Chapter 20כ׳
1 א

אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיא מַשָּׂא עַל הַבְּהֵמָה בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג יב) "לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ שׁוֹרְךָ וַחֲמֹרֶךָ" וְכָל בְּהֶמְתֶּךָ. אֶחָד שׁוֹר וַחֲמוֹר וְאֶחָד כָּל בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף. וְאִם הוֹצִיא עַל הַבְּהֵמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מְצֻוֶּה עַל שְׁבִיתָתָהּ אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה לְפִי שֶׁאִסּוּרוֹ בָּא מִכְּלַל עֲשֵׂה. לְפִיכָךְ הַמְחַמֵּר אַחַר בְּהֶמְתּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְהָיָה עָלֶיהָ מַשּׂאוֹי פָּטוּר:

1 It is forbidden to transport a load upon a beast on Shabbat; as it is stated (Exodus 23:12), "in order that your ox and your donkey (and all your animals) rest." It is the same whether it is an ox or a donkey or whether it is any beast, animal or fowl. But if he did transport [a load] on a beast - even though he is commanded about its rest - he is not lashed; as its prohibition [only] comes from the inference of a positive commandment. Hence one who drives behind his beast while it had a load upon it on Shabbat is exempt

2 ב

וַהֲלֹא לָאו מְפֹרָשׁ בַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ י) "לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה כָל מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתֶךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ", שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲרשׁ בָּהּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בַּחֲרִישָׁה. וְנִמְצָא לָאו שֶׁנִּתָּן לְאַזְהָרַת מִיתַת בֵּית דִּין וְאֵין לוֹקִין עָלָיו:

2 But is it not an explicit negative commandment in the Torah, as it is stated (Exodus 20:10), "you shall not do any work—you, your son or daughter, your slave or your maidservant, or your cattle?" This is that one should not plow with it and that which is similar to it; such that it comes out that it is a negative commandment that is given to a death penalty of the court - and we do not give lashes [in such a case].

3 ג

אָסוּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַשְׁאִיל אוֹ לְהַשְׂכִּיר בְּהֵמָה גַּסָּה לְנָכְרִי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה בָּהּ מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת וַהֲרֵי הוּא מְצֻוֶּה עַל שְׁבִיתַת בְּהֶמְתּוֹ. אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים לִמְכֹּר בְּהֵמָה גַּסָּה לְנָכְרִי שֶׁמָּא יַשְׁאִיל אוֹ יַשְׂכִּיר. וְאִם מָכַר קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ עַד עֲשָׂרָה בְּדָמֶיהָ וּמַחֲזִירָהּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁבוּרָה אֵין מוֹכְרִין. וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לִמְכֹּר לָהֶם עַל יְדֵי סַרְסוּר שֶׁהַסַּרְסוּר אֵינוֹ מַשְׂכִּיר וְאֵינוֹ מַשְׁאִיל:

3 It is forbidden for an Israelite to lend or rent his large livestock to a gentile, so that it not do work on Shabbat; as [the Israelite] is surely [still] commanded about its rest. The Sages forbade selling large livestock to a gentile, lest [the Israelite also] lend or rent [them to him]. And if he sold [it], we penalize him [to repurchase it at up to] ten times the price and bring it back. And we do not sell [it] even if it is broken. But it is permissible to sell to them through an agent, as an agent does not lend or rent.

4 ד

וּמֻתָּר לִמְכֹּר לָהֶם סוּס שֶׁאֵין הַסּוּס עוֹמֵד אֶלָּא לִרְכִיבַת אָדָם לֹא לְמַשּׂאוֹי וְהַחַי נוֹשֵׂא אֶת עַצְמוֹ. וּכְדֶרֶךְ שֶׁאָסְרוּ לִמְכֹּר לְנָכְרִי כָּךְ אָסְרוּ לִמְכֹּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל הֶחָשׁוּד לִמְכֹּר לְנָכְרִי. וּמֻתָּר לִמְכֹּר לָהֶם פָּרָה לִשְׁחִיטָה וְשׁוֹחֵט אוֹתָהּ בְּפָנָיו. וְלֹא יִמְכֹּר סְתָם אֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹר שֶׁל פְּטָם שֶׁמָּא יַשְׁהֵא אוֹתוֹ וְיַעֲבֹד בּוֹ:

4 And it is permissible to sell them a horse. For a horse is only given to riding and not to [carry] a load; and a living being (the rider) carries itself. And in the same way as they forbade to sell to a gentile, they also forbade to sell to an Israelite that is suspected of selling to a gentile. And it is permissible to sell a cow to [gentiles] for slaughter, when he slaughters it in front of him. But one may not sell even a fattened ox without specification, lest he hold it over and do work with it.

5 ה

מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לִמְכֹּר לָהֶן בְּהֵמָה דַּקָּה מוֹכְרִין. מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִמְכֹּר אֵין מוֹכְרִין. וּבְכָל מָקוֹם אֵין מוֹכְרִין לָהֶם חַיָּה גַּסָּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֵין מוֹכְרִין לָהֶם בְּהֵמָה גַּסָּה אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי סַרְסוּר:

5 We may sell small livestock in a place where they are accustomed to selling them; we may not sell them in a place where they are accustomed not to sell. But we do not sell them large wild animals anywhere, in the same way that we do not sell them large livestock - except through an agent.

6 ו

מִי שֶׁהֶחְשִׁיךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְלֹא הָיָה עִמּוֹ נָכְרִי שֶׁיִּתֵּן לוֹ כִּיסוֹ וְהָיְתָה עִמּוֹ בְּהֵמָה. מַנִּיחַ כִּיסוֹ עָלֶיהָ כְּשֶׁהִיא מְהַלֶּכֶת וּכְשֶׁתִּרְצֶה לַעֲמֹד נוֹטְלוֹ מֵעָלֶיהָ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תַּעֲמֹד וְהוּא עָלֶיהָ וּכְדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּהְיֶה שָׁם לֹא עֲקִירָה וְלֹא הַנָּחָה. וְאָסוּר לוֹ לְהַנְהִיגָהּ וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּקוֹל כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַכִּיס עָלֶיהָ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה מְחַמֵּר בְּשַׁבָּת. וּגְזֵרַת חֲכָמִים הִיא שֶׁלֹּא יַנִּיחַ כִּיסוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי בְּהֵמָה אֶלָּא אִם אֵין עִמּוֹ נָכְרִי:

6 [In the case of] one upon whom it became [night] on the road [at the onset of Shabbat] and there was no gentile with him that he should give him his purse, but he did have an animal with him: He should place his purse upon it while it is walking and pick it up from it when it wants to stop; so that it not stop while it is upon it, such that there not be a picking up or a putting down [of the purse]. And it is forbidden for him to drive it so long as the purse is upon it - even with his voice - so that he not drive [an animal] on Shabbat. And the Sages decreed that he should not place his purse on top of an animal unless there is no gentile with him.

7 ז

הָיָה עִמּוֹ חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן מַנִּיחַ כִּיסוֹ עַל הַחֲמוֹר וְאֵינוֹ נוֹתְנוֹ לְאֶחָד מֵהֶן מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. הָיָה עִמּוֹ חֵרֵשׁ וְשׁוֹטֶה וְאֵין עִמּוֹ בְּהֵמָה נוֹתְנוֹ לְשׁוֹטֶה. שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן נוֹתְנוֹ לְשׁוֹטֶה. חֵרֵשׁ וְקָטָן נוֹתְנוֹ לְאֵי זֶה מֵהֶן שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. לֹא הָיְתָה עִמּוֹ בְּהֵמָה וְלֹא נָכְרִי וְלֹא אֶחָד מִכָּל אֵלּוּ מְהַלֵּךְ בּוֹ פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת. וַאֲפִלּוּ מְצִיאָה שֶׁבָּאָה לְיָדוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת. אֲבָל קֹדֶם שֶׁתָּבוֹא לְיָדוֹ אִם יָכוֹל לְהַחְשִׁיךְ עָלֶיהָ מַחְשִׁיךְ וְאִם לָאו מוֹלִיכָהּ פָּחוֹת פָּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת:

7 If there was a deaf-mute, a mentally impaired person and an infant with him, he places his purse on the donkey and does not it give it to one of them - as they are Israelite people. [If] there was a deaf-mute and a mentally impaired person with him and there was no animal, he gives it to the mentally impaired person; a mentally impaired person and an infant, he gives it to the mentally impaired person; a deaf-mute and an infant, he gives it to either one that he wants. If there was no animal with him nor a gentile nor one of all these - he may move it repeatedly less than four ells. And he may even move a found object that comes to his hand repeatedly less than four ells. But before it comes to his hand [in that case] - if he can wait for darkness (until the end of Shabbat) - he should wait for darkness over it. But if not, he may move it repeatedly less than four ells.

8 ח

מֻתָּר לִמְשֹׁךְ אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה בְּמֶתֶג וָרֶסֶן שֶׁלָּהּ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהוּא שֶׁתִּהְיֶה רְאוּיָה לְאוֹתוֹ הָרֶסֶן. כְּגוֹן שִׁיר לְסוּס וְאַפְסָר לְגָמָל וַחֲטָם לְנָאקָה וְסוּגַר לְכֶלֶב. אֲבָל אִם הוֹצִיא בְּהֵמָה בְּמֶתֶג שֶׁאֵין מִשְׁתַּמֶּרֶת בּוֹ כְּגוֹן שֶׁקָּשַׁר חֶבֶל בְּפִי הַסּוּס אוֹ בְּמֶתֶג שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לוֹ אֶלָּא מִשְׁתַּמֶּרֶת בְּפָחוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ. כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוֹצִיא חֲמוֹר בְּשִׁיר שֶׁל סוּס אוֹ חָתוּל בְּסוּגַר הֲרֵי זֶה מַשּׂאוֹי. שֶׁכָּל שְׁמִירָה מְעֻלָּה אוֹ שְׁמִירָה פְּחוּתָה מַשּׂאוֹי הוּא לָהּ:

8 It is permissible to pull an animal with its bit and its bridle into the public domain - and that is when it is fit for that bridle, such as a chain for a horse, a bit for a camel, a chatam (iron nose ring) for a naka (a white female camel) and a collar for a dog. But if one takes an animal out with a bridle that does not guard it - such as if he tied a rope in the mouth of a horse - or with a bit that it does not need, since it can be guarded with less that - such as if he took a donkey out with a horse's chain or a cat with a collar - it is surely a load [for the animal]. For any superior or inferior guarding (as opposed to a certain animal's standard guarding) is a load.

9 ט

לֹא יִקְשֹׁר גְּמַלִּים זֶה בָּזֶה וְיִמְשֹׁךְ אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ קְשׁוּרִין מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אֵינָן נִמְשָׁכִין בְּשַׁבָּת. אֲבָל מַכְנִיס הוּא חֲבָלִים לְתוֹךְ יָדוֹ וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יֵצֵא חֶבֶל מִתּוֹךְ יָדוֹ טֶפַח. וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַחֶבֶל שֶׁמִּפִּי הַבְּהֵמָה עַד יָדוֹ גָּבוֹהַּ מִן הָאָרֶץ טֶפַח אוֹ יוֹתֵר. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה לֹא יִמְשֹׁךְ הַגְּמַלִּים הַקְּשׁוּרִים זֶה בָּזֶה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא נִרְאֶה כְּמִי שֶׁמּוֹלִיכָן לְשׁוּק שֶׁמּוֹכְרִין בּוֹ הַבְּהֵמוֹת אוֹ שֶׁמְּשַׂחֲקִין בָּהֶן שָׁם. וּמִפְּנֵי זֶה לֹא תֵּצֵא בְּהֵמָה בְּזוֹג שֶׁבְּצַוָּארָהּ וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה פָּקוּק שֶׁאֵין לוֹ קוֹל:

9 One should not tie camels together and pull them, even if they were tied from the eve of Shabbat. But he may put [all of their individual] ropes into his hand; and that is when [the ends] do not come out of his hand a handbreadth. And the rope that goes from the mouth of the animal to his hand must be a handbreadth or more off of the ground. And why may he not pull camels tied together? Because it appears like one who is moving them to a marketplace in which they are selling animals or using them for entertainment there. And because of this, an animal should not go out with a bell [suspended from] its neck, even if it is stopped up such that it [makes] no sound.

10 י

לֹא תֵּצֵא בְּהֵמָה בְּזוּג שֶׁבִּכְסוּתָהּ וְלֹא בְּחוֹתָם שֶׁבְּצַוָּארָהּ וְלֹא בְּחוֹתָם שֶׁבִּכְסוּתָהּ וְלֹא בִּרְצוּעָה שֶׁבְּרַגְלָהּ וְלֹא בְּסֻלָּם שֶׁבְּצַוָּארָהּ. וְאֵין חֲמוֹר יוֹצֵא בְּמַרְדַּעַת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיְתָה קְשׁוּרָה לוֹ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. וְלֹא יֵצֵא גָּמָל בַּמְּטוּטֶלֶת הַתְּלוּיָה לוֹ בְּדַבַּשְׁתּוֹ אוֹ בִּזְנָבוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיְתָה קְשׁוּרָה בִּזְנָבוֹ וְחוֹטַרְתּוֹ. וְלֹא יֵצֵא הַגָּמָל עֲקוּד יָד וְלֹא עֲקוּד רֶגֶל וְכֵן שְׁאָר כָּל הַבְּהֵמוֹת:

10 An animal may not go out with a bell on its raiment, nor with a seal on its neck, nor with a leash on its leg nor a 'ladder' on its neck. And a donkey may not go out with a saddlecloth unless it was tied to it from the eve of Shabbat. And a camel may not go out with a cloth connected to its [hump] or its tail, but rather only if it is tied to both its tail and its hump. And a camel may not go out with its foreleg tied, nor its back leg tied. And likewise with all animals.

11 יא

אֵין הַתַּרְנְגוֹלִים יוֹצְאִין בְּחוּטִין וְלֹא בָּרְצוּעוֹת שֶׁבְּרַגְלֵיהֶם. וְאֵין הַכְּבָשִׂין יוֹצְאִין בָּעֲגָלָה שֶׁתַּחַת אַלְיָה שֶׁלָּהֶן. וְאֵין הַכְּבָשׂוֹת יוֹצְאוֹת בָּעֵצִים שֶׁמַּנִּיחִים לָהֶן בְּחָטְמָן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְעַטְּשׁוּ וְיִפְּלוּ הַתּוֹלָעִין שֶׁבְּמֹחָן. וְאֵין הָעֵגֶל יוֹצֵא בְּעל קָטָן שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין לוֹ עַל צַוָּארוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּכָּנַע וְיִהְיֶה נוֹחַ לַחֲרִישָׁה. וְלֹא תֵּצֵא בְּהֵמָה בִּשְׂבָכָה שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין לָהּ בְּפִיהָ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּשֹּׁךְ אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא תֹּאכַל. לֹא תֵּצֵא הַפָּרָה בְּעוֹר הַקּוּפָּר שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין לָהּ עַל דַּדֶּיהָ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִינַק מִמֶּנָּה הַשֶּׁרֶץ כְּשֶׁהִיא יְשֵׁנָה. וְלֹא תֵּצֵא בָּרְצוּעָה שֶׁבֵּין קַרְנֶיהָ בֵּין לְנוֹי בֵּין לְשַׁמֵּר. עֵז שֶׁחָקַק לָהּ בְּקַרְנֶיהָ יוֹצְאָה בְּאַפְסָר הַקָּשׁוּר בְּחֶקֶק בְּשַׁבָּת. וְאִם תְּחָבוֹ בִּזְקֵנָה אָסוּר שֶׁמָּא תְּנַתְּחֶנּוּ וִיבִיאֶנּוּ בְּיָדוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה:

11 Chickens may not go out with strings nor with leashes on their legs. And rams may not go out with wagons under their tails. And ewes may not go out with pieces of wood placed in their nostrils so that they will sneeze and the worms in their brains fall out. And a calf may not go out with a small yoke that we place on its neck so that it submit and be willing to plow. And an animal should not go out with a [muzzle] that we place on its mouth so that it not bite and not eat. And a cow may not go out with a porcupine skin that we place on its udders so that swarming animals will not nurse from it when it is sleeping. And it may not go out with a leash between its horns - whether [it is] for decoration or whether for guarding. [In the case of] a goat the horns of which were pierced, it may go out with a bit tied to the piercing on Shabbat. But if it was stuck into its beard, it is forbidden; lest it get pulled out and [the owner] carry it in his hand in the public domain. And likewise, anything that is similar to this.

12 יב

הַזְּכָרִים יוֹצְאִים בָּעוֹר הַקָּשׁוּר לָהֶן עַל זַכְרוּתָן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲלוּ עַל הַנְּקֵבוֹת. וּבָעוֹר הַקָּשׁוּר לָהֶם עַל לִבֵּיהֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִפְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם זְאֵבִים. וּבְמַטְלָנִיּוֹת הַמְרֻקָּמוֹת שֶׁמְּיַפִּין אוֹתָן בָּהֶן. וְהָרְחֵלוֹת יוֹצְאוֹת וְאַלְיָה שֶׁלָּהֶן קְשׁוּרָה לְמַעְלָה עַל גַּבָּן כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲלוּ עֲלֵיהֶן הַזְּכָרִים. אוֹ קְשׁוּרָה לְמַטָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם הַזְּכָרִים. וְיוֹצְאוֹת מְלֻפָּפוֹת בְּמַטְלָנִיּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַצֶּמֶר שֶׁלָּהֶן נָקִי. הָעִזִּים יוֹצְאוֹת וְדַדֵּיהֶן קְשׁוּרוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּיבַשׁ מֵהֶן הֶחָלָב. אֲבָל אִם קְשָׁרָן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵצֵא הֶחָלָב עַד שֶׁיַּחֲלֹב אוֹתוֹ לָעֶרֶב הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לֹא יֵצְאוּ:

12 Rams may go out with a skin tied to them over their male organs, so that they not mount the females; and with a skin tied to them over their hearts, so that the wolves not fall upon them; and with small embroidered cloths with which they are adorned.

13 יג

אֵין חֲמוֹר יוֹצֵא בְּאֻכָּף אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּשׁוּר מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. וְלֹא יֵצֵא הַסּוּס בִּזְנַב שׁוּעָל וְלֹא בִּזְהוֹרִית שֶׁבֵּין עֵינָיו. וְלֹא תֵּצֵא בְּהֵמָה בִּקְרַסְטָל שֶׁבְּפִיהָ וְלֹא בְּסַנְדָּל שֶׁבְּרַגְלָהּ וְלֹא בְּקָמֵעַ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻמְחֶה לִבְהֵמָה. אֲבָל יוֹצְאָה הִיא בְּאֶגֶד שֶׁעַל גַּב הַמַּכָּה וּבְקַשְׂקַשִּׂים שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַשֶּׁבֶר. וּבְשִׁלְיָה הַמְדֻלְדֶּלֶת בָּהּ. וּפוֹקֵק לָהּ זוֹג שֶׁבְּצַוָּארָהּ וּמְטַיֶּלֶת בּוֹ בֶּחָצֵר. וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ מַרְדַּעַת עַל הַחֲמוֹר בְּשַׁבָּת וּמְטַיֵּל בֶּחָצֵר. אֲבָל אֵין תּוֹלִין לָהּ קְרַסְטָל בְּפִיהָ בְּשַׁבָּת:

13 A donkey may not go out with a saddle, even though it was tied from the eve of Shabbat. And a horse may not go out with a foxtail or a scarlet ribbon between its eyes. And an animal may not go out with a feed bag in its mouth, nor with a shoe on its foot nor with a charm that is not [vetted] for animals. But it may go out with a bandage over a wound, with boards over a break or with [its] afterbirth suspended from it. One may stuff up a bell hanging from its neck and [allow it to] stroll in a courtyard. And one may put a saddlecloth on a donkey on Shabbat and [allow it to] stroll in a courtyard. But we may not suspend a feed bag in its mouth on Shabbat [even in a courtyard].

14 יד

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָדָם מְצֻוֶּה עַל שְׁבִיתַת בְּהֶמְתּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת כָּךְ הוּא מְצֻוֶּה עַל שְׁבִיתַת עַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן בְּנֵי דַּעַת וּלְדַעַת עַצְמָן עוֹשִׂין מִצְוָה עָלֵינוּ לְשָׁמְרָן וּלְמָנְעָן מֵעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג יב) "לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ שׁוֹרְךָ וַחֲמֹרֶךָ וְיִנָּפֵשׁ בֶּן אֲמָתְךָ וְהַגֵּר". עֶבֶד וְאָמָה שֶׁאָנוּ מְצֻוִּין עַל שְׁבִיתָתָן הֵם עֲבָדִים שֶׁמָּלוּ וְטָבְלוּ לְשֵׁם עַבְדוּת וְקִבְּלוּ מִצְוֹת שֶׁהָעֲבָדִים חַיָּבִין בָּהֶן. אֲבָל עֲבָדִים שֶׁלֹּא מָלוּ וְלֹא טָבְלוּ אֶלָּא קִבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶן שֶׁבַע מִצְוֹת שֶׁנִּצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ בִּלְבַד הֲרֵי הֵן כְּגֵר תּוֹשָׁב וּמֻתָּרִין לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּשַׁבָּת לְעַצְמָן בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּחל. וְאֵין מְקַבְּלִין גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב אֶלָּא בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַיּוֹבֵל נוֹהֵג. הוֹאִיל וְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב עוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה לְעַצְמוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת וְגֵר צֶדֶק הֲרֵי הוּא כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְכָל דָּבָר. בְּמִי נֶאֱמַר וְיִנָּפֵשׁ בֶּן אֲמָתְךָ וְהַגֵּר. זֶה גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב שֶׁהוּא לְקִיטוֹ וּשְׂכִירוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּמוֹ בֶּן אֲמָתוֹ. שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה מְלָאכָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל רַבּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אֲבָל לְעַצְמוֹ עוֹשֶׂה. וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַגֵּר זֶה עַבְדּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹשֶׂה לְעַצְמוֹ:

14 In the same way as one is commanded about his animal resting, so too is he commanded about the his slave and maidservant resting. And even though they have [their own] minds - so they do it according to their own minds - it is a commandment to us to guard them and prevent them from doing work on Shabbat; as it is stated (Exodus 23:12), "in order that your ox and your donkey may rest, and that your bondman and the stranger may be refreshed." The slave and maidservant the resting of whom we are commanded about are slaves that are circumcised and immersed for the sake of servitude, and have accepted the [Torah's] commandments that a slave is obligated [to observe]. But slaves that are not circumcised and have not immersed - but rather only accepted upon themselves the seven commandments that the Children of Noah were commanded - are surely like a resident stranger, so they are permitted to publicly do work for themselves on Shabbat, like an Israelite on [a weekday]. And we only accept a resident alien at the time when the Jubilee is observed. Since a resident alien may do work for himself on Shabbat and a righteous alien (convert) is surely like an Israelite in every matter, about whom is it stated, "and that your bondman and the stranger may be refreshed?" This is [about] the resident alien who is the harvester or hired laborer of an Israelite, [and who is] like his bondman in that he may not do work for his Israelite master on Shabbat. But he may do [so] for himself. And even if this alien was his slave, [the alien] may certainly do [work] for himself.