Chapter 18י״ח
1 א

הַמּוֹצִיא דָּבָר מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הרבִּים אוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁעוּר שֶׁמּוֹעִיל כְּלוּם. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן שִׁעוּרֵי הַהוֹצָאָה. הַמּוֹצִיא אָכְלֵי אָדָם כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. וּמִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת מִן הָאֹכֶל עַצְמוֹ חוּץ מִן הַקְּלִפִּים וְהַגַּרְעִינִין וְהָעֵקְצִין וְהַסֻּבִּין וְהַמֻּרְסָן:

1 One who transports something from a private domain to a public domain or from a public domain to a private domain is only liable when he transports a [requisite] amount that is useful for something. And these are the [requisite] amounts for transporting: [Regarding] one who transports human food, it is like a dried fig-bulk. And [different foods] combine with one another. And that is when there is a dried fig-bulk from the food itself, besides the peels, the pits, the stems, the bran and the coarse bran.

2 ב

יַיִן כְּדֵי רֹבַע רְבִיעִית וְאִם הָיָה קָרוּשׁ בִּכְזַיִת. חֲלֵב בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה כְּדֵי גְּמִיעָה וַחֲלֵב טְמֵאָה כְּדֵי לִכְחל עַיִן אַחַת. חֲלֵב אִשָּׁה וְלֹבֶן בֵּיצָה כְּדֵי לִתֵּן בִּמְשִׁיפָה. שֶׁמֶן כְּדֵי לָסוּךְ אֶצְבַּע קְטַנָּה שֶׁל רֶגֶל קָטָן בֶּן יוֹמוֹ. טַל כְּדֵי לָשׁוּף אֶת הַקִּילוֹרִין. וְקִילוֹר כְּדֵי לָשׁוּף בַּמַּיִם. וּמַיִם כְּדֵי לִרְחֹץ פְּנֵי מְדוּכָה. דְּבַשׁ כְּדֵי לִתֵּן עַל רֹאשׁ הַכָּתִית. דָּם וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין וְכָל הַשּׁוֹפְכִין כְּדֵי רְבִיעִית:

2 Enough wine for the quarter of a reviit; but if it congealed, it is a kazayit (the bulk of a large olive). Enough milk of a pure animal [in order for a person to take one] swallow; enough milk of an impure one to treat one eye. Enough woman's milk or egg white to put into a bandage. Enough oil to rub the small toe of a one-day old infant. Enough dew to pound a salve. Enough salve to have it pounded in water. And enough water to wash the surface of a mortar. Enough honey to put on the top of a sore. Enough blood or any other liquid or any waste water to be a reviit.

3 ג

תֶּבֶן תְּבוּאָה כִּמְלֹא פִּי פָּרָה. תֶּבֶן קִטְנִיּוֹת כִּמְלֹא פִּי גָּמָל. וְאִם הוֹצִיא תֶּבֶן קִטְנִיּוֹת לְהַאֲכִילוֹ לְפָרָה כִּמְלֹא פִּי פָּרָה. שֶׁהָאֲכִילָה עַל יְדֵי הַדְּחָק שְׁמָהּ אֲכִילָה. עָמִיר כִּמְלֹא פִּי טָלֶה. עֲשָׂבִים כִּמְלֹא פִּי גְּדִי. עֲלֵי שׁוּם וַעֲלֵי בְּצָלִים אִם הָיוּ לַחִים כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן אָכְלֵי אָדָם. וִיבֵשִׁים כִּמְלֹא פִּי גְּדִי. וְאֵין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לֶחָמוּר שֶׁבָּהֶן אֲבָל מִצְטָרְפִין לַקַּל שֶׁבָּהֶן. כֵּיצַד. הוֹצִיא תֶּבֶן תְּבוּאָה וְקִטְנִית. אִם יֵשׁ בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם כִּמְלֹא פִּי פָּרָה פָּטוּר. כִּמְלֹא פִּי גָּמָל חַיָּב. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה לְעִנְיַן הַשַּׁבָּת:

3 Straw from grain is like the mouthful of a cow. Straw from legumes is like the mouthful of a camel. But if one selected legume straw to feed it to a cow, it is like the mouthful of a cow - for eating under duress is [still] considered eating. An ear of grain is like the mouthful of a goat. Grass is like the mouthful of a goat. [Regarding] garlic leaves and onion leaves: If they are fresh, it is like a fig-bulk, because they are human foods; but [if] dry, it is like the mouthful of a lamb. And [two substances] do not combine together for the stricter [amount] among them; but they combine for the lenient among them. How is this? If one selected straw of grain and of legumes: If there is like the mouthful of a cow between the two of them, he is exempt; like the mouthful of a camel, he is liable. And likewise all that is similar to it concerning Shabbat.

4 ד

הַמּוֹצִיא עֵצִים כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת מִבֵּיצַת הַתַּרְנְגוֹלִים טְרוּפָה בְּשֶׁמֶן וּנְתוּנָה בְּאִלְפָּס. הַמּוֹצִיא קָנֶה כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת קֻלְמוֹס הַמַּגִּיעַ לְרָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו. וְאִם הָיָה עָבֶה אוֹ מְרֻצָּץ שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּעֵצִים:

4 [Regarding] one who transports wood, it is enough to cook a fig-bulk of a beaten egg in oil on a pan. [Regarding] one who transports a reed, it is enough to make a quill that reaches the tops of his fingers. But if it was thick or crushed, its measure is like wood.

5 ה

הַמּוֹצִיא תַּבְלִין כְּדֵי לְתַבֵּל בֵּיצָה וּמִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה. פִּלְפֵּל כָּל שֶׁהוּא. עִטְרָן כָּל שֶׁהוּא. רֵיחַ טוֹב כָּל שֶׁהוּא. רֵיחַ רַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא. מִינֵי בְּשָׂמִים כָּל שֶׁהֵן. אַרְגָּמָן טוֹב כָּל שֶׁהוּא. בְּתוּלַת הַוֶּרֶד אַחַת. מִינֵי מַתָּכוֹת הַקָּשִׁים כְּגוֹן נְחשֶׁת וּבַרְזֶל כָּל שֶׁהֵן. מֵעֲפַר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמֵאַבְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמִמֶּקֶק סְפָרִים וּמִמֶּקֶק מִטְפָּחוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן כָּל שֶׁהֵן. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּצְנִיעִין אוֹתָם לִגְנִיזָה. גַּחֶלֶת כָּל שֶׁהוּא. וְהַמּוֹצִיא שַׁלְהֶבֶת פָּטוּר:

5 [Regarding] one who transports a spice, it is enough to spice an egg; and they combine together. Pepper is a minimal amount. Tar is a minimal amount. A substance with a good smell is a minimal amount. A substance with a bad smell is a minimal amount. Good purple dye is a minimal amount. A virgin rosebud is one. Types of hard metals, such as bronze and iron, are a minimal amount. Of ashes of the altar, stones of the altar, worm-eaten scrolls or their handkerchiefs, it is a minimal amount, since they are [all] stored in genizah. A coal is a minimal amount; but one who transports a flame is exempt.

6 ו

הַמּוֹצִיא זֵרְעוֹנֵי גִּנָּה שֶׁאֵינָן נֶאֱכָלִין לְאָדָם שִׁעוּרָן פָּחוֹת מִכִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. מִזֶּרַע קִשּׁוּאִין שְׁנַיִם. וּמִזֶּרַע הַדְּלוּעִין שְׁנַיִם. מִזֶּרַע פּוֹל הַמִּצְרִי שְׁנַיִם. הַמּוֹצִיא סֻבִּין כְּדֵי לִתֵּן עַל פִּי כּוּר שֶׁל צוֹרְפֵי זָהָב. הַמּוֹצִיא מֻרְסָן אִם לַאֲכִילָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. לִבְהֵמָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כִּמְלֹא פִּי גְּדִי. לִצְבִיעָה כְּדֵי לִצְבֹּעַ בֶּגֶד קָטָן. לוּלְבֵי זְרָדִין וְהַחֲרוּבִין עַד שֶׁלֹּא יַמְתִּיקוּ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. וּמִשֶּׁיַּמְתִּיקוּ כִּמְלֹא פִּי גְּדִי. אֲבָל הַלּוּף וְהַחַרְדָּל וְהַתֻּרְמוֹסִין וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַנִּכְבָּשִׁין בֵּין שֶׁיַּמְתִּיקוּ בֵּין עַד שֶׁלֹּא יַמְתִּיקוּ כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת:

6 [Regarding] one who transports garden seeds that are not eaten by humans, their measure is less than a fig-bulk. Of cucumber seeds, it is two; and of squash seeds, it is two. Of Egyptian beans, it is two. [Regarding] one who transports bran, it is enough to place on the tip of a goldsmith's crucible. [Regarding] one who transports coarse bran: If it is to eat, its measure is like a fig-bulk; for an animal, its amount is like the mouthful of a goat; to dye, it is enough to dye a small garment. The berries of shrubs and carobs: Before they become sweet, it is like a fig-bulk; but from when they become sweet, it is like the mouthful of a goat. But arum, mustard, lupine and all other pickled plants is like a fig-bulk - whether they have become sweet or whether they have not become sweet.

7 ז

הַמּוֹצִיא גַּרְעִינִין. אִם לַאֲכִילָה חָמֵשׁ. וְאִם לְהַסָּקָה הֲרֵי הֵן כְּעֵצִים. וְאִם לְחֶשְׁבּוֹן שְׁתַּיִם. וְאִם לִזְרִיעָה שְׁתַּיִם. הַמּוֹצִיא אֵזוֹב לְאֳכָלִים כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. לִבְהֵמָה כִּמְלֹא פִּי גְּדִי. לְעֵצִים כְּשִׁעוּר הָעֵצִים. לַהֲזָיָה כְּשִׁעוּר הֲזָיָה:

7 [Regarding] one who transports [date] pits: If it is to eat, it is five; if it is for fuel, it is surely like wood; if it is for adding; it is two; and if it is for planting it is two. [Regarding] one who transports hyssop: [If it is for] an animal, it is like the mouthful of a goat; for wood, it is like the amount for wood; and for sprinkling, it is like the [requisite] measure for sprinkling.

8 ח

הַמּוֹצִיא קְלִפֵּי אֱגוֹזִין וּקְלִפֵּי רִמּוֹנִים אִסְטִיס וּפוּאָה וּשְׁאָר הַצְּבָעִין כְּדֵי לִצְבֹּעַ בָּהֶן בֶּגֶד קָטָן כִּסְבָכָה שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין הַבָּנוֹת עַל רָאשֵׁיהֶן. וְכֵן הַמּוֹצִיא מֵי רַגְלַיִם בֶּן אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם אוֹ נֶתֶר אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיָּא אוֹ בֹּרִית קִימוֹנְיָא וְאַשְׁלָג וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַמְנַקִּין כְּדֵי לְכַבֵּס בָּהֶן בֶּגֶד קָטָן כִּסְבָכָה. הוֹצִיא סַמָּנִין שְׁרוּיִין כְּדֵי לִצְבֹּעַ בָּהֶן דֻּגְמָא לְאִירָא:

8 [Regarding] one who transports nutshells, pomegranate peels, safflower, madder and other dyes, it is enough to dye a small garment like a hairnet that girls place on their head. Likewise, [regarding] one who transports forty day old urine, Alexandrian natron, lye, cimolian earth, potash and all other detergents, it is enough to dye a small garment like a hairnet. [If] one transported soaked herbs, it is enough to dye a sample for the shuttle with them.

9 ט

הַמּוֹצִיא דְּיוֹ עַל הַקֻּלְמוֹס שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב מִמֶּנּוּ שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת. אֲבָל אִם הוֹצִיא הַדְּיוֹ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אוֹ בְּקֶסֶת צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בּוֹ יֶתֶר עַל זֶה כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה מִמֶּנּוּ עַל הַקֻּלְמוֹס כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת. הָיָה בַּקֶּסֶת כְּדֵי אוֹת אַחַת וּבַקֻּלְמוֹס כְּדֵי אוֹת אַחַת אוֹ בַּדְּיוֹ לְבַדּוֹ כְּדֵי אוֹת אַחַת וּבַקֻּלְמוֹס כְּדֵי אוֹת אַחַת הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק. הוֹצִיא שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת וּכְתָבָן כְּשֶׁהוּא מְהַלֵּךְ חַיָּב. כְּתִיבָתָן זוֹ הִיא הַנָּחָתָן. הוֹצִיא אוֹת אַחַת וּכְתָבָהּ וְחָזַר וְהוֹצִיא אוֹת שְׁנִיָּה וּכְתָבָהּ פָּטוּר. שֶׁכְּבָר חָסְרָה הָאוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:

9 [Regarding] one who transports ink upon a quill, its measure is enough to write two letters from it. But if he transported the ink by itself or in an inkstand, it needs to be more than this in order that there be enough that would sit on the quill to write two letters. [If] there was enough in the inkstand for one letter and on the quill for one letter, or in the ink by itself for one letter and on the quill for one letter - this is surely a doubt. [If] one transported [the ink of] two letters and wrote them as he was walking, he is [still] liable - their writing is their being put down. [If] he transported one letter and wrote it, and went back to transport a second letter and wrote it, he is exempt - as he is already missing the first letter [in this act].

10 י

הַמּוֹצִיא כְּחל בֵּין לִרְפוּאָה בֵּין לְתַכְשִׁיט כְּדֵי לִכְחל עַיִן אַחַת. וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּן לְהִתְקַשֵּׁט אֶלָּא בִּכְחִילַת שְׁתֵּי עֵינַיִם וְהוֹצִיאוֹ לְהִתְקַשֵּׁט עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא כְּדֵי לִכְחל שְׁתֵּי עֵינַיִם. זֶפֶת וְגָפְרִית כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת נֶקֶב. שַׁעֲוָה כְּדֵי לִתֵּן עַל פִּי נֶקֶב קָטָן. דֶּבֶק כְּדֵי לִתֵּן בְּרֹאשׁ הַשַּׁפְשָׁף. רְבָב כְּדֵי לִמְשֹׁחַ תַּחַת רָקִיק כְּסֶלַע:

10 [Regarding] one who transports blue eye shadow - whether for medication or for ornamentation - it is enough to apply to one eye. But in a place where it is their way only to apply it to both eyes for ornamentation and he transported it for ornamentation, it is not until he transports enough to apply to both eyes. Tar and sulfur is in order to make a hole. Wax is in order to place over a small hole. Glue is in order to put on top of a board. Fat is enough to smear under a sela-coin sized pancake.

11 יא

הַמּוֹצִיא אֲדָמָה כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת חוֹתַם הָאִגֶּרֶת. טִיט כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת פִּי כּוּר. זֶבֶל אוֹ חוֹל דַּק כְּדֵי לְזַבֵּל כְּרִישָׁה. חוֹל גַּס כְּדֵי לְעָרֵב עִם מְלֹא כַּף שֶׁל סַיָּדִין. חַרְסִית כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת פִּי כּוּר שֶׁל צוֹרְפֵי זָהָב. שֵׂעַר כְּדֵי לְגַבֵּל טִיט לַעֲשׂוֹת פִּי כּוּר שֶׁל צוֹרְפֵי זָהָב. סִיד כְּדֵי לָסוּד אֶצְבַּע קְטַנָּה שֶׁבַּבָּנוֹת. עָפָר וָאֵפֶר כְּדֵי לְכַסּוֹת דַּם צִפּוֹר קְטַנָּה. צְרוֹר אֶבֶן כְּדֵי לִזְרֹק בִּבְהֵמָה וְתַרְגִּישׁ. וְהוּא מִשְׁקַל עֲשָׂרָה זוּזִים. חֶרֶס כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל בּוֹ רְבִיעִית:

11 [Regarding] one who transports earth, it is enough to make the seal of a letter. Manure or fine sand is enough to fertilize a leek. Coarse sand is enough to to mix with a full spoon of plaster. Clay is enough to make the tip of a goldsmith's crucible. Hair is enough [with which] to mix mud to make the tip of a goldsmith's crucible. Lime is enough to spread on the finger of the smallest of girls. Dust or ashes is enough to cover the blood of a small bird. A pebble of stone is enough to throw at an animal and it will feel [it] - and that is the weight of ten zuz. Pottery is enough to hold a reviit.

12 יב

הַמּוֹצִיא חֶבֶל כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹזֶן לְקֻפָּה. גֶּמִי כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת תְּלַאי לְנָפָה וְלִכְבָרָה. הוּצִין כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹזֶן לִכְפִיפָה מִצְרִית. סִיב כְּדֵי לִתֵּן עַל פִּי מַשְׁפֵּךְ קָטָן שֶׁל יַיִן. מוֹכִין כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ כַּדּוּר כֶּאֱגוֹז. עֶצֶם כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת תַּרְוָד. זְכוּכִית כְּדֵי לִגְרֹד בָּהּ רֹאשׁ הַכַּרְכָּר אוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּפְצַע שְׁתֵּי נִימִין כְּאַחַת:

12 [Regarding] one who transports a rope, it is enough to make the handle of a box. Reed grass is enough to make a loop for [hanging] a sifter or a sieve. Palm fronds is enough to make a handle for an Egyptian basket. Palm bast is enough to place on the opening of a small funnel [as a filter] for wine. Soft fabrics is enough to make a ball [the size of] a nut. A bone is enough to make a large spoon. Glass is enough with which to scrape (sharpen) the top of a bobbin or until it can split two threads at the same time.

13 יג

הַמּוֹצִיא שְׁתֵּי נִימִין מִזְּנַב הַסּוּס וּמִזְּנַב הַפָּרָה חַיָּב. הוֹצִיא אַחַת מִן הַקָּשֶׁה שֶׁבַּחֲזִיר חַיָּב. נִצְרֵי דֶּקֶל וְהֵן חוּטֵי הָעֵץ שְׁתַּיִם. חוֹרֵי דֶּקֶל וְהֵן קְלִפֵּי הַחֲרָיוֹת אַחַת. מִצֶּמֶר גֶּפֶן וּמִצֶּמֶר כָּלָךְ וְצֶמֶר גְּמַלִּים וְאַרְנָבִים וְחַיָּה שֶׁבַּיָּם וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַנִּטְוִין כְּדֵי לִטְווֹת חוּט אֹרֶךְ אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים. הַמּוֹצִיא מִן הַבֶּגֶד אוֹ מִן הַשַּׂק אוֹ מִן הָעוֹר כְּשִׁעוּרָן לְטֻמְאָה כָּךְ שִׁעוּרָן לְהוֹצָאָה. הַבֶּגֶד שְׁלֹשָׁה עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה. הַשַּׂק אַרְבָּעָה עַל אַרְבָּעָה. הָעוֹר חֲמִשָּׁה עַל חֲמִשָּׁה:

13 One who transports two threads from a horse's tail or from a cow's tail is liable. [If] one transported one hard one from a pig, he is liable. The shoots of a palm - and they are the fibers of the tree - are two. The hard branches of a palm - and they are the scales of the branches - is one. Of cotton, coarse silk, the wool of camels, rabbits or animals or anything else that that is spun - it is enough to spin a thread of four handbreadths. [Regarding] one who transports some clothing, some sackcloth or some leather - their measure for transporting is the same as their measure for impurity: A garment three handbreadths by three; sackcloth four by four; and leather five by five.

14 יד

הַמּוֹצִיא עוֹר שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעַבֵּד כְּלָל אֶלָּא עֲדַיִן הוּא רַךְ שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לָצוּר מִשְׁקלֶת קְטַנָּה שֶׁמִּשְׁקָלָהּ שֶׁקֶל. הָיָה מָלוּחַ וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נַעֲשָׂה בְּקֶמַח וְלֹא בְּעַפְּצָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת קָמֵעַ. הָיָה עָשׂוּי בְּקֶמַח וַעֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְעַבֵּד בְּעַפְּצָה שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב עָלָיו אֶת הַגֵּט. נִגְמַר עִבּוּדוֹ שִׁעוּרוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה עַל חֲמִשָּׁה:

14 [Regarding] one who transports leather that has not been processed at all and is still soft, its measure is enough to guard a small weight, the weight of which is a shekel-coin. [If] it was salted but not yet processed in flour or gallnuts, its measure is enough to make a charm. [If] it was processed with flour but not yet processed with gallnuts, its measure is enough to write a divorce bill upon it. When its processing is finished, its measure is five by five.

15 טו

הַמּוֹצִיא קְלָף מְעֻבָּד כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב עָלָיו פָּרָשַׁת שְׁמַע עַד וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ. דּוּכְסוּסְטוּס כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב עָלָיו מְזוּזָה. נְיָר כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב עָלָיו שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁל קֶשֶׁר מוֹכְסִין שֶׁהֵן גְּדוֹלוֹת מֵאוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ. הַמּוֹצִיא קֶשֶׁר מוֹכְסִין חַיָּב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר הֶרְאָהוּ לַמּוֹכֵס וְנִפְטַר בּוֹ שֶׁהֲרֵי רְאָיָה הִיא לְעוֹלָם. הַמּוֹצִיא שְׁטָר פָּרוּעַ וּנְיָר מָחוּק כְּדֵי לִכְרֹךְ עַל פִּי צְלוֹחִית קְטַנָּה שֶׁל פְּלַיָּיטוֹן. וְאִם יֵשׁ בַּלֹּבֶן שֶׁלּוֹ כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב שְׁתֵּי אוֹתִיּוֹת שֶׁל קֶשֶׁר מוֹכְסִין חַיָּב:

15 [Regarding] one who transports processed parchment (which can be used for tefillin), it is enough to write the section of Shema (the smallest section in the tefillin) upon it, until "and upon your gates." Dukhsustus is enough to write [the text of] a mezuzah upon it (as one may not use it for tefillin). Paper is enough to write two letters in a tax collectors' receipt - which are bigger than our letters. One who transports a tax collector's receipt is liable, even if he has already shown it to the tax collector and passed him; as it is surely a proof forever. [Regarding] one who transports a paid deed or worn out paper, it is enough to wrap a small flask of perfume. But if there is enough in its white part to write two letters of a tax collector's receipt, he is liable [even with a smaller piece].

16 טז

הַמּוֹצִיא בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן חַיִּים חַיָּב. אֲבָל אָדָם חַי אֵינוֹ מַשּׂאוֹי. וְאִם הָיָה כָּפוּת אוֹ חוֹלֶה הַמּוֹצִיא אוֹתוֹ חַיָּב. וְהָאִשָּׁה מְדַדָּה אֶת בְּנָהּ בִּזְמַן שֶׁנּוֹטֵל אַחַת וּמַנִּיחַ אַחַת:

16 One who transports a beast, an animal or a bird is liable, even though they are alive. But a living person is not [considered] a load. However if one was tied up or sick, the one who carries him is liable. And a woman can help her child walk when he [is able] to pick up one [foot] and put down the [other].

17 יז

הַמּוֹצִיא תִּינוֹק חַי וְכִיס תָּלוּי בְּצַוָּארוֹ חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם הַכִּיס שֶׁאֵין הַכִּיס טְפֵלָה לַתִּינוֹק. אֲבָל אִם הוֹצִיא אֶת הַגָּדוֹל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מְלֻבָּשׁ בְּכֵלָיו וְטַבְּעוֹתָיו בְּיָדוֹ פָּטוּר שֶׁהַכּל טְפֵלָה לוֹ. הָיוּ כֵּלָיו מְקֻפָּלִין עַל כְּתֵפוֹ הַנּוֹשֵׂא אוֹתוֹ חַיָּב:

17 One who transports an infant with a purse suspended around his neck is liable on account of the purse. As the purse is not ancillary to the child. But if he transports an adult, he is exempt - even if he is dressed with his vessels, and his rings are on his hand. As it is all ancillary to him. [If, however,] his vessels were folded upon his shoulder, one who carries him is liable.

18 יח

הַמּוֹצִיא חָגָב חַי כָּל שֶׁהוּא. וּמֵת כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. צִפֹּרֶת כְּרָמִים בֵּין חַיָּה בֵּין מֵתָה כָּל שֶׁהוּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּצְנִיעִין אוֹתָהּ לִרְפוּאָה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ. הַמֵּת וְהַנְּבֵלָה וְהַשֶּׁרֶץ כְּשִׁעוּר טֻמְאָתָן כָּךְ שִׁעוּר הוֹצָאָתָן. מֵת וּנְבֵלָה כְּזַיִת וְשֶׁרֶץ כַּעֲדָשָׁה:

18 [Regrading] one who transports a live locust, it is a minimal amount; a dead one is like a fig-bulk. A bird of the vineyard (a type of locust) is a minimal amount - whether alive or dead - since they are stored for medication. Likewise with anything similar to it. The measure for transporting a corpse, an [animal] carcass and a creeping animal is like the measure for their impurity: A dead body and a carcass are a kezayit; a creeping animal is like a lentil-bulk.

19 יט

הָיָה שָׁם כְּזַיִת מְצֻמְצָם וְהוֹצִיא מִמֶּנּוּ כַּחֲצִי זַיִת חַיָּב שֶׁהֲרֵי הוֹעִיל בְּמַעֲשָׂיו שֶׁנִּתְמַעֵט הַשִּׁעוּר מִלְּטַמֵּא. אֲבָל אִם הוֹצִיא כַּחֲצִי זַיִת מִכְּזַיִת וּמֶחֱצָה פָּטוּר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה בִּשְׁאָר הַטֻּמְאוֹת:

19 [If] there was exactly a kezayit there, and he transported half a kezayit, he is liable. For his actions were useful in that he reduced the amount [left over] from [having the requisite size] to transmit impurity. But if he transported half a kezayit from a kezayit and a half, he is exempt. And likewise anything that is similar to this with the other impurities.

20 כ

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא עַל הַהוֹצָאָה כַּשִּׁעוּר, כְּשֶׁהוֹצִיא סְּתָם. אֲבָל הַמּוֹצִיא לְזֶרַע אוֹ לִרְפוּאָה אוֹ לְהַרְאוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ דֻּגְמָא וּלְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה חַיָּב בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא:

20 To what are these words applicable, that he is only liable for transporting its [requisite] amount? When he transported without specification. But one who transports to sow, for medication, to show a sample of it or anything that is similar to it is liable with a minimal amount.

21 כא

הַמַּצְנִיעַ דָּבָר לִזְרִיעָה אוֹ לִרְפוּאָה אוֹ לְדֻגְמָא וְשָׁכַח לָמָּה הִצְנִיעוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ סְתָם חַיָּב עָלָיו בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא שֶׁעַל דַּעַת מַחֲשָׁבָה רִאשׁוֹנָה הוֹצִיא. וּשְׁאָר הָאָדָם אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו אֶלָּא כְּשִׁעוּרוֹ. זָרַק זֶה שֶׁהוֹצִיא כְּבָר לְתוֹךְ הָאוֹצָר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּקוֹמוֹ נִכָּר כְּבָר בָּטְלָה מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. לְפִיכָךְ אִם חָזַר וְהִכְנִיסוֹ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּכְנִיס כַּשִּׁעוּר:

21 [In a case of] one who stores something for seeding or medication or for a sample and forgot why he stored it, and [then] transported it without specification - he is liable with a minimal amount. For [it is considered like] he transported it with his original intention. But other people are only liable with its [requisite] amount. [If, however,] the one who transported it already threw [it] into the storeroom - even if its place [there] is recognizable - his original thought is nullified. Hence if he went and brought it back in, he is not liable until he brings it in according to its [requisite] amount.

22 כב

דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לְהַצְנִיעוֹ וְאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְהַצְנִיעַ כְּגוֹן דַּם הַנִּדָּה אִם הִצְנִיעוֹ אֶחָד וְהוֹצִיאוֹ חַיָּב. וּשְׁאָר הָאָדָם פְּטוּרִין עָלָיו. שֶׁאֵין חַיָּבִין אֶלָּא עַל הוֹצָאַת דָּבָר הַכָּשֵׁר לְהַצְנִיעַ וּמַצְנִיעִין כָּמוֹהוּ:

22 [Regarding] something which is not the way of people to store and is not fitting to be stored - such as menstrual blood - if one stored it and transported it, he is liable. But other people are exempt for it. For we are only liable for the transport of something fit to store and the likes of which is [actually] stored.

23 כג

הַמּוֹצִיא חֲצִי שִׁעוּר פָּטוּר. וְכֵן כָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה מִן הַמְּלָאכוֹת חֲצִי שִׁעוּר פָּטוּר. הוֹצִיא חֲצִי שִׁעוּר וְהִנִּיחוֹ וְחָזַר וְהוֹצִיא הַחֵצִי הָאַחֵר חַיָּב. וְאִם קָדַם וְהִגְבִּיהַּ הַחֵצִי הָרִאשׁוֹן קֹדֶם הַנָּחַת הַחֵצִי הַשֵּׁנִי נַעֲשָׂה כְּמִי שֶׁנִּשְׂרַף וּפָטוּר. הוֹצִיא חֲצִי שִׁעוּר וְהִנִּיחוֹ וְחָזַר וְהוֹצִיא חֵצִי אַחֵר וְהֶעֱבִירוֹ עַל הָרִאשׁוֹן בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלֹשָׁה חַיָּב. שֶׁהַמַּעֲבִיר כְּמִי שֶׁהִנִּיחַ עַל גַּבֵּי מַשֶּׁהוּ. אֲבָל אִם זְרָקוֹ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיָּנוּחַ שָׁם עַל גַּבֵּי מַשֶּׁהוּ:

23 One who transports half the [requisite] amount is exempt. Likewise anyone who does half the amount of any one of the forbidden types of work is exempt. [If] he transported half the amount and placed it down and went back and transported the other half, he is liable. But if he already lifted up the first half before he placed the second half down, it is as if it was burned up; so he is exempt. [If] he transported half the amount and placed it down and [then] transported the other half and passed it within three [handbreadths] over the first, he is liable. For one who passes [something] over is as if he places it down on something. But if he threw it, he is not liable until it rests upon something there.

24 כד

הוֹצִיא חֲצִי שִׁעוּר וְחָזַר וְהוֹצִיא חֲצִי שִׁעוּר בְּהֵעָלֵם אַחַת לִרְשׁוּת אַחַת חַיָּב. לִשְׁתֵּי רְשׁוּיוֹת אִם יֵשׁ בֵּינֵיהֶן רְשׁוּת שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ פָּטוּר. הָיְתָה בֵּינֵיהֶן כַּרְמְלִית הֲרֵי הֵן כִּרְשׁוּת אַחַת וְחַיָּב חַטָּאת:

24 One who transported half the amount and went back and transported [another] half of the amount to the same domain in one forgetful spell is liable. [But in a case wherein] it was to two domains: If there is a domain for which he would be liable in between them, he is exempt. [However, if] there was a karmelit between them, they are [considered to be] like one domain; so he is a liable for a sin-offering.

25 כה

הַמּוֹצִיא פָּחוֹת מִכַּשִּׁעוּר וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיַּנִּיחוֹ נִתְפַּח וְחָזַר כַּשִּׁעוּר. וְכֵן הַמּוֹצִיא כַּשִּׁעוּר וְקֹדֶם שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ צָמַק וְחָזַר פָּחוֹת מִכַּשִּׁעוּר פָּטוּר:

25 One who transports less than a [requisite] amount but it swells before he puts it down and becomes [such an] amount; and likewise one who transports a [requisite] amount but it shrinks before he puts it down and becomes less than [such] an amount, is exempt.

26 כו

הַמּוֹצִיא כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת לַאֲכִילָה וְצָמְקָה קֹדֶם הַנָּחָה וְחָשַׁב עָלֶיהָ לִזְרִיעָה אוֹ לִרְפוּאָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ שִׁעוּר הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב כְּמַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ שֶׁל עֵת הַנָּחָה. הוֹצִיא פָּחוֹת מִכִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת לִזְרִיעָה וְקֹדֶם הַנָּחָה חָזַר וְחָשַׁב עָלֶיהָ לַאֲכִילָה פָּטוּר. וְאִם תָּפְחָה קֹדֶם הַנָּחָה וְנַעֲשֵׂית כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּמָּלֵךְ עָלֶיהָ לַאֲכִילָה חַיָּב. שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ לֹא חִשֵּׁב הָיָה מִתְחַיֵּב עַל מַחְשֶׁבֶת הַהוֹצָאָה:

26 One who transports a fig-bulk to eat and it shrunk before [it] was put down, but he [reconsidered] about it to sow it or to use it medicinally - which does not require a [requisite] amount - he is surely liable in accordance with his thought at the time that [it] was put down. One who transports less than a fig-bulk to sow but before he put it down, [reconsidered] about it to eat [it], is exempt. However, if it swelled before [it] was put down and it became like a fig-bulk before he reconsidered about it to eat [it], he is liable. For even if he did not [reconsider], he would have been liable for his [original] thought of transporting.

27 כז

הוֹצִיא כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת לַאֲכִילָה וְצָמְקָה וְחָזְרָה וְתָפְחָה קֹדֶם הַנָּחָה הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם נִדְחָה אוֹ לֹא נִדְחָה. זָרַק כְּזַיִת אֳכָלִין לְבַיִת טָמֵא וְהִשְׁלִים כְּזַיִת זֶה לָאֳכָלִים שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם וְנַעֲשָׂה הַכּל כְּבֵיצָה הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם נִתְחַיֵּב עַל כְּזַיִת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִשְׁלִים הַשִּׁעוּר לְעִנְיַן טֻמְאָה אוֹ לֹא נִתְחַיֵּב:

27 [In the case of] one who transports a fig-bulk and it shrinks but then swells before [it] is put down, it is certainly a doubt whether [the prohibition] was overridden or not overridden. [If] one threw a kazayit of foods into an impure house and this kazayit complemented the foods that were there - and the whole thing [thus] became [the requisite amount of] a kabeitsah - there is certainly a doubt whether he is liable for the kazayit on account of completing the amount with regard to impurity or he is not liable.

28 כח

הַמּוֹצִיא פָּחוֹת מִכַּשִּׁעוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוֹצִיאוֹ בִּכְלִי פָּטוּר. שֶׁהַכְּלִי טְפֵלָה לוֹ וְאֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ לְהוֹצָאַת הַכְּלִי אֶלָּא לְהוֹצָאַת מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ וַהֲרֵי אֵין בּוֹ כַּשִּׁעוּר. לְפִיכָךְ אִם הוֹצִיא אָדָם חַי שֶׁאֵינוֹ כָּפוּת בְּמִטָּה פָּטוּר אַף עַל הַמִּטָּה שֶׁהַמִּטָּה טְפֵלָה לוֹ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. הַמּוֹצִיא קֻפַּת הָרוֹכְלִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מִינִין הַרְבֵּה וַאֲפִלּוּ הוֹצִיאָן בְּתוֹךְ כַּפּוֹ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אַחַת. שֵׁם הוֹצָאָה אַחַת הִיא:

28 One who transports less than a [requisite] amount is exempt, even if he transports it in a vessel. For the vessel is ancillary to it, since his intention was not to transport the vessel but rather to transport what is in it - and it surely did not have the [requisite] amount. Hence if one transported a living man - who was not tied up - in a bed, he is also exempt for the bed. For the bed is ancillary to [the man]. And likewise anything that is similar to this. One who transports a peddler's box - even though there are many types of things in it; and even if he transported [these things] in his palm - is only liable once. It is one case of transporting.