Chapter 24כ״ד
1 א

יֵשׁ דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵן אְסוּרִין בְּשַׁבָּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָם דּוֹמִין לִמְלָאכָה וְאֵינָם מְבִיאִין לִידֵי מְלָאכָה. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה נֶאֶסְרוּ מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה נח יג) "אִם תָּשִׁיב מִשַּׁבָּת רַגְלֶךָ עֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצֶיךָ בְּיוֹם קָדְשִׁי" וְנֶאֱמַר (ישעיה נח יג) "וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר". לְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לְאָדָם לְהַלֵּךְ בַּחֲפָצָיו בְּשַׁבָּת וַאֲפִלּוּ לְדַבֵּר בָּהֶן כְּגוֹן שֶׁיְּדַבֵּר עִם שֻׁתָּפוֹ מַה יִּמְכֹּר לְמָחָר אוֹ מַה יִּקְנֶה אוֹ הֵיאַךְ יִבְנֶה בַּיִת זֶה וּבְאֵי זֶה סְחוֹרָה יֵלֵךְ לְמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי. כָּל זֶה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ אָסוּר שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר דִּבּוּר אָסוּר הִרְהוּר מֻתָּר:

Some acts are forbidden on the Sabbath even though they neither resemble nor lead to prohibited work. Why then were they forbidden? Because it is written: "If you refrain from following your business on the Sabbath, on my holy day… If you honor it, not following your wonted ways, not pursuing your business, nor speaking of it" (Isaiah 58:13). Hence, one is forbidden to go anywhere on the Sabbath in connection with his business, or even to talk about it. Thus one must not discuss with his partner what to sell on the next day, or what to buy, or how to build a certain house, or what merchandise to take to such-and-such a place. All this, and the like, is forbidden, for it is written "nor speaking of it." That is to say, speaking of business on the Sabbath is forbidden; thinking of it, however, is permitted.

2 ב

אָסוּר לְאָדָם לִפְקֹד גִּנּוֹתָיו וּשְׂדוֹתָיו בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֵי לִרְאוֹת מַה הֵן צְרִיכִין אוֹ הֵיאַךְ הֵן פֵּרוֹתֵיהֶן. שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה מְהַלֵּךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת חֶפְצוֹ. וְכֵן אָסוּר לְאָדָם שֶׁיֵּצֵא בְּשַׁבָּת עַד סוֹף הַתְּחוּם וְיֵשֵׁב שָׁם עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה קָרוֹב לַעֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצָיו בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת. שֶׁהֲרֵי נִמְצָא הִלּוּכוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת לַעֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצָיו:

2 It is forbidden for a person to inspect his gardens and fields on Shabbat in order to see what they need or how are their fruits. For such a one is surely walking to do his business. It is likewise forbidden for one to go out on Shabbat to the end of the [town] perimeter and remain there until it gets dark, in order that he is closer to [being able to] doing his business at the conclusion of Shabbat. As his walking on Shabbat ends up surely being to do his business.

3 ג

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשֶׁהֶחְשִׁיךְ עַל הַתְּחוּם לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר בְּשַׁבָּת לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הֶחְשִׁיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת דָּבָר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. כֵּיצַד. אֵין מַחְשִׁיכִין עַל הַתְּחוּם לְהָבִיא פֵּרוֹת מְחֻבָּרִין אוֹ לִשְׂכֹּר פּוֹעֲלִין. אֲבָל מַחְשִׁיךְ הוּא לִשְׁמֹר פֵּרוֹת שֶׁהֲרֵי מֻתָּר לִשְׁמֹר בְּשַׁבָּת. וּמַחְשִׁיךְ לְהָבִיא בְּהֵמָה אוֹ פֵּרוֹת תְּלוּשִׁין. שֶׁהַבְּהֵמָה קוֹרֵא לָהּ וְהִיא בָּאָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם. וּפֵרוֹת תְּלוּשִׁין אִלּוּ הָיוּ שָׁם מְחִצּוֹת הָיָה מֻתָּר לַהֲבִיאָן בְּשַׁבָּת. וְכֵן אוֹמֵר אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ לִכְרַךְ פְּלוֹנִי אֲנִי הוֹלֵךְ לְמָחָר שֶׁאִם הָיוּ שָׁם בּוּרְגָנִים הָיָה הוֹלֵךְ לְשָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

3 To what are these words applicable? When he [waits for] darkness over the perimeter to do something that it is forbidden to do on Shabbat. But if he [waits for] darkness over the perimeter to do something that it is permissible to do on Shabbat, it is permissible. How is this? We may not [wait for] darkness over the perimeter to move fruits attached [to a plant] or to hire workers. But one may [wait for] darkness over the perimeter to guard fruits - as it surely permissible to guard [things] on Shabbat. And he may [wait for] darkness over the perimeter to move an animal or detached fruits. For one may call to an animal and it comes, even though it is outside the perimeter. And [regarding] these detached fruits - had there been partitions there, it would have been permissible to move them on Shabbat. Likewise is it permissible for one to tell his fellow, "I am going to town x tomorrow." For if there had been guardhouses [along the way], he could have walked there on Shabbat (since it would be considered contiguous and hence permissible to walk there). And likewise all that is similar to this.

4 ד

מֻתָּר לְאָדָם לוֹמַר לְפוֹעֵל הַנִּרְאֶה שֶׁתַּעֲמֹד עִמִּי לָעֶרֶב. אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ הֱיֵה נָכוֹן לִי לָעֶרֶב שֶׁנִּמְצָא עוֹשֶׂה חֶפְצוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. וְאָסוּר לָרוּץ וּלְדַלֵּג בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה נח יג) "מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ" שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הִלּוּכְךָ שֶׁל שַׁבָּת כְּהִלּוּכְךָ שֶׁל חֹל. וְיוֹרֵד אָדָם לְבוֹר וְשִׁיחַ וּמְעָרָה אֲפִלּוּ הֵן מֵאָה אַמָּה וּמְטַפֵּס וְיוֹרֵד וְשׁוֹתֶה וּמְטַפֵּס וְעוֹלֶה. וְאָסוּר לְהַרְבּוֹת בְּשִׂיחָה בְּטֵלָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה נח יג) "וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר" שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא דִּבּוּרְךָ שֶׁל שַׁבָּת כְּדִבּוּרְךָ שֶׁל חל:

4 It is permissible for one to say to a worker, "Does it seem that you will stand with me [this] evening?" But he may not say to him, "Be ready for me [this] evening" - as it would come out that he was doing his business on Shabbat. And it is forbidden to run or leap on Shabbat; as it is stated (Isaiah 58:13), "from going on your way" - that your going on Shabbat not be like your going on [weekdays]. But one may go down into a pit, a ditch or a tunnel - even if they are a hundred ells - and climb, descend and drink, and [then] climb and get out. And it is forbidden to engage in much idle talk; as it is stated (Isaiah 53:18), "and speak a word" - that your speech on Shabbat not be like your speech on [weekdays].

5 ה

מֻתָּר לָרוּץ בְּשַׁבָּת לִדְבַר מִצְוָה כְּגוֹן שֶׁיָּרוּץ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אוֹ לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ. וּמְחַשְּׁבִין חֶשְׁבּוֹנוֹת שֶׁל מִצְוָה וּמוֹדְדִין מְדִידָה שֶׁל מִצְוָה כְּגוֹן מִקְוֶה לֵידַע אִם יֵשׁ כַּשִּׁעוּר אוֹ בֶּגֶד לֵידַע אִם מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה. וּפוֹסְקִין צְדָקָה לָעֲנִיִּים. וְהוֹלְכִין לְבָתֵּי כְּנֵסִיּוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת וַאֲפִלּוּ לְטַרְטֵיאוֹת וּטְרַקְלִין שֶׁל כּוּתִים לְפַקֵּחַ עַל עִסְקֵי רַבִּים בְּשַׁבָּת. וּמְשַׁדְּכִין עַל הַתִּינוֹקֶת לֵיאָרֵס וְעַל הַתִּינוֹק לְלַמְּדוֹ סֵפֶר וּלְלַמְּדוֹ אֻמָּנוּת. וּמְבַקְּרִין חוֹלִין וּמְנַחֲמִים אֲבֵלִים. וְהַנִּכְנָס לְבַקֵּר אֶת הַחוֹלֶה אוֹמֵר שַׁבָּת הִיא מִלִּזְעֹק וּרְפוּאָה קְרוֹבָה לָבוֹא. וּמַחְשִׁיכִין עַל הַתְּחוּם לְפַקֵּחַ עַל עִסְקֵי כַּלָּה וְעַל עִסְקֵי הַמֵּת לְהָבִיא לוֹ אָרוֹן וְתַכְרִיכִין. וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ לֵךְ לְמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי לֹא מָצָאתָ שָׁם הָבֵא מִמָּקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי לֹא מָצָאתָ בְּמָנֶה הָבֵא בְּמָאתַיִם. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִזְכֹּר לוֹ סְכוּם מִקָּח. שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִצְוָה הֵן וְנֶאֱמַר (ישעיה נח יג) "עֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצֶיךָ" וְכוּ' חֲפָצֶךָ אֲסוּרִין חֶפְצֵי שָׁמַיִם מֻתָּרִין:

5 It is permissible to run on Shabbat to a matter of a commandment - for example, if he runs to the synagogue or to the study hall. And we may make calculations of a commandment. And we may [also] make measurements of a commandment, such as to know if there is the [requisite] amount [of water] in a mikveh, or to know if a garment [is large enough] to contract impurity. And we may allocate charity to the poor. And one may go on Shabbat to synagogues and study halls - and even to the theaters and circuses of the Cuthites - to supervise matters affecting the public. And we make make matches for young girls to be betrothed, and [make arrangements] for a young boy to teach him Torah or to teach him a craft. And we may visit the sick and comfort the mourners. And one who enters to visit a sick person should say, "It is a rest (Shabbat) from yelling out (in prayer for you), but a recovery is close to coming." And we [wait for] darkness over the perimeter to supervise the affairs of a bride; and the matters of a dead body, to bring him a coffin and shrouds. And [so] he may say to [another], "Go to place x. [If] you did not find them there, bring them from place y. [If] you did not find them for a hundred, [pay] two hundred." [This is] so long as he does not mention the [maximum] amount of the [potential] purchase. As all of these - and that which is similar to them - are commandments; and it is stated (Isaiah 58:13), "doing your business." It is your business that is forbidden; the business of the Heavens is permissible.

6 ו

מַפְלִיגִין בַּיָּם הַגָּדוֹל בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לִדְבַר מִצְוָה וּפוֹסֵק עִמּוֹ לִשְׁבֹּת וְאֵינוֹ שׁוֹבֵת. וּמְפִירִין נְדָרִים בְּשַׁבָּת בֵּין לְצֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ שַׁבָּת. וְנִשְׁאָלִין לְחָכָם עַל הַנְּדָרִים שֶׁהֵן לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת וּמַתִּירִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיָה לָהֶן פְּנַאי לְהַתִּירָן קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁדְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ מִצְוָה הֵן:

6 We may set sail on the Great Sea on the eve of Shabbat for a matter of a commandment. But one must stipulate with [the gentile ship captain that this is on the condition that] he rests, (i.e., stops the ship on Shabbat); and [even] if he does not rest. And we annul vows on Shabbat, whether it is for the needs of Shabbat or whether it is not for the needs of Shabbat. And we may ask a sage [to annul] vows that are for the needs of Shabbat. And they may annul it even though they had time to annul it before Shabbat. For these are [matters that involve] a commandment.

7 ז

אֵין עוֹנְשִׁין בְּשַׁבָּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָעֹנֶשׁ מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה אֵינָהּ דּוֹחָה שַׁבָּת. כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בְּבֵית דִּין מַלְקוֹת אוֹ מִיתָה אֵין מַלְקִין אוֹתוֹ וְאֵין מְמִיתִין אוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לה ג) "לֹא תְבַעֲרוּ אֵשׁ בְּכל משְׁבֹתֵיכֶם בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת" זוֹ אַזְהָרָה לְבֵית דִּין שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׂרְפוּ בְּשַׁבָּת מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב שְׂרֵפָה וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר עֳנָשִׁין:

7 [A court] may not punish on Shabbat. Even though the punishment is a positive commandment, it does not override [forbidden types of work on] Shabbat. How is this? If one surely become liable for lashes or the death penalty, we neither give him lashes nor kill him on Shabbat; as it is stated (Exodus 35:3), "You may not kindle fire in all of your inhabitations on the Shabbat day" - this is a prohibition to the court that, on Shabbat, they not burn someone who became liable for burning. And the same is true with the other punishments.

8 ח

מֻתָּר לְאָדָם לִשְׁמֹר פֵּרוֹתָיו בְּשַׁבָּת בֵּין תְּלוּשִׁים בֵּין מְחֻבָּרִין. וְאִם בָּא אָדָם לִטּל מֵהֶן אוֹ בְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה לֶאֱכל מֵהֶן גּוֹעֵר בָּהֶן וּמַכֶּה בָּהֶם וּמַרְחִיקָן. וַהֲלֹא דָּבָר זֶה מֵחֲפָצָיו הוּא וְלָמָּה הוּא מֻתָּר. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱסַר אֶלָּא לְהַקְנוֹת לְעַצְמוֹ חֲפָצִים שֶׁאֵינָן עַתָּה מְצוּיִים אוֹ לְהִשְׂתַּכֵּר וּלְהַרְוִיחַ וּלְהִטָּפֵל בַּהֲנָאָה שֶׁתָּבוֹא לְיָדוֹ. אֲבָל לִשְׁמֹר מָמוֹנוֹ שֶׁכְּבָר בָּא לְיָדוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר. הָא לְמָה זֶה דּוֹמֶה לְנוֹעֵל בֵּיתוֹ מִפְּנֵי הַגַּנָּבִים:

8 It is permissible for one to guard his fruits on Shabbat; such that if [people] come to take [some] of them - or a domesticated animal or a wild animal (in his possession) - to eat of them, he may yell at them and hit them, and send them away. And is this matter not from his business; so why is it permissible? Because it is only forbidden to acquire things that are not found [with him] now or to earn a wage, and to profit or occupy himself with a benefit that will come to his hand. But it is permissible to guard his money that has already come to his hand; such that it remain as it is. See what this is similar to - to one who locks up his house on account of thieves.

9 ט

הַמְשַׁמֵּר זְרָעָיו מִפְּנֵי הָעוֹפוֹת וּמִקְשָׁאָיו וּמִדְלָעָיו מִפְּנֵי הַחַיָּה לֹא יְסַפֵּק וְלֹא יְרַקֵּד כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בְּחל גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִטּל צְרוֹר וְיִזְרֹק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים:

9 One who guards his seed-plants from birds or his squash and gourds from wild animals, may not clap and may not dance (to scare them away) the way he does on [weekdays, as a] decree lest he take a pebble and throw it four ells in the public domain.

10 י

כָּל הַדְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת לֹא גָּזְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶן בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אֶלָּא בְּעַצְמוֹ שֶׁל יוֹם הוּא שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין אֲבָל בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת מֻתָּרִין. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שָׁם דְּבַר מִצְוָה אוֹ דֹּחַק. כֵּיצַד. מֻתָּר לוֹ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת לַעֲלוֹת בָּאִילָן אוֹ לָשׁוּט עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם לְהָבִיא לוּלָב אוֹ שׁוֹפָר. וְכֵן מוֹרִיד מִן הָאִילָן אוֹ מוֹצִיא מִן הַכַּרְמְלִית עֵרוּב שֶׁעָשָׂה. וְכֵן אִם הָיָה טָרוּד וְנֶחְפָּז וְנִצְרָךְ לְדָבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיָה שָׁם דֹּחַק וְלֹא דְּבַר מִצְוָה אָסוּר. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין מְעַשְּׂרִין אֶת הַוַּדַּאי בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִסּוּר הַפְרָשַׁת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר בְּשַׁבָּת מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת. אֲבָל מְעַשְּׂרִים אֶת הַדְּמַאי:

If anything is forbidden because it conflicts with the idea of rest, the prohibition does not apply during twilight but during the actual Sabbath day. Indeed, during twilight such things are permitted if they are needed for some religious purpose or emergency.— — But if there is no emergency involved, nor religious purpose, it is forbidden.— —

11 יא

קָטָן שֶׁעָשָׂה בְּשַׁבָּת דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת כְּגוֹן שֶׁתָּלַשׁ מֵעָצִיץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב אוֹ טִלְטֵל בְּכַרְמְלִית אֵין בֵּית דִּין מְצֻוִּין לְהַפְרִישׁוֹ. וְכֵן אִם הִנִּיחוֹ אָבִיו אֵין מְמַחִין בְּיָדוֹ:

11 [In the case of] an infant that did something [forbidden] on account of a decree [pertaining to] Shabbat - such as [if] he detached [a plant in] an unperforated pot or carried in a karmelit - the court is not commanded to [stop] him. Likewise, we do not protest against his father if he let him [do so].

12 יב

אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים לְטַלְטֵל מִקְצָת דְּבָרִים בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחל. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה נָגְעוּ בְּאִסּוּר זֶה. אָמְרוּ וּמָה אִם הִזְהִירוּ נְבִיאִים וְצִוּוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה הִלּוּכְךָ בְּשַׁבָּת כְּהִלּוּכְךָ בְּחל וְלֹא שִׂיחַת הַשַּׁבָּת כְּשִׂיחַת החֹל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה נח יג) "וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר" קַל וָחֹמֶר שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה טִלְטוּל בְּשַׁבָּת כְּטִלְטוּל בְּחל כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה כְּיוֹם חֹל בְּעֵינָיו וְיָבוֹא לְהַגְבִּיהַּ וּלְתַקֵּן כֵּלִים מִפִּנָּה לְפִנָּה אוֹ מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת אוֹ לְהַצְנִיעַ אֲבָנִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא בָּטֵל וְיוֹשֵׁב בְּבֵיתוֹ וִיבַקֵּשׁ דָּבָר שֶׁיִּתְעַסֵּק בּוֹ וְנִמְצָא שֶׁלֹּא שָׁבַת וּבִטֵּל הַטַּעַם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּתוֹרָה (שמות כב יב) (דברים ה יג) "לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ":

The sages forbade the handling of certain articles on the Sabbath in the way they are handled on weekdays. Why did they enact such a prohibition? They reasoned as follows: Inasmuch as the prophets admonished us and charged us not to walk on the Sabbath in the manner we walk on weekdays, nor to converse on the Sabbath in the manner we converse on weekdays, since it is written "nor speaking of it," so much the more should we refrain from handling articles on the Sabbath in the manner they are handled on weekdays, so that one should not regard the Sabbath as if it were a weekday and be led to lift and rearrange articles from one corner to another or from one room to another, or to put stones out of the way, or do similar things. Since one is at leisure and at home, he might look about for something to do; the result would be that he would not rest at all, thus disregarding what is written in the Torah, "that they may rest…" (Exodus 23:12).

13 יג

וְעוֹד כְּשֶׁיְּבַקֵּר וִיטַלְטֵל כֵּלִים שֶׁמְּלַאכְתָּן לְאִסּוּר אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּתְעַסֵּק בָּהֶן מְעַט וְיָבֹא לִידֵי מְלָאכָה. וְעוֹד מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּקְצָת הָעָם אֵינָם בַּעֲלֵי אֻמָּנֻיּוֹת אֶלָּא בְּטֵלִין כָּל יְמֵיהֶן כְּגוֹן הַטַּיָּלִין וְיוֹשְׁבֵי קְרָנוֹת שֶׁכָּל יְמֵיהֶן הֵן שׁוֹבְתִים מִמְּלָאכָה וְאִם יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לְהַלֵּךְ וּלְדַבֵּר וּלְטַלְטֵל כִּשְׁאָר הַיָּמִים נִמְצָא שֶׁלֹּא שָׁבַת שְׁבִיתָה הַנִּכֶּרֶת. לְפִיכָךְ שְׁבִיתָה מִדְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ הִיא שְׁבִיתָה הַשָּׁוָה בְּכָל אָדָם. וּמִפְּנֵי דְּבָרִים אֵלּוּ נָגְעוּ בְּאִסּוּר הַטִּלְטוּל. וְאָסְרוּ שֶׁלֹּא יְטַלְטֵל אָדָם בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא כֵּלִים הַצָּרִיךְ לָהֶם כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:

13 And also when one seeks to move vessels the use of which is for forbidden work, it is possible that that he will occupy himself with them a little and come to do forbidden work. Moreover since some of the people are not craftsmen, but are rather idle all of their days - such as travelers and those that sit on [street] corners - and rest from work all of their days; if it would be permissible to go and to speak and to carry like other days, it would come out that they would not rest a resting [on Shabbat] that is recognizable. Hence resting from these things (as opposed to resting from work) is a resting that is the same with every person. And on account of these things did they [promulgate] the prohibition of carrying. And they prohibited a person on Shabbat from carrying anything but vessels that they need, as will be explained.