with permissible terms]. But if the work was out of the perimeter, it is permissible – since there is no Jew there to see the workers, when they are occupied [with the work] on Shabbat.

15 טו

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְאָדָם לְהַשְׂכִּיר כַּרְמוֹ אוֹ שָׂדֵהוּ לְנָכְרִי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא זוֹרְעָן וְנוֹטְעָן בְּשַׁבָּת. שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁשְּׂכוּרִין הֵן אוֹ בַּאֲרִיסוּת נָתַן לָהֶן. וְדָבָר שֶׁשֵּׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעָלָיו קָרוּי עָלָיו וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ רֹב אַנְשֵׁי אוֹתוֹ הַמָּקוֹם לְהַשְׂכִּירוֹ אוֹ לִתְּנוֹ בַּאֲרִיסוּת אָסוּר לְהַשְׂכִּירוֹ לְנָכְרִי. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי עוֹשֶׂה בְּאוֹתוֹ הַמָּקוֹם מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת וְהוּא נִקְרָא עַל שֵׁם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּעָלָיו:

15 Likewise, it is permitted for a man to rent his vineyard or his field to a gentile, even though he will sow it and plant it on Shabbat. As the onlooker will know that they are rented or that he provided it to them for sharecropping. [But] it is forbidden to rent to a gentile something which is referred to by the name of a Jew, and it is not the way of that place to rent it out or to provide it for sharecropping. [That is] because the gentile does forbidden work on that place, and it is referred to by the name of its Jewish owner.

16 טז

מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁאִיל כֵּלִים וּלְהַשְׂכִּירָן לְנָכְרִי וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בָּהֶן מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ מְצֻוִּים עַל שְׁבִיתַת הַכֵּלִים. אֲבָל בְּהֶמְתּוֹ וְעַבְדּוֹ אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָנוּ מְצֻוִּין עַל שְׁבִיתַת בְּהֵמָה וְעֶבֶד:

16 It is permitted to lend and rent vessels to a gentile – even though he will do forbidden work on Shabbat with them – since we are not commanded about the rest of vessels. But it is forbidden [to do so with one’s animal or one’s slave, since we are commanded about the rest of an animal or slave.

17 יז

הַמִּשְׁתַּתֵּף עִם הַנָּכְרִי בִּמְלָאכָה אוֹ בִּסְחוֹרָה אוֹ בַּחֲנוּת. אִם הִתְנוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שְׂכַר הַשַּׁבָּת לַנָּכְרִי לְבַדּוֹ אִם מְעַט אִם הַרְבֵּה וּשְׂכַר יוֹם אַחֵר כְּנֶגֶד יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְבַדּוֹ מֻתָּר. וְאִם לֹא הִתְנוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה. כְּשֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ לַחֲלֹק נוֹטֵל הַנָּכְרִי שְׂכַר הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת כֻּלָּן לְבַדּוֹ וְהַשְּׁאָר חוֹלְקִין אוֹתוֹ. וְאֵינוֹ מוֹסִיף לוֹ כְּלוּם כְּנֶגֶד יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִתְנוּ בַּתְּחִלָּה. וְכֵן אִם קִבְּלוּ שָׂדֶה בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת דִּין אֶחָד הוּא:

17 [In the case of] one who has a partnership with a gentile in work or merchandise or a store: If they stipulated at the beginning that the earnings of Shabbat are only for the gentile – whether little or much – and the earnings of another day in exchange for the Shabbat are only for the Jew, it is permitted. But if they did not stipulate [this] at the beginning; when they come to divide [the earnings], the gentile alone takes the earnings of all the Shabbats, and they divide the rest. And [the gentile] does not add anything to him in exchange for the Shabbat unless they stipulated [it] at the beginning. Likewise, it is the same law if they had a partnership to work a field.

18 יח

וְאִם לֹא הִתְּנוּ וּבָאוּ לַחֲלֹק הַשָּׂכָר וְלֹא הָיָה שְׂכַר שַׁבָּת יָדוּעַ יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי נוֹטֵל לְבַדּוֹ שְׁבִיעִית הַשָּׂכָר וְהַשְּׁאָר חוֹלְקִין. הַנּוֹתֵן מָעוֹת לְנָכְרִי לְהִתְעַסֵּק בָּהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי נוֹשֵׂא וְנוֹתֵן בְּשַׁבָּת חוֹלֵק עִמּוֹ בַּשָּׂכָר בְּשָׁוֶה וְכֵן הוֹרוּ כָּל הַגְּאוֹנִים:

18 And if they did not stipulate [how to divide the earnings] and the earnings from Shabbat were unknown, it appears to me that the gentile alone takes a seventh of the [total] earnings, and they divide the rest. [In the case of] one who provides money to a gentile with which to do business, he divides the earnings with the gentile evenly – even though he did business on Shabbat. And so did all of the Geonim decide.

19 יט

לֹא יִתֵּן אָדָם בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת כֵּלִים לְאֻמָּן נָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹתָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁפָּסַק עִמּוֹ. אֶלָּא בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא בָּהֶן מִבֵּיתוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה. וְכֵן לֹא יִמְכֹּר אָדָם חֲפָצָיו לְנָכְרִי וְלֹא יַשְׁאִילֶנּוּ וְלֹא יַלְוֶנּוּ וְלֹא יְמַשְׁכְּנֶנּוּ וְלֹא יִתֵּן לוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה אֶלָּא בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא בְּאוֹתוֹ חֵפֶץ מִפֶּתַח בֵּיתוֹ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת. שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא בְּבֵיתוֹ אֵין אָדָם יוֹדֵעַ אֵימָתַי נָתַן לוֹ וּכְשֶׁיֵּצֵא הַנָּכְרִי מִבֵּיתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְחֵפֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיָדוֹ יֵרָאֶה כְּמִי שֶׁהִלְּוָהוּ לַנָּכְרִי אוֹ מִשְׁכְּנוֹ אוֹ פָּסַק עִמּוֹ אוֹ מָכַר לוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת:

19 A man should only give his vessels to a gentile craftsman to work with them on the eve of Shabbat in time for [the craftsman to] leave his house with them before dark – even though he has [already] transacted it with him. Likewise, a man should only sell, lend in any way, pawn or give his objects to a gentile in time for him to exit the entrance to his house with that item before Shabbat. For the whole time that he is in his house, no one knows when he gave it to him. And [hence] when the gentile exits his house with the item of the Jew in his hand on Shabbat, [the Jew] will appear as if he lent or pawned or transacted or sold it to him on Shabbat.

20 כ

הַנּוֹתֵן אִגֶּרֶת לְנָכְרִי לְהוֹלִיכָהּ לְעִיר אַחֶרֶת אִם קָצַץ עִמּוֹ שְׂכַר הוֹלָכָה מֻתָּר. וַאֲפִלּוּ נְתָנָהּ לוֹ עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת עִם חֲשֵׁכָה. וְהוּא שֶׁיֵּצֵא בָּהּ מִפֶּתַח בֵּיתוֹ קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת. וְאִם לֹא קָצַץ אִם יֵשׁ בַּמְּדִינָה אָדָם קָבוּעַ שֶׁהוּא מְקַבֵּץ הָאִגְּרוֹת וְשׁוֹלֵחַ אוֹתָם לְכָל מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה עִם שְׁלוּחָיו מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לַנָּכְרִי הָאִגֶּרֶת. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שְׁהוּת בַּיּוֹם כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לַבַּיִת הַסָּמוּךְ לַחוֹמָה קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת. שֶׁמָּא זֶה שֶׁמְּקַבֵּל הָאִגְּרוֹת וְשׁוֹלְחָן בֵּיתוֹ סָמוּךְ לַחוֹמָה הוּא. וְאִם אֵין שָׁם אָדָם קָבוּעַ לְכָךְ אֶלָּא הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין לוֹ הָאִגֶּרֶת הוּא שֶׁמּוֹלִיכָהּ לְעִיר אַחֶרֶת אָסוּר לִשְׁלֹחַ בְּיַד נָכְרִי הָאִגֶּרֶת לְעוֹלָם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן קָצַץ לוֹ דָּמִים:

20 It is permitted [for] one to give a letter to a gentile to deliver to another city if he determined the wage for the delivery – and even if he gave it to him on the eve of Shabbat at dusk. And that is when he left the entrance to his house before Shabbat. But if he did not determine [the wage]: If there is a man in that city that regularly collects all the letters and sends them to all the [other] cities with his messengers, it is permitted to give the letter to the gentile. And that is when there is enough time in the day in order for him to reach the house adjacent to the wall [of the city] before Shabbat – as perhaps the house of this one who takes the letters and sends them is adjacent to the wall. But if there is no person that regularly [does] this but it is rather the gentile that is given the letter that delivers it to another city; it is always forbidden to send [it] with the gentile, unless he had designated the money [he is paying him for this].

21 כא

נָכְרִי שֶׁהֵבִיא חֲפָצָיו בְּשַׁבָּת וְהִכְנִיסָן לְבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל מֻתָּר. וַאֲפִלּוּ אָמַר לוֹ הַנִּיחָן בְּזָוִית זוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. וּמְזַמְּנִין אֶת הַנָּכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת וְנוֹתְנִין לְפָנָיו מְזוֹנוֹת לְאָכְלָן. וְאִם נְטָלָן וְיָצָא אֵין נִזְקָקִין לוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין שְׁבִיתָתוֹ עָלֵינוּ. וְכֵן נוֹתְנִין מְזוֹנוֹת לִפְנֵי הַכֶּלֶב בֶּחָצֵר וְאִם נְטָלָן וְיָצָא אֵין נִזְקָקִין לוֹ:

21 It is permissible for a gentile to bring his items and store them in the house of a Jew on Shabbat. And it is even permitted [if] the Jew tells him, “Put them in this corner.” And we may invite a gentile [to our home] on Shabbat and we place provisions for him in front of him to eat. And if he takes them and goes out [to a different domain], we are not implicated – since his rest is not [commanded] upon us. Likewise, we may place provisions in front of a dog in the courtyard; and if he takes them and goes out, we are not implicated.

22 כב

מִי שֶׁהָיָה בָּא בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְקָדַשׁ עָלָיו הַיּוֹם וְהָיוּ עִמּוֹ מָעוֹת נוֹתֵן כִּיסוֹ לְנָכְרִי לְהוֹלִיכוֹ לוֹ וּלְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת לוֹקְחוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן לוֹ שָׂכָר עַל זֶה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנְּתָנוֹ לוֹ מִשֶּׁחֲשֵׁכָה מֻתָּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָדָם בָּהוּל עַל מָמוֹנוֹ וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיַּשְׁלִיכֶנּוּ. וְאִם לֹא תַּתִּיר לוֹ דָּבָר זֶה שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים יָבוֹא לַהֲבִיאוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וְעוֹבֵר עַל מְלָאכָה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּכִיסוֹ אֲבָל מְצִיאָה לֹא יִתֵּן לַנָּכְרִי אֶלָּא מוֹלִיכָהּ בְּפָחוֹת פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת:

22 [In the case of] one who was traveling on the road and the day became sanctified upon him (Shabbat began) and he had money with him; he gives it to a gentile to transport it and he takes it back from him at the conclusion of Shabbat. And even though he did not give him a wage for this, and even though he gave it to him after it got dark, it is permissible – as a person is panicked about his money and it is impossible for him to throw it down; and if you do not permit this thing which is only rabbinic (literally, from the words of the scribes) to him, he will come to bring it [to his destination] in his hand and transgress a type of work forbidden by the Torah. To what are these words applicable? To his [own] purse. But he may not give a found object to a gentile, but rather transports it [himself, by walking] less than four ells each time (walking that distance and stopping over and over).

23 כג

יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָשָׂה מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת אִם עָבַר וְעָשָׂה בְּזָדוֹן אָסוּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת בְּאוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה לְעוֹלָם. וּשְׁאָר יִשְׂרָאֵל מֻתָּר לָהֶם לֵהָנוֹת בָּהּ לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת מִיָּד שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לא יד) "וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת כִּי קֹדֶשׁ הִיא", הִיא קֹדֶשׁ וְאֵין מַעֲשֶׂיהָ קֹדֶשׁ. כֵּיצַד. יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל בְּשַׁבָּת בְּמֵזִיד. לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת יֵאָכֵל לַאֲחֵרִים אֲבָל לוֹ לֹא יֵאָכֵל עוֹלָמִית. וְאִם בִּשֵּׁל בִּשְׁגָגָה לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת יֹאכַל בֵּין הוּא בֵּין אֲחֵרִים מִיָּד. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

23 [In the case of] a Jew that did forbidden work on Shabbat: If he transgressed volitionally, it is forbidden for him to ever benefit from that forbidden work. But it is permissible for other Jews to benefit from it at the conclusion of Shabbat; as it is stated (Exod. 31:14), “You shall keep the Shabbat, for it is holy” – it is holy, but its acts are not holy. How is this? [If] a Jew cooked on Shabbat volitionally, it can be eaten by others at the conclusion of Shabbat – but he may never eat it. But if he cooked inadvertently, it can be eaten immediately at the conclusion of Shabbat, whether by him or by others. And likewise anything that is similar to this.

24 כד

פֵּרוֹת שֶׁיָּצְאוּ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וְחָזְרוּ. בְּשׁוֹגֵג יֵאָכְלוּ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נַעֲשָׂה בְּגוּפָן מַעֲשֶׂה וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּנּוּ. בְּמֵזִיד לֹא יֵאָכְלוּ עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת:

24 [In the case of] produce that went out of the perimeter and came back: [If] inadvertent, they may be eaten on Shabbat, as no act was done to their substance and they were not changed. [But if] volitional, they may not be eaten until the conclusion of the Shabbat.

25 כה

הַשּׂוֹכֵר אֶת הַפּוֹעֵל לִשְׁמֹר לוֹ אֶת הַפָּרָה וְאֶת הַתִּינוֹק לֹא יִתֵּן לוֹ שְׂכָרוֹ שֶׁל שַׁבָּת. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין אַחֲרָיוּת שַׁבָּת עָלָיו. וְאִם הָיָה הַשָּׂכִיר שְׂכִיר שַׁבָּת אוֹ שְׂכִיר שָׁנָה נוֹתֵן לוֹ שְׂכָרוֹ מָשְׁלָם. לְפִיכָךְ אַחֲרָיוּת שַׁבָּת עָלָיו. וְלֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ תֵּן לִי שְׂכָרִי שֶׁל שַׁבָּת אֶלָּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ תֵּן לִי שְׂכָרִי שֶׁל שָׁנָה אוֹ שֶׁל עֲשָׂרָה יָמִים:

25 [In the case of] one who hires a worker to watch a cow or a baby for him, he may not give him the wage for Shabbat. Hence [the worker] is not accountable on Shabbat. But if the wage-worker one hired was hired for the week or hired for the year, he gives him the full wage. Hence he is accountable on Shabbat. Yet he should not say to him, “Give me my wage for Shabbat,” but he should rather say to him, “Give me my wage for the year,” or “for ten days.”