Chapter 10י׳
1 א

הַקוֹשֵׁר קֶשֶׁר שֶׁל קַיָּמָא וְהוּא מַעֲשֵׂה אֻמָּן חַיָּב. כְּגוֹן קֶשֶׁר הַגַּמָּלִין וְקֶשֶׁר הַסַּפָּנִין וְקִשְׁרֵי רְצוּעוֹת מִנְעָל וְסַנְדָּל שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִין הָרַצְעָנִין בִּשְׁעַת עֲשִׂיָּתָן. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה. אֲבָל הַקּוֹשֵׁר קֶשֶׁר שֶׁל קַיָּמָא וְאֵינוֹ מַעֲשֵׂה אֻמָּן פָּטוּר. וְקֶשֶׁר שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁל קַיָּמָא וְאֵינוֹ מַעֲשֵׂה אֻמָּן מֻתָּר לְקָשְׁרוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה:

1 One who ties a permanent knot and it is the work of a craftsman is liable – such as if the tied a camel-driver’s knot, a sailor’s knot or the knots that strap-makers make for shoes and sandals when they make them. And likewise anything that is similar to this. But one who ties a permanent knot but it is not the work of a craftsman is exempt. And it is permitted from the outset to tie an impermanent knot that is not the work of a craftsman.

2 ב

כֵּיצַד. נִפְסְקָה לוֹ רְצוּעָה וּקְשָׁרָהּ, נִפְסַק הַחֶבֶל וּקְשָׁרוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁקָּשַׁר חֶבֶל בִּדְלִי אוֹ שֶׁקָּשַׁר רֶסֶן בְּהֵמָה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ הַקְּשָׁרִים שֶׁהֵן מַעֲשֵׂה הֶדְיוֹט וְכָל אָדָם קוֹשֵׁר אוֹתָן לְקַיָּמָא. וְכָל קֶשֶׁר שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁל קַיָּמָא אִם קְשָׁרוֹ קֶשֶׁר אֻמָּן הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר:

2 How is this? If his strap undid and he tied it; his rope undid and he tied it; or he tied a rope to a bucket; or he tied a bridle to an animal – he is certainly exempt. Likewise anything that is similar to these knots that are the work of an amateur, such that every man ties them [to be] permanent. And if he ties any impermanent knot with a knot that is the work of a craftsman, it is surely forbidden.

3 ג

קוֹשֶׁרֶת אִשָּׁה מִפְתְּחֵי הֶחָלוּק אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי פְּתָחִים, וְחוּטֵי סְבָכָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא רָפוּי בְּרֹאשָׁהּ, וּרְצוּעוֹת מִנְעָל וְסַנְדָּל שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִין אוֹתָן עַל הָרֶגֶל בִּשְׁעַת מַלְבּוּשׁ, וְנוֹדוֹת יַיִן וְשֶׁמֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שְׁתֵּי אָזְנַיִם, וּקְדֵרָה שֶׁל בָּשָׂר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיְּכוֹלָה לְהוֹצִיא הַבָּשָׂר וְלֹא תַּתִּיר הַקֶּשֶׁר. וְקוֹשְׁרִין דְּלִי בִּמְשִׁיחָה אוֹ בְּאַבְנֵט וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ אֲבָל לֹא בְּחֶבֶל. וְקוֹשְׁרִין לִפְנֵי הַבְּהֵמָה אוֹ בְּרַגְלָהּ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא תֵּצֵא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ שְׁנֵי אִסָּרוֹת. וְחֶבֶל שֶׁהָיָה קָשׁוּר בַּפָּרָה קוֹשְׁרוֹ בָּאֵבוּס. הָיָה קָשׁוּר בָּאֵבוּס קוֹשְׁרוֹ בַּפָּרָה. אֲבָל לֹא יָבִיא חֶבֶל מִתּוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וְיִקְשֹׁר בַּפָּרָה וּבָאֵבוּס. וְאִם הָיָה חֶבֶל גַּרְדִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה מֵבִיא וְקוֹשֵׁר בַּפָּרָה וּבָאֵבוּס. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ הַקְּשָׁרִים מַעֲשֵׂה הֶדְיוֹט הֵן וְאֵינָן שֶׁל קַיָּמָא אֶלָּא פַּעַם קוֹשֵׁר וּפַעַם מַתִּיר וּלְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לִקְשֹׁר אוֹתָן לְכַתְּחִלָּה. חוֹתָלוֹת שֶׁל תְּמָרִים וְשֶׁל גְּרוֹגָרוֹת מַתִּיר וּמַפְקִיעַ וְחוֹתֵךְ וְנוֹטֵל וְאוֹכֵל:

3 When getting dressed, a woman may tie the opening of her robe, even though it has two openings (and so the one might have been considered a permanent knot); the strings of her hairnet, even though it is loose on her head (and hence might also have been considered permanent); or the straps of a shoe or a sandal. [She may also tie] wine or oil jugs, even though it has two spouts; and [a garment over] a pot of meat, even though she can take the meat out without untying the knot. We may tie a pail with a cord or a belt and that which is similar to it, but not with a rope. We may tie [a rope across an entrance] before an animal or to its leg so that it will not go out, even though it has two ropes. And he can tie a cow to a trough with a rope that was tied to the cow, or tie the trough to the cow with a rope that was tied to the trough. But he may not bring a rope from his house and tie it to the cow and the trough. However if it was a weaver’s cord that is permitted to carry, he may surely bring it and tie it to the cow and the trough. [One may do all of this] because all of these knots are the work of an amateur and not permanent, but rather [something that] sometimes he ties and sometimes he unties. And therefore it is permissible to tie them at the outset. One may untie wrappers of dates and dried figs; and split, cut, take and eat [them].

4 ד

כָּל שֶׁרָאוּי לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה מֻתָּר לִקְשֹׁר אוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת. לְפִיכָךְ אִם נִפְסְקָה רְצוּעַת סַנְדָּלוֹ בְּכַרְמְלִית נוֹטֵל גֶּמִי לַח הָרָאוּי לְמַאֲכַל בְּהֵמָה וְכוֹרֵךְ עָלָיו וְקוֹשֵׁר הַגֶּמִי. נִשְׁמְטָה לוֹ רְצוּעַת מִנְעָל וְסַנְדָּל אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁמַט רֹב הָרֶגֶל מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִיר הָרְצוּעוֹת לִמְקוֹמָן וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִקְשֹׁר:

4 It is permissible to tie anything that is fitting for animal food on Shabbat. Hence if a sandal strap tore in a carmelit, he may take a moist reed that is fitting for animal food and wrap it upon [the sandal] and tie the reed. If the strap of a shoe or a sandal falls out or most of his foot comes out [of the shoe or sandal on account of the loosening of the strap], it is permissible to put the strap back in its place, so long as he does not tie [it].

5 ה

הָעֲנִיבָה מֻתֶּרֶת לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ מִתְחַלֶּפֶת בִּקְשִׁירָה. לְפִיכָךְ הַחֶבֶל שֶׁנִּפְסַק מְקַבֵּץ שְׁנֵי קְצוֹתָיו וְכוֹרֵךְ עָלָיו מְשִׁיחָה וְעוֹנֵב עֲנִיבָה:

5 A bow is permissible, since it is not confused with a knot. Hence one can wrap a cord to the two ends of a rope that tore and make a bow.

6 ו

מֻתָּר לִקְשֹׁר קֶשֶׁר שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁל קַיָּמָא לִדְבַר מִצְוָה. כְּגוֹן שֶׁיִּקְשֹׁר לִמְדֹּד שִׁעוּר מִשִּׁעוּרֵי הַתּוֹרָה. נִימַת כִּנּוֹר שֶׁנִּפְסַק קוֹשְׁרִין אוֹתָהּ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ אֲבָל לֹא בַּמְּדִינָה. וְלֹא יִקְשֹׁר נִימָא לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֲפִלּוּ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ:

6 It is permissible to tie an impermanent knot for the matter of a commandment; for example to tie [a knot] in order to measure a [requisite] amount from the amounts [legislated by] the Torah. We may tie the string of a harp that tore in the Temple, but not in the [rest of the] city. But one should not tie a string at the outset even in the Temple.

7 ז

כָּל קֶשֶׁר שֶׁחַיָּבִין עַל קִשּׁוּרוֹ כָּךְ חַיָּבִין עַל הֶתֵּרוֹ. וְכָל קֶשֶׁר שֶׁהַקּוֹשֵׁר אוֹתוֹ פָּטוּר כָּךְ הַמַּתִּיר אוֹתוֹ פָּטוּר. וְכָל קֶשֶׁר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְקָשְׁרוֹ כָּךְ מֻתָּר לְהַתִּירוֹ:

7 We are liable for untying any knot that we are liable for its tying. And one is exempt for untying any knot for which one who ties it is exempt. And it is permissible to untie any knot that it is permissible to tie.

8 ח

הַפּוֹתֵל חֲבָלִים מִן הַהוּצִין וּמִן הָחֶלֶף אוֹ מִחוּטֵי צֶמֶר אוֹ מִחוּטֵי פִּשְׁתָּן אוֹ חוּטֵי שֵׂעָר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת קוֹשֵׁר וְחַיָּב. וְשִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד הַחֶבֶל בִּפְתִילָתוֹ בְּלֹא קְשִׁירָה שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת מְלַאכְתּוֹ מִתְקַיֶּמֶת. וְכֵן הַמַּפְרִיד אֶת הַפְּתִיל הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת מַתִּיר וְחַיָּב. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִתְכַּוֵּן לְקַלְקֵל בִּלְבַד. וְשִׁעוּרוֹ כְּשִׁעוּר הַפּוֹתֵל:

8 One who twists a rope out of palm fronds, beet shoots, wool threads, flax threads, hair threads or what is similar to them is surely [doing] a subcategory of tying, so he is liable. And its [requisite] amount is enough for the rope to stay twisted without a knot, such that his work be permanent. Likewise, one who separates the twisting is surely [doing] a subcategory of untying, so he is liable. And that is when he does not only intend to destroy [it]. And its [requisite] amount is like the amount of the one who twists [it].

9 ט

הַתּוֹפֵר שְׁתֵּי תְּפִירוֹת חַיָּב. וְהוּא שֶׁקָּשַׁר רָאשֵׁי הַחוּט מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן כְּדֵי שֶׁתַּעֲמֹד הַתְּפִירָה וְלֹא תִּשָּׁמֵט. אֲבָל אִם תָּפַר יֶתֶר עַל שְׁתֵּי תְּפִירוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא קָשַׁר חַיָּב שֶׁהֲרֵי מִתְקַיֶּמֶת הַתְּפִירָה. וְהַמּוֹתֵחַ חוּט שֶׁל תְּפִירָה בְּשַׁבָּת חַיָּב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִצָּרְכֵי הַתְּפִירָה:

9 One who sews two stitches is liable. And that is when he tied the ends of the thread this way and that way, so that the stitch holds and does not undo. But if he ties more than two stitches, he is liable even if he does not tie [them], for the stitch is lasting. And one who stretches the thread of a stitch on Shabbat is liable – since it is from the auxiliaries of sewing.

10 י

הַקּוֹרֵעַ כְּדֵי לִתְפֹּר שְׁתֵּי תְּפִירוֹת עַל מְנָת לִתְפֹּר שְׁתֵּי תְּפִירוֹת חַיָּב. אֲבָל הַקּוֹרֵעַ לְהַפְסִידָהּ פָּטוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְקַלְקֵל. הַקּוֹרֵעַ בַּחֲמָתוֹ אוֹ עַל מֵת שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לִקְרֹעַ עָלָיו חַיָּב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּיַשֵּׁב אֶת דַּעְתּוֹ בְּדָבָר זֶה וְיָנוּחַ יִצְרוֹ וְהוֹאִיל וַחֲמָתוֹ שׁוֹכֶכֶת בְּדָבָר זֶה הֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְתַקֵּן וְחַיָּב. וְהַפּוֹתֵחַ בֵּית הַצַּוָּאר בְּשַׁבָּת חַיָּב:

10 One who tears two stitches to sew, in order to sew two stitches, is liable. But one who tears to ruin it, is exempt, since he is destroying. One who tears in his anger or for a dead person for whom he is obligated to tear [in mourning] is liable, because his mind is put at ease with this thing and his impulse is calmed. And since his anger is assuaged with this thing, it is like he is improving [something], so he is liable. And one who [tears to] open a collar on Shabbat is liable.

11 יא

הַמְדַבֵּק נְיָרוֹת אוֹ עוֹרוֹת בְּקוֹלָן שֶׁל סוֹפְרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת תּוֹפֵר וְחַיָּב. וְכֵן הַמְפָרֵק נְיָרוֹת דְּבוּקִין אוֹ עוֹרוֹת דְּבוּקִין וְלֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן לְקַלְקֵל בִּלְבַד הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת קוֹרֵעַ וְחַיָּב:

11 One who adheres papers or pieces of leather with scribes’ glue or that which is similar to it is surely [doing] a subcategory of tearing, so he is liable. Likewise one who separates papers that are adhered or leather that is adhered – and he does not intend to only destroy – is surely [doing] a subcategory of tearing, so he is liable.

12 יב

הַבּוֹנֶה כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב. הַמַּשְׁוֶה פְּנֵי הַקַּרְקַע בְּבַיִת כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִשְׁפִּיל תֵּל אוֹ מִלֵּא גּוּמָא אוֹ גַּיְא הֲרֵי זֶה בּוֹנֶה וְחַיָּב. אֶחָד נָתַן אֶת הָאֶבֶן וְאֶחָד נָתַן אֶת הַטִּיט הַנּוֹתֵן הַטִּיט חַיָּב. וּבַנִּדְבָּךְ הָעֶלְיוֹן אֲפִלּוּ הֶעֱלָה אֶת הָאֶבֶן וְהִנִּיחָהּ עַל גַּבֵּי הַטִּיט חַיָּב. שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין מַנִּיחִין עָלֶיהָ טִיט אַחֵר. וְהַבּוֹנֶה עַל גַּבֵּי כֵּלִים פָּטוּר:

12 One who builds a minimal amount is liable. One who evens the ground in a house – such as one who lowered a mound or filled in a gully – is certainly building, so he is liable. [In the case of] one who provided the stone and who provided the mortar [in that sequence, only] the one who provided the mortar is liable. But in the top row, even the one that places the stone and lays it on the mortar is liable. For we do not lay [any more] mortar upon it. And one who builds on top of vessels is exempt.

13 יג

הָעוֹשֶׂה אֹהֶל קָבוּעַ הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹנֶה וְחַיָּב. וְכֵן הָעוֹשֶׂה כְּלֵי אֲדָמָה כְּגוֹן תַּנּוּר וְחָבִית קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּשָּׂרְפוּ הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹנֶה וְחַיָּב. וְכֵן הַמְגַבֵּן אֶת הַגְּבִינָה הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹנֶה. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיְּגַבֵּן כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת. הַמַּכְנִיס יַד הַקַּרְדֹּם בְּתוֹךְ הָעֵץ שֶׁלּוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹנֶה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ. וְכֵן הַתּוֹקֵעַ עֵץ בְּעֵץ בֵּין שֶׁתָּקַע בְּמַסְמֵר בֵּין שֶׁתָּקַע בָּעֵץ עַצְמוֹ עַד שֶׁנִּתְאַחֵד הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹנֶה וְחַיָּב:

13 One who makes a permanent tent is surely [doing] a subcategory of building, so he is liable. Likewise, one who makes an earthen vessel – such as an oven or a barrel before they are fired – is surely doing a subcategory of building, so he is liable. Likewise one who [processes] cheese is surely [doing] a subcategory of building, so he is liable; but he is not liable until he [processes] the size of a dried fig. One who inserts the handle of a hammer into its wooden [head] is surely [doing] a subcategory of building, so he is liable. And likewise anything that is similar to this. Likewise one who implants wood into wood – whether he implants [it] with a nail or whether he implanted the wood itself until it becomes one – is surely [doing] a subcategory of building, so he is liable.

14 יד

הָעוֹשֶׂה נֶקֶב כָּל שֶׁהוּא בְּלוּל שֶׁל תַּרְנְגוֹלִים כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס לָהֶן הָאוֹרָה חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה. הַמַּחֲזִיר דֶּלֶת שֶׁל בּוֹר וְשֶׁל דּוּת וְשֶׁל יָצִיעַ חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בּוֹנֶה:

14 One who makes a hole in a chicken coop so that light will come in for them is liable on account of building. One who replaces the door of a well, a cistern or the extension [of a house] is liable on account of building.

15 טו

הַסּוֹתֵר כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּסְתֹּר עַל מְנָת לִבְנוֹת. אֲבָל אִם סָתַר דֶּרֶךְ הַשְׁחָתָה פָּטוּר. הַסּוֹתֵר אֹהֶל קָבוּעַ אוֹ שֶׁפֵּרֵק עֵץ תָּקוּעַ הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת סוֹתֵר וְחַיָּב וְהוּא שֶׁיִּתְכַּוֵּן לְתַקֵּן:

15 One who demolishes a minimal amount is liable; and that is when he demolishes in order to build. But if he demolishes in a destructive way, he is exempt. One who demolishes a permanent tent or detaches [a piece or board of] wood that is implanted is surely [doing] a subcategory of demolishing, so he is liable – and that is when he intends to improve [it].

16 טז

הַמַּכֶּה בְּפַטִּישׁ הַכָּאָה אַחַת חַיָּב. וְכָל הָעוֹשֶׂה דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא גְּמַר מְלָאכָה הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת מַכֶּה בְּפַטִּישׁ וְחַיָּב. כֵּיצַד. הַמְנַפֵּחַ בִּכְלֵי זְכוּכִית וְהַצָּר בַּכְּלִי צוּרָה אֲפִלּוּ מִקְצָת הַצּוּרָה וְהַמְגָרֵד כָּל שֶׁהוּא וְהָעוֹשֶׂה נֶקֶב כָּל שֶׁהוּא בֵּין בְּעֵץ בֵּין בְּמַתֶּכֶת בֵּין בְּבִנְיָן בֵּין בְּכֵלִים הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת מַכֶּה בְּפַטִּישׁ וְחַיָּב. וְכָל פֶּתַח שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לְהַכְנִיס וּלְהוֹצִיא אֵין חַיָּבִין עַל עֲשִׂיָּתוֹ:

16 One who strikes [even] one blow with a hammer is liable. And anyone who does something that is the end of [an object’s] production is surely [doing] a subcategory of striking with a hammer, so he is liable. How is this? One who blows a glass vessel; one who designs a design, [or] even part of the design, in a vessel; one who etches a minimal amount; one who makes even a minimal hole – whether in wood or in metal, whether in a building or in vessels – is surely [doing] a subcategory of striking with a hammer, so he is liable. But we are not liable for the making of any hole that is not made to put in and bring out [through it].

17 יז

הַמֵּפִיס שְׁחִין בְּשַׁבָּת כְּדֵי לְהַרְחִיב פִּי הַמַּכָּה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהָרוֹפְאִין עוֹשִׂין שֶׁהֵן מִתְכַּוְּנִין בִּרְפוּאָה לְהַרְחִיב פִּי הַמַּכָּה הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מַכֶּה בְּפַטִּישׁ שֶׁזּוֹ הִיא מְלֶאכֶת הָרוֹפֵא. וְאִם הֵפִיסָה לְהוֹצִיא מִמֶּנָּה הַלֵּחָה שֶׁבָּהּ הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:

17 One who splits a boil on Shabbat in order to widen the opening of the wound, in the way that the physicians do when they intend to widen the opening of the wound in order to heal, is surely liable on account of striking with a hammer – as this is a type of work of physicians. But if he split [it] to extract the pus from it, that is surely permissible.

18 יח

הַמְסַתֵּת אֶת הָאֶבֶן כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מַכֶּה בְּפַטִּישׁ. הַמְצַדֵּד אֶת הָאֶבֶן בִּיסוֹד הַבִּנְיָן וְתִקְּנָהּ בְּיָדוֹ וְהוֹשִׁיבָהּ בַּמָּקוֹם הָרָאוּי לָהּ חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מַכֶּה בְּפַטִּישׁ. הַלּוֹקֵט יַבּוֹלֶת שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי בְּגָדִים בְּיָדוֹ כְּגוֹן אֵלּוּ הַיַּבּוֹלוֹת שֶׁבִּכְלֵי צֶמֶר חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם מַכֶּה בְּפַטִּישׁ. וְהוּא שֶׁיַּקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהֶן. אֲבָל אִם הֱסִירָן דֶּרֶךְ עֵסֶק הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר. הַמְנַעֵר טַלִּית חֲדָשָׁה שְׁחוֹרָה כְּדֵי לְנָאוֹתָהּ וּלְהָסִיר הַצֶּמֶר הַלָּבָן הַנִּתְלֶה בָּהּ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהָאֻמָּנִין עוֹשִׂין חַיָּב חַטָּאת. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מַקְפִּיד מֻתָּר:

18 One who chisels a minimal amount of a stone is liable on account of striking with a hammer. One who removes a stone in the foundation of a house, fixes it with his hand and replaces it in the place that is fitting for it, is liable on account of striking with a hammer. One who plucks a growth on the surface of garments – such as those growths in wool clothes – with his hand is liable on account of striking with a hammer. And that is when he is exacting about them. But if removes them in the way of preoccupation (and without being aware of his actions), he is surely exempt. One who shakes a new black cloak in order to beautify it and to remove the white wool stuck in it in the way that the craftsmen do this is liable for a sin-offering. But if he is not exacting, it is permitted.

19 יט

הַצָּד דָּבָר שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ מִינוֹ לָצוּד אוֹתוֹ חַיָּב. כְּגוֹן חַיָּה וְעוֹפוֹת וְדָגִים. וְהוּא שֶׁיָּצוּד אוֹתָן לְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻסַּר צֵידָה. כֵּיצַד. כְּגוֹן שֶׁרָדַף אַחֲרֵי צְבִי עַד שֶׁהִכְנִיסוֹ לְבַיִת אוֹ לְגִנָּה אוֹ לְחָצֵר וְנָעַל בְּפָנָיו. אוֹ שֶׁהִפְרִיחַ אֶת הָעוֹף עַד שֶׁהִכְנִיסוֹ לְמִגְדָּל וְנָעַל בְּפָנָיו. אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁלָה דָּגִים מִן הַיָּם בְּתוֹךְ סֵפֶל שֶׁל מַיִם הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב. אֲבָל אִם הִפְרִיחַ צִפּוֹר לְבַיִת וְנָעַל בְּפָנָיו. אוֹ שֶׁהִבְרִיחַ דָּג וַעֲקָרוֹ מִן הַיָּם לִבְרֵכָה שֶׁל מַיִם. אוֹ שֶׁרָדַף אַחַר צְבִי עַד שֶׁנִּכְנַס לִטְרַקְלִין רָחָב וְנָעַל בְּפָנָיו הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר. שֶׁאֵין זוֹ צִידָה גְּמוּרָה שֶׁאִם יָבוֹא לְקַחְתּוֹ צָרִיךְ לִרְדֹּף אַחֲרָיו וְלָצוּד אוֹתוֹ מִשָּׁם. לְפִיכָךְ הַצָּד אֲרִי אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּכְנִיסֶנּוּ לַכִּפָּה שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁהוּא נֶאֱסָר בָּהּ:

19 One who traps something from a species which it is its way to be trapped is liable – for example wild animals, birds and fish. And that is when he traps them into a place that does not lack [complete] trapping. How is this? For example, [if] he chased after a gazelle until he made it go into a house, a garden or a courtyard and he closed [the gate] in front of it; or shooed a bird until he made it go into a closet and closed [the door] in front of it; or scooped fish from the water into a pail of water – he is surely liable. But if he shooed a bird into a house and closed [the door] in front of it; or went after a fish and removed it from the sea into a pool of water; or chased after a gazelle until it entered a broad hall and he closed [the door] in front of it – he is surely exempt, for this is not compete trapping. As if he wants to take it, he will need to chase after it and trap it from there. Hence, one who traps a lion is not liable until he makes it go into its cage in which it is held.

20 כ

כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאִם יָרוּץ בּוֹ יַגִּיעַ לַחַיָּה בִּשְׁחִיָּה אַחַת. אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ הַכְּתָלִים קְרוֹבִין זֶה לָזֶה עַד שֶׁיִּפּל צֵל שְׁנֵיהֶם לָאֶמְצַע כְּאֶחָד הֲרֵי זֶה מָקוֹם קָטָן. וְאִם הִבְרִיחַ הַצְּבִי וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ לְתוֹכוֹ חַיָּב. וּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה הַמַּבְרִיחַ חַיָּה וָעוֹף לְתוֹכוֹ פָּטוּר:

20 Any space in which if he runs he can reach the wild animal with one dive, or the walls of which are sufficiently close to each other that their shade will overlap in the middle, is surely a small space. So if he ran after a gazelle or that which is similar to it [so that it went] into it, he is liable. But one who runs after a wild animal or bird [so that it goes] into a space that is bigger than this is exempt.

21 כא

אֶחָד שְׁמֹנָה שְׁרָצִים הָאֲמוּרִין בַּתּוֹרָה וְאֶחָד שְׁאָר שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְמִינָן צִידָה הַצָּד אֶחָד מִכֻּלָּן בֵּין לְצֹרֶךְ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ אוֹ לְשַׂחֵק בָּהֶן חַיָּב הוֹאִיל וְנִתְכַּוֵּן לָצוּד וְצָד. שֶׁמְּלָאכָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לְגוּפָהּ חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ. הַצָּד אֶת הַיָּשֵׁן וְאֶת הַסּוּמָא חַיָּב:

21 It is the same, whether with the eight swarming animals mentioned in the Torah or with the other repugnant creatures and creeping things the species of which is trapped – one who traps from one of them is liable, as he intended to trap and he trapped. [This is] whether [this is done] for a need or not for a need or to play with them – as [one is even] liable for forbidden work that is not needed for itself. One who traps a sleeping or blind [creature] is liable.

22 כב

הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ כְּלָבִים כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּצוּדוּ צְבָאִים וְאַרְנָבִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן וּבָרַח הַצְּבִי מִפְּנֵי הַכֶּלֶב וְהָיָה הוּא רוֹדֵף אַחַר הַצְּבִי אוֹ שֶׁעָמַד בְּפָנָיו וְהִבְהִילוֹ עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ הַכֶּלֶב וּתְפָשׂוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה תּוֹלֶדֶת הַצָּד וְחַיָּב. וְכֵן הָעוֹשֶׂה כַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזּוֹ בְּעוֹפוֹת:

22 One who sets out dogs in order that they will trap gazelles or rabbits or that which is similar to them and the gazelle ran away in front of the dog and it chased the gazelle; or [if the dog] stood in front of it and bewildered it, until the dog reached [it] and caught it – this is surely a subcategory of trapping, so he is liable. Likewise one who does [it] this way with birds.

23 כג

צְבִי שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְבַיִת וְנָעַל אֶחָד בְּפָנָיו חַיָּב. נְעָלוּהוּ שְׁנַיִם פְּטוּרִין. אִם אֵין אֶחָד יָכוֹל לִנְעל וּנְעָלוּהוּ שְׁנַיִם חַיָּבִין. יָשַׁב אֶחָד עַל הַפֶּתַח וְלֹא מִלְּאָהוּ וְיָשַׁב הַשֵּׁנִי וּמִלְּאָהוּ הַשֵּׁנִי חַיָּב. יָשַׁב הָרִאשׁוֹן וּמִלְּאָהוּ וּבָא הַשֵּׁנִי וְיָשַׁב בְּצִדּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָמַד הָרִאשׁוֹן וְהָלַךְ לוֹ הָרִאשׁוֹן חַיָּב וְהַשֵּׁנִי לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לֵישֵׁב בִּמְקוֹמוֹ עַד הָעֶרֶב וְלוֹקֵחַ הַצְּבִי. לְמָה זֶה דּוֹמֶה לְנוֹעֵל בֵּיתוֹ לְשָׁמְרוֹ וְנִמְצָא צְבִי שָׁמוּר בְּתוֹכוֹ שֶׁלֹּא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם. נִכְנְסָה לוֹ צִפּוֹר תַּחַת כְּנָפָיו יוֹשֵׁב וּמְשַׁמְּרָהּ עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ וּמֻתָּר:

23 [In the case of a] gazelle that entered a house and one person closed [the door] in front of him, he is liable. [If] two closed it, they are exempt. But if one cannot close it [by himself] and the two closed it, they are liable. [If] one sat at the entrance but did not fill it up (to fully block it), and the second one sat and filled it up, the second one is liable. [If] the first one sat and filled it up and the second came and sat at his side – even though the first one got up and walked away (and the second one is now blocking the entrance) – the first one is liable, and the second one did not do anything. So it is permissible for him to sit in his place until the evening and take the gazelle. To what is this similar? To one that closes his house to guard it, and he finds a deer kept in it – as he did not do anything. [If] a bird went under the corners of his clothes, he may sit and guard it until it gets dark. And it is permissible.

24 כד

הַצָּד צְבִי זָקֵן אוֹ חִגֵּר אוֹ חוֹלֶה אוֹ קָטָן פָּטוּר. הַמְפָרֵק בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף מִן הַמְּצוּדָה פָּטוּר. הַצָּד חַיָּה וָעוֹף שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּתוֹ כְּגוֹן אֲוָזִין וְתַרְנְגוֹלִין וְיוֹנֵי (עֲלִיָּה) פָּטוּר. הַצָּד דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בְּמִינוֹ צִידָה כְּגוֹן חֲגָבִים הַגָּזִין צְרָעִין וְיַתּוּשִׁין וּפַרְעוֹשִׁין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּאֵלּוּ הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר:

24 One who traps a gazelle [that is] old, lame, sick or young is exempt. One who removes a beast, a wild animal or a bird from a trap is exempt. One who traps wild animals or birds that are [already] in his possession – such as geese, chickens and [attic] pigeons – is exempt. One who traps something the species of which is not trapped – such as locusts, wild bees, wasps, mosquitos, fleas and that which is similar to these – is surely exempt.

25 כה

רְמָשִׂים הַמַּזִּיקִין כְּגוֹן נְחָשִׁים וְעַקְרַבִּים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן מְמִיתִין הוֹאִיל וְנוֹשְׁכִין מֻתָּר לָצוּד אוֹתָם בְּשַׁבָּת. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּתְכַּוֵּן לְהִנָּצֵל מִנְּשִׁיכָתָן. כֵּיצַד הוּא עוֹשֶׂה. כּוֹפֶה כְּלִי עֲלֵיהֶן אוֹ מַקִּיף עֲלֵיהֶן אוֹ קוֹשְׁרָן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַזִּיקוּ:

25 Being that they bite – even if they do not kill – it is permissible to trap injurious creeping things on Shabbat, such as snakes and scorpions and that which is similar to them. And that is when he intends to be saved from their bite. How should he do it? He covers them with a vessel or surrounds them [with objects] or ties them up so that they cannot hurt.