Chapter 22כ״ב
1 א

רְדִיַּת הַפַּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְלָאכָה אָסְרוּ אוֹתָהּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁמָּא יָבוֹא לֶאֱפוֹת. הַמַּדְבִּיק פַּת בַּתַּנּוּר מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְקָדַשׁ עָלָיו הַיּוֹם מַצִּיל מִמֶּנָּה מָזוֹן שָׁלֹשׁ סְעֻדּוֹת וְאוֹמֵר לַאֲחֵרִים בּוֹאוּ וְהַצִּילוּ לָכֶם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָרְדִיָּה אֵינָהּ מְלָאכָה כְּשֶׁהוּא מַצִּיל לֹא יִרְדֶּה בְּמִרְדֶּה אֶלָּא בְּסַכִּין כְּדֵי לְשַׁנּוֹת:

1 Even though it is not a forbidden type of work, the Sages forbade peeling off bread [from an oven wall], lest one come to baking. [In the case of] one who affixed bread to an oven while it was still day and the day became sanctified upon him (Shabbat began) - he may save [enough bread] for three meals and say to others, "Come and save [bread] for yourselves." And even though peeling is not a forbidden type of work, he may not peel with a bread peel when he saves it but rather with a knife in order to modify [the process from its usual way].

2 ב

מִפְּנֵי מָה אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים לִכָּנֵס בַּמֶּרְחָץ בְּשַׁבָּת. מִפְּנֵי הַבַּלָּנִין שֶׁהָיוּ מְחִמִּין חַמִּין בְּשַׁבָּת וְאוֹמְרִין מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת הוּחַמּוּ. לְפִיכָךְ גָּזְרוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס אָדָם לַמֶּרְחָץ בְּשַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ לְהַזִּיעַ. וְגָזְרוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁתַּטֵּף כָּל גּוּפוֹ בְּחַמִּין וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּחַמִּין שֶׁהוּחַמּוּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. אֲבָל פָּנָיו יָדָיו וְרַגְלָיו מֻתָּר. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּחַמֵּי הָאוּר גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם מֶרְחָץ. אֲבָל בְּחַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָא וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּטֵּף בָּהֶן כָּל גּוּפוֹ. וְאָסוּר לִרְחֹץ בְּמַיִם חַמִּין שֶׁבַּמְּעָרוֹת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמְּעָרָה יֵשׁ בָּהּ הֶבֶל וְיָבוֹא לִידֵי זֵעָה וְנִמְצֵאת כְּמֶרְחָץ:

2 For what [reason] did the Sages forbid entering a bathhouse on Shabbat? Because of the bath operators that would heat hot water on Shabbat and say it was heated from the eve of Shabbat. Hence they decreed that a man not enter a bathhouse on Shabbat, even to perspire. And they [also] decreed that one may not rinse his entire body with hot water, even if it was heated from the eve of Shabbat. But it is permissible [to rinse] his face, his hands and his feet. To what are these words applicable? To hot water [heated by] fire, [as a] decree on account of a bathhouse. But it is permissible to rinse his entire body with the hot [spring] waters of Tiberius, and that which is similar to it. However it is forbidden to bathe in hot [spring] waters in a cave, because there is vapor in a cave. So one comes to perspiring, and it comes out [being] like a bathhouse.

3 ג

מִתְחַמֵּם אָדָם כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה וְיוֹצֵא וּמִשְׁתַּטֵּף כָּל גּוּפוֹ בְּצוֹנֵן. אֲבָל אֵינוֹ מִשְׁתַּטֵּף כָּל גּוּפוֹ בְּצוֹנֵן וּמִתְחַמֵּם כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּפְשִׁיר מַיִם שֶׁעָלָיו וְנִמְצָא כְּרוֹחֵץ כָּל גּוּפוֹ בְּחַמִּין. הַמֵּבִיא סִילוֹן שֶׁל צוֹנֵן בְּתוֹךְ מַיִם חַמִּין אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ חַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָא הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּחַמִּין שֶׁהוּחַמּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת וַאֲסוּרִין בִּרְחִיצָה וּבִשְׁתִיָּה:

3 One may warm himself up across from a bonfire and go out to rinse all of his body with cold [water]. But he may not rinse his entire body with cold [water] and warm himself up across from a bonfire. Since he thaws the water on himself, it comes out as if he is bathing his entire body in a bathhouse. [In the case of] one who passes a pipe of cold [water] through hot water - even through the hot [spring] waters of Tiberius - [its water] is surely [considered] like water heated on Shabbat, so it is forbidden for bathing and drinking.

4 ד

מֵבִיא אָדָם קִיתוֹן שֶׁל מַיִם וּמַנִּיחוֹ כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה לֹא בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיֵּחַמּוּ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁתָּפוּג צִנָּתָן. וְכֵן מַנִּיחַ פַּךְ שֶׁל שֶׁמֶן כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּפְשַׁר לֹא שֶׁיֵּחַם. וְסָךְ אָדָם יָדוֹ בְּמַיִם אוֹ בְּשֶׁמֶן וּמְחַמֵּם כְּנֶגֶד הַמְּדוּרָה. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יֵחַמּוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁעַל יָדוֹ עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא כְּרֵסוֹ שֶׁל תִּינוֹק נִכְוֵית בָּהֶן. וּמְחַמֵּם בֶּגֶד וּמַנִּיחוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי מֵעַיִם בְּשַׁבָּת:

4 One may bring a jug of cold water and place it opposite a bonfire on Shabbat; not so that the water will heat up, but rather to temper its coldness. Likewise he may take a cruse of oil and place it opposite the bonfire; so that it will thaw, not so that it will heat up. And one may smear his hand with water or with oil and heat it opposite the bonfire. And that is when the water on his hand does not heat up to the point that it would burn the belly of a baby. And one may warm a garment and place it over the intestines on Shabbat.

5 ה

אַמְבְּטִי שֶׁל מֶרְחָץ שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה מַיִם חַמִּים אֵין נוֹתְנִין לָהּ מַיִם צוֹנֵן שֶׁהֲרֵי מְחַמְּמָן הַרְבֵּה. וְכֵן לֹא יִתֵּן לְתוֹכָהּ פַּךְ שֶׁל שֶׁמֶן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כִּמְבַשְּׁלוֹ. אֲבָל נוֹתֵן הוּא מַיִם חַמִּין לְתוֹךְ אַמְבְּטִי שֶׁל צוֹנֵן:

5 We may not place cold [water] into a bathhouse bathtub that is full of hot water; as it surely heats [the cold water] greatly. He may likewise not put a cruse of oil into it, on account of its being like cooking [the oil]. But he may put hot water into a bathtub of cold [water].

6 ו

מֵיחַם שֶׁפִּנָּה מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם חַמִּין מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ מַיִם צוֹנֵן כְּדֵי לְהַפְשִׁירָן. וּמֻתָּר לִצֹּק מַיִם חַמִּין לְתוֹךְ מַיִם צוֹנֵן אוֹ צוֹנֵן לְתוֹךְ הַחַמִּין וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְחַמְּמָן הַרְבֵּה. וְכֵן קְדֵרָה רוֹתַחַת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוֹרִידָהּ מֵעַל הָאֵשׁ לֹא יִתֵּן לְתוֹכָהּ תַּבְלִין אֲבָל נוֹתֵן לְתוֹכָהּ מֶלַח שֶׁהַמֶּלַח אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּשֵּׁל אֶלָּא עַל גַּבֵּי אֵשׁ גְּדוֹלָה. וְאִם יָצַק הַתַּבְשִׁיל מִקְּדֵרָה לִקְעָרָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא רוֹתֵחַ בַּקְּעָרָה מֻתָּר לוֹ לִתֵּן לְתוֹךְ הַקְּעָרָה תַּבְלִין שֶׁכְּלִי שֵׁנִי אֵינוֹ מְבַשֵּׁל:

6 [In the case of] an urn that was emptied of its hot water on Shabbat, it is permissible to put cold water into it in order to thaw it. And it is permissible to pour hot water into cold water and cold into hot, so long as it is not in a vessel [that was on the fire]. For that heats it up greatly. Likewise, one should not put a spice into a pot [of food], even though has been taken off the fire. But one may put salt into it; since salt only gets cooked over a big fire. But if he pours the cooked food from the pot into a bowl, it is permissible to put a spice into the bowl - even though [the food] is [still] scorching in the bowl - as a vessel [to which cooked food is] transferred does not cook [something placed into it].

7 ז

אֵין שׁוֹרִין אֶת הַחִלְתִּית בֵּין בְּפוֹשְׁרִין בֵּין בְּצוֹנֵן אֲבָל שׁוֹרֶה אוֹתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַחֹמֶץ. וְאִם שָׁתָהוּ בְּיוֹם חֲמִישִׁי וְשִׁשִּׁי הֲרֵי זֶה שׁוֹרֶה בְּשַׁבָּת בְּצוֹנֵן וּמַנִּיחוֹ בַּחַמָּה עַד שֶׁיֵּחַם וְשׁוֹתֶה. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֶחֱלֶה אִם פָּסַק מִלִּשְׁתּוֹת:

7 We may not soak asafoetida - whether in lukewarm or whether in cold; but we may soak it in vinegar. However if he drank it on Thursday and Friday, he may surely soak it in cold [water] on Shabbat, place it in the sun until it warms up and drink [it] - so that he not get sick, if he were to stop drinking [it].

8 ח

דָּבָר שֶׁנִתְבַּשֵּׁל קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת אוֹ נִשְׁרָה בְּחַמִּין מִלִּפְנֵי הַשַּׁבָּת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עַכְשָׁו צוֹנֵן מֻתָּר לִשְׁרוֹתוֹ בְּחַמִּין בְּשַׁבָּת. וְדָבָר שֶׁהוּא צוֹנֵן מֵעִקָּרוֹ וְלֹא בָּא בְּחַמִּין מֵעוֹלָם מְדִיחִין אוֹתוֹ בְּחַמִּין בְּשַׁבָּת אִם לֹא הָיְתָה הֲדָחָתוֹ גְּמַר מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲבָל אֵין שׁוֹרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּחַמִּין:

8 [In the case of] something that was cooked before Shabbat or soaked in hot water before Shabbat, it is permissible to soak it in hot water on Shabbat. But [in the case of] something that was originally cold and never came into hot water, we may [only] rinse it in hot water on Shabbat - so long as its rinsing is not the completion of its production. However we may not soak it in hot water.

9 ט

מֻתָּר לְהָחֵם בַּחַמָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסוּר לְהָחֵם בְּתוֹלְדוֹת חַמָּה שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּא לִטְעוֹת מֵחַמָּה לְאוּר. לְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לִתֵּן מַיִם צוֹנֵן בַּשֶּׁמֶשׁ כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּחַמּוּ. וְכֵן נוֹתְנִין מַיִם יָפִים לְתוֹךְ מַיִם רָעִים בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיֵּצַנּוּ. וְנוֹתְנִין תַּבְשִׁיל לְתוֹךְ הַבּוֹר בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיְּהֵא שָׁמוּר:

9 It is permissible to heat [food] in the sun - even though it is forbidden to heat [it] in [something the heat of which] was generated by the sun - since one does not mistake the sun [for] fire. Hence it is permissible to put cold water in the sun so that it will heat up. It is also permissible to put [a receptacle of] good water into [cold] bad water, so that it will cool down; and we may put a cooked food into a pit so that it be protected.

10 י

מְעָרֵב אָדָם מַיִם וּמֶלַח וְשֶׁמֶן וְטוֹבֵל בּוֹ פִּתּוֹ אוֹ נוֹתְנוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל. וְהוּא שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה מְעַט אֲבָל הַרְבֵּה אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה מִמְּלֶאכֶת הַתַּבְשִׁיל. וְכֵן לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה מֵי מֶלַח עַזִּין וְהֵן שְׁנֵי שְׁלִישֵׁי מֶלַח וּשְׁלִישׁ מַיִם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּעוֹשֶׂה מוּרְיָס. וּמֻתָּר לִמְלֹחַ בֵּיצָה אֲבָל צְנוֹן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּכוֹבֵשׁ כְּבָשִׁים בְּשַׁבָּת וְהַכּוֹבֵשׁ אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כִּמְבַשֵּׁל. וּמֻתָּר לִטְבּל צְנוֹן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ בְּמֶלַח וְאוֹכֵל:

10 One may mix water, salt and oil and dip one’s bread into it or put it into a cooked food. And that is when he makes a little [of the mixture]. But [to make] much is forbidden, as it appears as if he is doing one of the procedures [required for] a cooked food. Likewise, he should not make strong salt-water - and that is two thirds salt and one third water - on account of its appearing like he is making fish brine. And it is permissible to salt an egg; but a radish - and that which is similar to it - is forbidden on account of its appearing like he is pickling pickles on Shabbat. And pickling is forbidden because it is like cooking. But it is permissible to dip a radish - and that which is similar to it - into salt and eat [it].

11 יא

מֻתָּר לְעָרֵב יַיִן וּדְבַשׁ וּפִלְפְּלִין בְּשַׁבָּת לְאָכְלָן אֲבָל יַיִן וּמַיִם וְשֶׁמֶן אֲפַרְסְמוֹן אָסוּר שֶׁאֵין זֶה רָאוּי לַאֲכִילַת בְּרִיאִים. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

11 It is permissible on Shabbat to mix wine, honey and pepper, in order to eat it; but wine, water and balsam is prohibited. For it is not fit for healthy people to eat. And likewise all that is similar to this.

12 יב

חַרְדָּל שֶׁלָּשׁוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לְמָחָר מְמַחוֹ בֵּין בְּיָד בֵּין בִּכְלִי וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹכוֹ דְּבַשׁ וְלֹא יִטְרֹף אֶלָּא מְעָרֵב. שַׁחֲלַיִם שֶׁטְּרָפָן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לְמָחָר נוֹתֵן לְתוֹכוֹ שֶׁמֶן וְחֹמֶץ וְתַבְלִין וְלֹא יִטְרֹף אֶלָּא מְעָרֵב. שׁוּם שֶׁרִסְּקוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לְמָחָר נוֹתְנוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַגְּרִיסִין וְלֹא יִשְׁחֹק אֶלָּא מְעָרֵב:

12 [In the case of] mustard that one kneaded on the eve of Shabbat: On the following day, he may dissolve it either by hand or with a vessel, and he may put honey into it. But [when he dissolves it,] he may not beat [it forcefully], but rather mix [it. In the case of] cress that one ground on the eve of Shabbat: On the following day, he may put oil, vinegar and spices into it; but he may not beat [it], but rather mix [it. In the case of] garlic that one crushed on the eve of Shabbat: On the following day, he may put grits into it; but he may not pound [it], but rather mix [it].

13 יג

הַנּוֹטֵל שֵׂעָר מִגּוּף הָאָדָם חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם גּוֹזֵז. לְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לִרְחֹץ אֶת הַיָּדַיִם בִּדְבַר שֶׁמַּשִּׁיר אֶת הַשֵּׂעָר וַדַּאי כְּגוֹן אָהֳלָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ. וּמֻתָּר לָחֹף אֶת הַיָּדַיִם בַּעֲפַר לְבוֹנָה וַעֲפַר פִּלְפְּלִין וַעֲפַר יַסְמִין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַשִּׁיר שֵׂעָר שֶׁעַל יָדוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן. עֵרֵב דָּבָר שֶׁמַּשִּׁיר אֶת הַשֵּׂעָר וַדַּאי עִם דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַשִּׁיר וַדַּאי אִם הָיָה הָרֹב מִדָּבָר הַמַּשִּׁיר אָסוּר לָחֹף בּוֹ וְאִם לָאו מֻתָּר:

13 One who removes hair from a person's body is liable for shearing. Hence it is forbidden to wash one's hands in something that definitely removes hair - such as aloe and that which is similar to it. But it is permissible to scrub one's hands with frankincense powder, pepper powder or jasmine powder and that which is similar to them; and he need not be concerned lest hair on his hands be removed - as he did not intend [it. In the case of] one who mixed something that definitely removes hair with something that does not definitely remove hair: If the majority is from the thing that [definitely] removes [hair], it is forbidden to scrub with it; but if not, it is permissible.

14 יד

אָסוּר לִרְאוֹת בְּמַרְאָה שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת בְּשַׁבָּת גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַשִּׁיר בָּהּ נִימִין הַמְדֻלְדָּלִין מִן הַשֵּׂעָר וַאֲפִלּוּ קָבוּעַ בַּכֹּתֶל. אֲבָל מַרְאָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת מֻתָּר לִרְאוֹת בָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָהּ קְבוּעָה:

14 It is forbidden to look at a metal mirror on Shabbat, [as a] decree lest one remove dangling hairs from his hair - even if it is fixed into a wall. But it is permissible to look at a mirror that is not from metal - even if it is not fixed.

15 טו

הַמְכַבֵּס חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מְלַבֵּן. וְהַסּוֹחֵט כְּסוּת חַיָּב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְכַבֵּס. לְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לִדְחֹק מַטְלִית אוֹ מוֹךְ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן בְּפִי הָאֲשִׁישָׁה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ כְּדֵי לְסָתְמָהּ שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לִידֵי סְחִיטָה. וְאֵין מְקַנְּחִין בִּסְפוֹג אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ לוֹ בֵּית אֲחִיזָה שֶׁלֹּא יִסְחֹט. וְאֵין מְכַסִּין חָבִית שֶׁל מַיִם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ בְּבֶגֶד שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוּכָן לָהּ גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִסְחֹט:

15 One who launders is liable on account of whitening. And one who squeezes [water out of] a garment is liable because he is laundering. Hence it is forbidden to stuff a rag or padding or that which is similar to them into the top of a jug or that which is similar to it in order to stop it up, lest one come to squeezing. And we may not wipe with a sponge - unless it has a handle - so that one not squeeze. And we may not cover a barrel of water and that which is similar to it with a garment that is not designated for it, [as a] decree lest one squeeze.

16 טז

נִשְׁבְּרָה לוֹ חָבִית בְּשַׁבָּת מַצִּיל מִמֶּנָּה מַה שֶּׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לְשַׁבָּת לוֹ וּלְאוֹרְחָיו וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִסְפֹּג בְּיַיִן אוֹ יְטַפַּח בְּשֶׁמֶן שֶׁאִם יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחל שֶׁמָּא יָבוֹא לִידֵי סְחִיטָה. וְכֵיצַד מַצִּיל מִמֶּנָּה. מֵבִיא כְּלִי וּמַנִּיחַ תַּחְתֶּיהָ. וְלֹא יָבִיא כְּלִי אַחֵר וְיִקְלֹט כְּלִי אַחֵר וִיצָרֵף גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָבִיא כְּלִי דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. נִזְדַּמְּנוּ לוֹ אוֹרְחִים מֵבִיא כְּלִי אַחֵר וְקוֹלֵט כְּלִי אַחֵר וּמְצָרְפוֹ לָרִאשׁוֹן. וְלֹא יִקְלֹט וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַזְמִין אֶלָּא יַזְמִין וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִקְלֹט. וְאִם הֶעֱרִים בְּדָבָר זֶה מֻתָּר:

16 [In the case of] one whose barrel breaks on Shabbat, he may save what he needs for Shabbat from it - for himself and for his guests - so long as he does not sponge up the wine or collect the oil (with his hand). For if he will act as he does on [weekdays], he will perhaps come to squeezing. So how does he save [wine or oil] from it? He brings a vessel and places it underneath it. But he may not bring another vessel and collect [it in the air], and another vessel and attach [it to the barrel, as a] decree lest he bring a vessel through the public domain. [But if] guests chanced upon him, he may bring another vessel and collect [it], and another vessel and attach it to the first. But he may not gather [with an extra vessel] and afterwards invite [guests], but must rather invite [guests] and afterwards gather. And if he acted craftily in the matter, it is permissible.

17 יז

טִיט שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי בִּגְדוֹ מְכַסְכְּסוֹ מִבִּפְנִים וְאֵינוֹ מְכַסְכְּסוֹ מִבַּחוּץ גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יְכַבֵּס. וּמֻתָּר לְגָרְדוֹ בְּצִפֹּרֶן וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא יְלַבְּנוֹ. הַמְכַסְכֵּס אֶת הַסּוּדָר אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְלַבְּנוֹ אֲבָל הֶחָלוּק מֻתָּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ אֶלָּא לְרַכְּכוֹ:

17 [In the case of] mud on one's garment, one may rub it from the inside. But he may not rub it from the surface, [as a] decree lest he launder. But it is permissible to scratch it off with his fingernail, and he need not be concerned lest he whiten it. It is forbidden to rub a scarf, since he whitens it [by doing so]; but it is permissible [to do so] with a cloak - since his intention is only to soften it.

18 יח

מִנְעָל אוֹ סַנְדָּל שֶׁנִּתְלַכְלֵךְ בְּטִיט וּבְצוֹאָה מֻתָּר לְשַׁכְשְׁכוֹ בְּמַיִם אֲבָל לְכַבְּסוֹ אָסוּר. וְאֵין מְגָרְדִּין לֹא מִנְעָלִים וְלֹא סַנְדָּלִים חֲדָשִׁים אֲבָל סָכִין (אוֹתָם) וּמְקַנְּחִין אֶת הַיְשָׁנִים. כַּר אוֹ כֶּסֶת שֶׁהָיָה עֲלֵיהֶן צוֹאָה אוֹ טִנּוּף מְקַנְּחוֹ בִּסְמַרְטוּט. וְאִם הָיְתָה עַל שֶׁל עוֹר נוֹתְנִין עָלֶיהָ מַיִם עַד שֶׁתִּכְלֶה:

18 It is permissible to rinse with water a sandal or a shoe that was dirtied by mud or dung; but if it forbidden to launder it. However, we may not scrape new sandals nor new shoes, but we may smear (them) [with oil]; and we may wipe old ones. We may [use] a rag to wipe off a pillow or bed cover that had mud or dung on it. But if it was on [pillow or bed cover] of leather, we may put water on it until it comes off.

19 יט

מִי שֶׁנִּתְלַכְלְכָה יָדוֹ בְּטִיט מְקַנְּחָהּ בִּזְנַב הַסּוּס וּבִזְנַב הַפָּרָה וּבְמַפָּה הַקָּשָׁה הָעֲשׂוּיָה לֶאֱחֹז בָּהּ הַקּוֹצִים. אֲבָל לֹא בְּמַפָּה שֶׁמְּקַנְּחִין בָּהּ אֶת הַיָּדַיִם שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחל וְיָבוֹא לְכַבֵּס אֶת הַמַּפָּה:

19 [In the case of] one who dirtied his hands with mud, he may wipe them with a horse's tail or a cow's tail or with a stiff handkerchief made to hold thorns. But [he may] not [do so] with a handkerchief with which we wipe our hands, so that he not act in the way that he does on [weekdays] and come to launder the handkerchief.

20 כ

מִי שֶׁרָחַץ בְּמַיִם מִסְתַּפֵּג בַּאֲלֻנְטִיתוֹ וּמְבִיאָהּ בְּיָדוֹ וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִסְחֹט. וְכֵן מִי שֶׁנָּשְׁרוּ כֵּלָיו בְּמַיִם מְהַלֵּךְ בָּהֶן וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִסְחֹט. וְאָסוּר לוֹ לְשָׁטְחָן וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר הָרוֹאֶה הֲרֵי זֶה כִּבֵּס כְּסוּתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וּשְׁטָחָהּ לְיַבְּשָׁהּ. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן אֲפִלּוּ בְּחַדְרֵי חֲדָרִים אָסוּר:

20. One who bathed in water may dry himself with a towel and bring it in his hand, and we need not concern ourselves lest he squeeze [it]. Likewise, one whose clothes got soaked with water can walk in them, and we need not concern ourselves lest he squeeze [them]. But it is forbidden for him to squeeze it - even in his house - [as a] decree lest an observer say, "He surely laundered his garment on Shabbat and he is [now] squeezing it to dry it." And [regarding] every place that the Sages forbade [something] on account of appearance, it is forbidden even in an inner chamber.

21 כא

שְׁתֵּי מְטַהְרוֹת זוֹ עַל גַּב זוֹ נוֹטֵל אֶת הַפְּקָק מִבֵּינְתַיִם וּמְשִׁיקָן וּמַחֲזִיר אֶת הַפְּקָק לִמְקוֹמוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּא לִידֵי סְחִיטָה שֶׁהֲרֵי דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁיֵּצְאוּ הַמַּיִם. וּפוֹקְקִין אֶת הַבִּיב בְּסוּדָרִין וּבְכָל דָּבָר הַמִּטַּלְטֵל כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָצוּפוּ הַמַּיִם עַל הָאֳכָלִים וְעַל הַכֵּלִים. אֲבָל אֵין פּוֹקְקִין אֶת הַבִּיב כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ הַמַּיִם לַבּוֹר שֶׁמָּא יִסְחֹט בְּעֵת שֶׁדּוֹחֵק שֶׁהֲרֵי הַפְּקָק שָׁרוּי בְּמַיִם:

21 One may remove [an absorbent] plug between two purifying pools, on top of one another, in order to connect them; [and then] put it back - since he will not come to squeezing [the plug by inserting it snugly]; as his thought is that water come out [through the plug from one pool to another]. And we may plug up drainage pools with scarves and with any movable item, so that the water not inundate foods and vessels. But we may not plug up a pool so that the water descend into a pit, lest he squeeze when he inserts it snugly. For the plug is soaked with water.

22 כב

אָסוּר לְתַקֵּן בֵּית יָד שֶׁל בְּגָדִים וּלְשַׁבְּרָם שְׁבָרִים שְׁבָרִים כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמְּתַקְּנִין בְּחל הַבְּגָדִים כְּשֶׁמְּכַבְּסִין אוֹתָן. וְכֵן אֵין מְקַפְּלִים הַבְּגָדִים בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בְּחל בַּבְּגָדִים כְּשֶׁיְּכַבְּסוּ אוֹתָן. וְאִם לֹא הָיָה לוֹ כְּלִי אַחֵר לְהַחֲלִיפוֹ מֻתָּר לְקַפְּלוֹ וּלְפָשְׁטוֹ וּלְהִתְכַּסּוֹת בּוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְנָאֶה בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בֶּגֶד חָדָשׁ לָבָן שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מִתְמַעֵךְ וּמִתְלַכְלֵךְ מִיָּד. וּכְשֶׁיְּקַפֵּל לֹא יְקַפֵּל אֶלָּא אִישׁ אֶחָד אֲבָל לְקַפֵּל בִּשְׁנַיִם אָסוּר:

22 It is forbidden to arrange the sleeves of clothes and to place many pleats in them, in the way that one arranges clothing on [weekdays] at the time that he launders them. We may likewise not fold clothes on Shabbat in the way that we do on [weekdays] with clothes when they are laundered. But if he has no other garment with which to change, it is permissible to fold it and stretch [it], and [then] to cover himself with it - so as to be adorned by it on Shabbat. And that is when the garment is new and white, since it surely gets crushed and dirtied immediately. And when he folds, only one person should fold; but with two, it is forbidden.

23 כג

הַצּוֹבֵעַ מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת לְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לְאִשָּׁה לְהַעֲבִיר סְרָק עַל פָּנֶיהָ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כְּצוֹבַעַת. וְהַתּוֹפֵר מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת לְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לְמַלְּאוֹת הַכַּר וְהַכֶּסֶת הַחֲדָשִׁים בְּמוֹכִין גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִתְפֹּר. אֲבָל מוֹכִין שֶׁנָּשְׁרוּ מִן הַכַּר אוֹ מִן הַכֶּסֶת מַחְזִירִין אוֹתָן בְּשַׁבָּת:

23 Dying is [one] of the primary categories of forbidden work.. Hence it is forbidden for a woman to apply rouge to her face; since it is like she is dying. And sewing is [also] one of the forbidden types of work. Hence it is forbidden to fill a new pillow or bed cover with padding, [as a] decree lest one sew. But it is permissible on Shabbat to restore padding that fell from a pillow or bed cover.

24 כד

הַקּוֹרֵעַ מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת. לְפִיכָךְ מִי שֶׁנִּסְתַּבְּכוּ בְּגָדָיו בְּקוֹצִים מַפְרִישָׁן בְּצִנְעָה וּמִתְמַהְמֵהַּ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִקְרַע. וְאִם נִקְרְעוּ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב כְּלוּם שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִתְכַּוִּן. וּמֻתָּר לִלְבּשׁ בְּגָדִים חֲדָשִׁים וְאִם נִקְרְעוּ נִקְרְעוּ. פּוֹצְעִין אֶת הָאֱגוֹז בְּמַטְלִית וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא תִּקָּרַע:

24 Tearingis [one] of the primary categories of forbidden work. Hence one whose clothes got caught in thorns should - in private - separate them haltingly, so that they not tear. But if they tear, he is not liable at all, as he surely did not intend [it]. And it is permissible to wear new clothes (that are more likely to tear); and if they tear, they tear. We may break a nut with a cloth and we need not be concerned lest it tear.

25 כה

הַתּוֹקֵעַ חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה. לְפִיכָךְ כָּל הַדְּלָתוֹת הַמְחֻבָּרוֹת לַקַּרְקַע לֹא נוֹטְלִין אוֹתָן וְלֹא מַחְזִירִין גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִתְקַע. אֲבָל דֶּלֶת שִׁדָּה תֵּבָה וּמִגְדָּל וּשְׁאָר דַּלְתוֹת הַכֵּלִים נוֹטְלִין וְלֹא מַחְזִירִין. וְאִם נִשְׁמַט צִיר הַתַּחְתּוֹן שֶׁלָּהֶן דּוֹחֲקִין אוֹתוֹ לִמְקוֹמוֹ. וּבַמִּקְדָּשׁ מַחְזִירִין אוֹתוֹ. אֲבָל צִיר הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁנִּשְׁמַט אָסוּר לְהַחֲזִירוֹ בְּכָל מָקוֹם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִתְקַע:

25 One who implants is liable on account of building. Hence we do not remove any doors attached to the ground, nor do we put them back - lest one implant [its bolts or hinges]. But we may remove the door of a chest, or of a box or of a closet; however we may not put them back. And if their bottom hinge [partially] slipped out, we may insert it snugly back in its place. But we may put it back [if it is located] in the Temple [even if it completely fell out]. However [if] the upper hinge [partially] slipped out, it is forbidden to put it back anywhere - [as a] decree lest he implant [it].

26 כו

אֵין גּוֹדְלִין אֶת שְׂעַר הָרֹאשׁ וְאֵין פּוֹקְסִין אוֹתוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה. וְאֵין מַחְזִירִין מְנוֹרָה שֶׁל חֻלְיוֹת וְלֹא כִּסֵּא הַמְפֻצָּל וְלֹא שֻׁלְחָן הַמְפֻצָּל וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה. וְאִם הֶחֱזִיר פָּטוּר שֶׁאֵין בִּנְיָן בְּכֵלִים וְאֵין סְתִירָה בְּכֵלִים. וְאִם הָיָה רָפוּי מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִירוֹ. וְאֵין מְתַקְּנִין חֻלְיוֹת שֶׁל שִׁדְרָה שֶׁל קָטָן זוֹ בְּצַד זוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּבוֹנֶה:

26 We may not braid nor part the hair on the head, as it appears like building. And we may not put back [together] a candelabrum made of rings, nor a chair made of parts, nor a table made of parts nor what is similar to them - as it appears like building. But if one put it back [together], he is exempt - as there is no [true] building regarding vessels; nor is there any [true] demolishing regarding vessels. But if it was [only] loose, we may put it back [together]. And we may not position the vertebrae of an infant one besides the other, as it appears like building.

27 כז

הָעוֹשֶׂה אֹהֶל קָבוּעַ חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין עוֹשִׂין אֹהֶל עֲרַאי לְכַתְּחִלָּה וְלֹא סוֹתְרִין אֹהֶל עֲרַאי גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַעֲשֶׂה אוֹ יִסְתֹּר אֹהֶל קָבוּעַ. וְאִם עָשָׂה אוֹ סָתַר אֹהֶל עֲרַאי פָּטוּר. וּמֻתָּר לְהוֹסִיף עַל אֹהֶל עֲרַאי בְּשַׁבָּת. כֵּיצַד. טַלִּית שֶׁהָיְתָה פְּרוּסָה עַל הָעַמּוּדִים אוֹ עַל הַכְּתָלִים וְהָיְתָה כְּרוּכָה קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת אִם נִשְׁאָר מִמֶּנָּה גַּג טֶפַח מָתוּחַ הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹתֵחַ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה אֹהֶל גָּדוֹל. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

27 One who makes a permanent tent is liable for building. Hence we do not make a temporary tent, at the outset, nor demolish a temporary tent, [as a] decree lest one make or demolish a permanent tent. But if one did make or demolish a temporary tent, he is exempt. However it is permissible to add to a temporary tent on Shabbat. How is that? [In the case of] a cloak (talit) that was spread over pillars or over walls and tied down before Shabbat: If there was a roof of a handbreadth left spread out, he may surely spread it all out on Shabbat - to the point that it becomes a large tent. And likewise all that is similar to this.

28 כח

אֵין תּוֹלִין אֶת הַכִּלָּה שֶׁהֲרֵי נַעֲשֵׂית תַּחְתֶּיהָ אֹהֶל עֲרַאי. וּמֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחַ מִטָּה וְכִסֵּא וּטְרַסְקָל וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה תַּחְתֵּיהֶן אֹהֶל שֶׁאֵין זֶה דֶּרֶךְ עֲשִׂיַּת אֹהֶל לֹא קֶבַע וְלֹא עֲרַאי:

28 We may not suspend a canopy; as a temporary tent is surely formed under it. But it is permissible to place down a bed, a chair or an elevated basket – even though a tent is formed under them – as this is not the way of making a tent, neither a permanent one nor a temporary one.

29 כט

כָּל אֹהֶל מְשֻׁפָּע שֶׁאֵין בְּגַגּוֹ טֶפַח וְלֹא בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לְגַגּוֹ רֹחַב טֶפַח הֲרֵי זֶה אֹהֶל עֲרַאי וְהָעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּשַׁבָּת פָּטוּר. טַלִּית כְּפוּלָה שֶׁהָיוּ עָלֶיהָ חוּטִין שֶׁהִיא תְּלוּיָה בָּהֶן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת מֻתָּר לִנְטוֹתָהּ וּמֻתָּר לְפָרְקָהּ וְכֵן הַפָּרֹכֶת:

29 Any tent that does not have [a width of] three handbreadths - in its roof, or within three handbreadths of its roof - is surely a temporary tent. So one who make it at the outset on Shabbat is exempt. [In the case of] a cloak doubled up (as a makeshift tent) that has strings attached, from which it was suspended on the eve of Shabbat: It is permissible to extend it and it is permissible to remove it. And likewise with a curtain.

30 ל

כִּלַּת חֲתָנִים שֶׁאֵין בְּגַגָּהּ טֶפַח וְאֵין בְּפָחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה סָמוּךְ לְגַגָּהּ רֹחַב טֶפַח. הוֹאִיל שֶׁהִיא מְתֻקֶּנֶת לְכָךְ מֻתָּר לִנְטוֹתָהּ וּמֻתָּר לְפָרְקָהּ וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא תְּהֵא מְשֻׁלְשֶׁלֶת מֵעַל הַמִּטָּה טֶפַח. פְּקַק הַחַלּוֹן בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא מְתֻקָּן לְכָךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָשׁוּר וְאֵינוֹ תָּלוּי מֻתָּר לִפְקֹק בּוֹ הַחַלּוֹן:

30 A groom's canopy that does not have [a width of] three handbreadths - in its roof, or within three handbreadths of its roof - is permissible to extend and permissible to remove, since it is designed for this [purpose]. And that is so long as the canopy is not draped a handbreadth over the bed. [In the case of] a window shutter: When it is designed for this, it is permissible to shutter the window with it - even though it was not tied to, nor hanging from, the window.

31 לא

כּוֹבַע שֶׁעוֹשִׂין עַל הָרֹאשׁ וְיֵשׁ לוֹ שָׂפָה מַקֶּפֶת שֶׁהִיא עוֹשָׂה צֵל כְּמוֹ אֹהֶל עַל לְבוּשׁוֹ מֻתָּר לְלָבְשׁוֹ. וְאִם הוֹצִיא מִן הַבֶּגֶד סָבִיב לְרֹאשׁוֹ אוֹ כְּנֶגֶד פָּנָיו כְּמוֹ אֹהֶל וְהָיָה מְהֻדָּק עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְהָיְתָה הַשָּׂפָה שֶׁהוֹצִיאָהּ קָשָׁה בְּיוֹתֵר כְּמוֹ גַּג אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה אֹהֶל עֲרַאי:

31 It is permitted to wear a hat that we [put] on the head with a brim surrounding [it], which makes shade like a tent over one's clothes. But if one's clothing came out around his head or across from his face like a tent and it was tight on his head and it was very stiff like a roof, it is forbidden - since it forms a temporary tent.

32 לב

הַנּוֹטֶה פָּרֹכֶת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ צָרִיךְ לְהִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה אֹהֶל בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנּוֹטֶה לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיְתָה פָּרֹכֶת גְּדוֹלָה תּוֹלִין אוֹתָהּ שְׁנַיִם אֲבָל אֶחָד אָסוּר. וְאִם הָיְתָה כִּלָּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ גַּג אֵין מוֹתְחִין אוֹתָהּ וַאֲפִלּוּ עֲשָׂרָה שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא תִּגְבַּהּ מְעַט מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ וְתֵעָשֶׂה אֹהֶל עֲרַאי:

32 One who extends a curtain, and that which is similar to it, must beware that it not form a tent at the time that he extends [it]. Hence if it was a big curtain, two people must suspend it. But it is forbidden [with only] one. However if it was a canopy that has a roof, we may not [extend it] - even with ten. For it is impossible that it will not be lifted up a little [horizontally] above the ground and [so] form a temporary tent.

33 לג

בֶּגֶד שֶׁמְּכַסֶּה בּוֹ פִּי הֶחָבִית לֹא יְכַסֶּה בּוֹ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה אֹהֶל אֲבָל מְכַסֶּה הוּא מִקְצָת פִּיהָ. הַמְסַנֵּן בִּכְפִיפָה מִצְרִית לֹא יַגְבִּיהַּ קַרְקָעִית הַכְּפִיפָה מִן הַכְּלִי טֶפַח כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה אֹהֶל עֲרַאי בְּשַׁבָּת:

33 [In the case of] a garment that covers the top of a barrel, one should not cover all of it with it - as it forms a tent - but he may cover part of its top. One who uses an Egyptian basket as a filter, should not raise it a handbreadth over the receptacle, so that it not form a temporary tent on Shabbat.