Chapter 5ה׳
1 א

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהֶחָכָם נִכָּר בְּחָכְמָתוֹ וּבְדֵעוֹתָיו וְהוּא מֻבְדָּל בָּהֶם מִשְּׁאָר הָעָם. כָּךְ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה נִכָּר בְּמַעֲשָׂיו בְּמַאֲכָלוֹ וּבְמַשְׁקֵהוּ וּבִבְעִילָתוֹ וּבַעֲשִׂיַּת צְרָכָיו וּבְדִבּוּרוֹ וּבְהִלּוּכוֹ וּבְמַלְבּוּשׁוֹ וּבְכִלְכּוּל דְּבָרָיו וּבְמַשָּׂאוֹ וּבְמַתָּנוֹ. וְיִהְיוּ כָּל הַמַּעֲשִׂים הָאֵלּוּ נָאִים וּמְתֻקָּנִים בְּיוֹתֵר. כֵּיצַד. תַּלְמִיד חָכָם לֹא יִהְיֶה גַּרְגְּרָן אֶלָּא אוֹכֵל מַאֲכָל הָרָאוּי לְהַבְרוֹת גּוּפוֹ. וְלֹא יֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲכִילָה גַּסָּה. וְלֹא יְהֵא רוֹדֵף לְמַלְּאֹת בִּטְנוֹ כְּאֵלּוּ שֶׁמִּתְמַלְּאִין מִמַּאֲכָל וּמִשְׁתֶּה עַד שֶׁתִּפַּח כְּרֵסָם. וַעֲלֵיהֶם מְפֹרָשׁ בַּקַּבָּלָה (מלאכי ב ג) "וְזֵרִיתִי פֶרֶשׁ עַל פְּנֵיכֶם". אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים אֵלּוּ בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁאוֹכְלִין וְשׁוֹתִין וְעוֹשִׂין כָּל יְמֵיהֶם כְּחַגִּים. וְהֵם הָאוֹמְרִים (ישעיה כב יג) "אָכוֹל וְשָׁתֹה כִּי מָחָר נָמוּת". וְזֶהוּ מַאֲכַל הָרְשָׁעִים. וְשֻׁלְחָנוֹת אֵלּוּ הֵם שֶׁגִּנָּה הַכָּתוּב וְאָמַר (ישעיה כח ח) "כִּי כָּל שֻׁלְחָנוֹת מָלְאוּ קִיא צֹאָה בְּלִי מָקוֹם". אֲבָל הֶחָכָם אֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל אֶלָּא תַּבְשִׁיל אֶחָד אוֹ שְׁנַיִם וְאוֹכֵל מִמֶּנּוּ כְּדֵי חַיָּיו וְדַּיּוֹ. הוּא שֶׁאָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה (משלי יג כה) "צַדִּיק אֹכֵל לְשֹׂבַע נַפְשׁוֹ":

Even as the wise man is recognized by his wisdom and ideas, whereby he is distinguished from the rest of the public, so it is necessary for him to be distinguished in his conduct, eating, drinking, sexual relations, elimination, speech, rendevous, dress, temperate in words, and in his business relations. All these deeds should be aesthetic and exceedingly cultured. A disciple of the wise must not be voracious, but eat proper food to strengthen his body; but even of such food he shall not partake a large quantity, nor be after eating in order to have a full stomach, as those who fill themselves up with food and drink until their bellies swell, concerning whom it is traditionally commented saying: "And I will spread dung upon your faces" (Mal. 2.3) refers, according to the sages, to those people who eat and drink and act as if determined to make of their lives a continuous feast.2Shabbat, 15G. And, it is they that say: "Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we must die" (Is. 22.13), which typifies the way wicked people eat, and it is such festive tables which were shamed in the verse saying: "For all tables are full of vomit, of filthiness, there is no place clean" (Ibid. 28.8). But the wise does not eat save one or two dishes, and of that he eats only enough to sustain his life and is satisfied, which is as Solomon said: "The righteous eateth to satisfy his soul" (Prov. 13.25).

2 ב

כְּשֶׁהֶחָכָם אוֹכֵל מְעַט זֶה הָרָאוּי לוֹ לֹא יֹאכְלֶנּוּ אֶלָּא בְּבֵיתוֹ עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ. וְלֹא יֹאכַל בַּחֲנוּת וְלֹא בַּשּׁוּק אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי צֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְגַּנֶּה בִּפְנֵי הַבְּרִיּוֹת. וְלֹא יֹאכַל אֵצֶל עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ וְלֹא עַל אוֹתָן הַשֻּׁלְחָנוֹת הַמְּלֵאִים קִיא צוֹאָה. וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה סְעֻדּוֹתָיו בְּכָל מָקוֹם וַאֲפִלּוּ עִם הַחֲכָמִים. וְלֹא יֹאכַל בִּסְעֻדּוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן קִבּוּץ הַרְבֵּה. וְאֵין רָאוּי לוֹ לֶאֱכל אֶלָּא בִּסְעֵדָּה שֶׁל מִצְוָה בִּלְבַד כְּגוֹן סְעֵדַּת אֵרוּסִין וְנִשּׂוּאִין. וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה תַּלְמִיד חָכָם שֶׁנָּשָׂא בַּת תַּלְמִיד חָכָם. וְהַצַּדִּיקִים וְהַחֲסִידִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים לֹא אָכְלוּ מִסְּעֻדָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁלָּהֶן:

When the wise eats the little that is proper for him, he should not eat it elsewhere than in his own house, at his own table. He should not eat either in a restaurant or on the street, unless because of an extreme need, so that he be not dishonored before people; nor should he eat together with the uncivilized, and indeed, not at those tables which are filled with vomit filthiness; nor should he take his meals too frequent in outside places even in company of the wise.3Pesahim, 49. C. He should not eat at banquets where the gatherings are large. It is improper for him to eat in public, save at a mandatory feast, such as feasts of engagements and weddings, and then only when a disciple of the wise takes to wife the daughter of a disciple of the wise. The righteous and the pious of yore never partook of a meal which was not of their own.4Hullin, 7. C.

3 ג

כְּשֶׁהֶחָכָם שׁוֹתֶה יַיִן אֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֶה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לִשְׁרוֹת אֲכִילָה שֶׁבְּמֵעָיו. וְכָל הַמִּשְׁתַּכֵּר הֲרֵי זֶה חוֹטֵא וּמְגֻנֶּה וּמַפְסִיד חָכְמָתוֹ. וְאִם נִשְׁתַּכֵּר בִּפְנֵי עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ הֲרֵי זֶה חִלֵּל אֶת הַשֵּׁם. וְאָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן בַּצָּהֳרַיִם וַאֲפִלּוּ מְעַט אֶלָּא אִם הָיָה בִּכְלַל הָאֲכִילָה. שֶׁהַשְּׁתִיָּה שֶׁהִיא בִּכְלַל הָאֲכִילָה אֵינָהּ מְשַׁכֶּרֶת. וְאֵין נִזְהָרִין אֶלָּא מִיַּיִן שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַמָּזוֹן:

When the wise drinks wine he partakes only enough to moisten the food in his bowels; but whosoever intoxicates himself is a sinner, contemptible, and brings about the loss of his wisdom. If he intoxicates himself in the presence of the uncivilized, behold, this one blashphemed the Name. It is forbidden to drink wine at noon, even a small quantity, save it be included in the meal; for, drink which is part of the meal is not intoxicating. However, no warning is needed, save from wine after meals.5T. Y. Pesahim, 37. G.

4 ד

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם מֻתֶּרֶת לוֹ תָּמִיד. רָאוּי לוֹ לְתַלְמִיד חָכָם שֶׁיַּנְהִיג עַצְמוֹ בִּקְדֻשָּׁה וְלֹא יְהֵא מָצוּי אֵצֶל אִשְׁתּוֹ כְּתַרְנְגוֹל אֶלָּא מִלֵּילֵי שַׁבָּת לְלֵילֵי שַׁבָּת אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ כֹּחַ. וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְסַפֵּר עִמָּהּ לֹא יְסַפֵּר בִּתְחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה כְּשֶׁהוּא שָׂבֵעַ וּבִטְנוֹ מָלֵא. וְלֹא בְּסוֹף הַלַּיְלָה כְּשֶׁהוּא רָעֵב. אֶלָּא בְּאֶמְצַע הַלַּיְלָה כְּשֶׁיִּתְעַכֵּל הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁבְּמֵעָיו. וְלֹא יָקֵל בְּרֹאשׁוֹ בְּיוֹתֵר וְלֹא יְנַבֵּל אֶת פִּיו בְּדִבְרֵי הֲבַאי וַאֲפִלּוּ בֵּינוֹ לְבֵינָהּ. הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּקַבָּלָה מַגִּיד לְאָדָם מַה שֵּׂחוֹ. אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים אֲפִלּוּ שִׂיחָה קַלָּה שֶׁבֵּין אָדָם לְאִשְׁתּוֹ עָתִיד לִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ אֶת הַדִּין. וְלֹא יִהְיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם לֹא שִׁכּוֹרִים וְלֹא עַצְלָנִים וְלֹא עַצְבָּנִים, וְלֹא אֶחָד מֵהֶן. וְלֹא תִּהְיֶה יְשֵׁנָה. וְלֹא יֶאֱנֹס אוֹתָהּ וְהִיא אֵינָהּ רוֹצָה אֶלָּא בִּרְצוֹן שְׁנֵיהֶם וּבְשִׂמְחָתָם. יְסַפֵּר וְיִשְׂחַק מְעַט עִמָּהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּתְיַשֵּׁב נַפְשָׁהּ וְיִבְעל בְּבוּשָׁה וְלֹא בְּעַזּוּת וְיִפְרשׁ מִיָּד:

Though one's wife is ever lawful to him, it is proper that a disciple of the wise should demean himself with sanctity, and not be like a rooster;6Berakot, 22a. G. a Sabbath to Sabbath visitation,7Ketubot, 62. C. if there be no physical reason to the contrary, not in the beginning of the night8Nedarim, 20; Niddah, 16. C. G. when in a state of satiety, nor at the end of the night when hungry, but about midnight after the food in his bowels be digested, unaccompanied by either exceeding boisterousness or profanity of mouth with vain words, even between themselves. Behold, it is traditionally said that the Verse, "And he declareth unto man what his language is" (Amos. 4.13), the sages interpreted: "Even on account of indecent conversation a man carries on with his own wife, he will have to render an accounting" (Hegigah. 5b). Both of them shall not be intoxicated, nor sluggish, nor in mourning; nor either of them in such state; nor when she be asleep, nor by overpowering her contrary mood; but with the consent and happy mood of both, with few pleasant and light-hearted words to please her being, stilling his urge diffidently and not impudently and dissociate immediately.

5 ה

כָּל הַנּוֹהֵג מִנְהָג זֶה לֹא דַּי לוֹ שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ נַפְשׁוֹ וְטִהֵר עַצְמוֹ וְתִקֵּן דֵּעוֹתָיו אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם הָיוּ לוֹ בָּנִים יִהְיוּ נָאִים וּבַיְשָׁנִים רְאוּיִין לְחָכְמָה וְלַחֲסִידוּת. וְכָל הַנּוֹהֵג בְּמִנְהֲגוֹת שְׁאָר הָעָם הַהוֹלְכִים בַּחשֶׁךְ יִהְיוּ לוֹ בָּנִים כְּמוֹ אוֹתָם הָעָם:

He who follows such conduct will not only sanctify his soul, and live in a state of purity, and improve his ideas, but if he will father children they will be refined and modest, prepared for wisdom and piety; but he who follows the conduct of the rest of the people who walk in darkness will father children in their likeness.

6 ו

צְנִיעוּת גְּדוֹלָה נוֹהֲגִים תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים בְּעַצְמָן. לֹא יִתְבַּזּוּ וְלֹא יִתְגַּלּוּ רֹאשָׁן וְלֹא גּוּפָן. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא יְהֵא צָנוּעַ וְלֹא יְגַלֶּה בְּגָדָיו עַד שֶׁיֵּשֵׁב. וְלֹא יְקַנֵּחַ בְּיָמִין. וְיִתְרַחֵק מִכָּל אָדָם. וְיִכָּנֵס חֶדֶר לִפְנִים מֵחֶדֶר מְעָרָה לִפְנִים מִן הַמְּעָרָה וְנִפְנֶה. וְאִם נִפְנֶה אֲחוֹרֵי הַגָּדֵר יִתְרַחֵק כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁמַע חֲבֵרוֹ קוֹלוֹ אִם נִתְעַטֵּשׁ. וְאִם נִפְנֶה בְּבִקְעָה יַרְחִיק כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִרְאֶה חֲבֵרוֹ פֵּרוּעוֹ. וְלֹא יְדַבֵּר כְּשֶׁהוּא נִפְנֶה אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל. וּכְדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנּוֹהֵג צְנִיעוּת בַּיּוֹם בְּבֵית הַכִּסֵּא כָּךְ נוֹהֵג בַּלַּיְלָה. וּלְעוֹלָם יְלַמֵּד אָדָם עַצְמוֹ לְהִפָּנוֹת שַׁחֲרִית וְעַרְבִית בִּלְבַד כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְרַחֵק:

The disciples of the wise conduct themselves with an abundance of privacy. They should not degrade themselves; and they should not uncover their heads and not their bodies. Even when entering a lavatory he should act decently, not to bare himself before sitting down nor use his right hand to dry himself, and remove himself from every human being and use an inner room, or an inner cave, and if it be behind a trench he should distance himself so that his neighbor will not hear him, and if it be on a plain, distance himself so that his neighbor will not see him; and not talk when voiding even if there be great need. And, in the self-same decent manner he follows by day he should follow by night; but one should train himself to have elimination morning and evening, to avoid the need of distancing himself.9Berakot, 62; Horayot, 13; Tamid, 27; Shabbat, 82. C. G.

7 ז

תַּלְמִיד חָכָם לֹא יְהֵא צוֹעֵק וְצוֹוֵחַ בִּשְׁעַת דִּבּוּרוֹ כִּבְהֵמוֹת וְחַיּוֹת. וְלֹא יַגְבִּיהַּ קוֹלוֹ בְּיוֹתֵר אֶלָּא דִּבּוּרוֹ בְּנַחַת עִם כָּל הַבְּרִיּוֹת. וּכְשֶׁיְּדַבֵּר בְּנַחַת יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִתְרַחֵק עַד שֶׁיֵּרָאֶה כְּדִבְרֵי גַּסֵּי הָרוּחַ. וּמַקְדִּים שָׁלוֹם לְכָל הָאָדָם כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּהֵא רוּחָן נוֹחָה הֵימֶנּוּ. וְדָן אֶת כָּל הָאָדָם לְכַף זְכוּת. מְסַפֵּר בְּשֶׁבַח חֲבֵרוֹ וְלֹא בִּגְנוּתוֹ כְּלָל. אוֹהֵב שָׁלוֹם וְרוֹדֵף שָׁלוֹם. אִם רוֹאֶה שֶׁדְּבָרָיו מוֹעִילִים וְנִשְׁמָעִים אוֹמֵר וְאִם לָאו שׁוֹתֵק. כֵּיצַד. לֹא יְרַצֶּה חֲבֵרוֹ בִּשְׁעַת כַּעֲסוֹ. וְלֹא יִשְׁאַל לוֹ עַל נִדְרוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנָּדַר עַד שֶׁתִּתְקָרֵר דַּעְתּוֹ וְיָנוּחַ. וְלֹא יְנַחֲמֶנּוּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמֵּתוֹ מֻטָּל לְפָנָיו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בָּהוּל עַד שֶׁיִּקְבְּרֵהוּ. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ. וְלֹא יִרְאֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ בִּשְׁעַת קַלְקָלָתוֹ אֶלָּא יַעֲלִים עֵינָיו מִמֶּנּוּ. וְלֹא יְשַׁנֶּה בְּדִבּוּרוֹ. וְלֹא יוֹסִיף וְלֹא יִגְרַע אֶלָּא בְּדִבְרֵי שָׁלוֹם וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר אֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא בְּדִבְרֵי חָכְמָה אוֹ בִּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וְלֹא יְסַפֵּר עִם אִשָּׁה בַּשּׁוּק וַאֲפִלּוּ הִיא אִשְׁתּוֹ אוֹ אֲחוֹתוֹ אוֹ בִּתּוֹ:

A disciple of the wise should not be noisy and loud like cattle and animals when talking, nor even raise his voice overmuch, but converse calmly with all people; nevertheless, in speaking calmly he should not overdo it lest he resemble the overpoliteness of the arrogant. He should be first to greet every person, so that their spirit be pleased with him He should judge every person favorably, telling the praiseworthy things about his friend and not at all about the blameworthy things; love peace and pursue it. If he can see his words acceptable he may speak, if not he should be silent. For instance? He should not appease his friend when the latter is moody; nor question him concerning his vow at the time the vow was made, but wait until his friend's mind will be composed and collected; he should not offer condolence while the remains of the deceased are in the presence of his friend, because he is upset until after the remains are buried, and so in other matters of a like delicate nature. He should not call upon his friend while the latter is down through a failing, but keep his eye off of him. He should not change his word, nor add to or diminish from it, unless it be for the sake of peace and similar worthy objects. As a general rule, he should not speak much else save words of wisdom, or charity and the like. He should not carry on a conversation with a woman on the street, even though she be his wife, or his sister, or his daughter.10Yoma, 86a; Kiddushin, 70b; Yebamot, 65a; Pirke Abot, 1; Ibid. 4; Berakot, 43a; Ibid, 48. C. G.

8 ח

לֹא יֵלֵךְ תַּלְמִיד חָכָם בְּקוֹמָה זְקוּפָה וְגָרוֹן נָטוּי כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ג טז) "וַתֵּלַכְנָה נְטוּיוֹת גָּרוֹן וּמְשַׂקְּרוֹת עֵינָיִם". וְלֹא יְהַלֵּךְ עָקֵב בְּצַד גּוּדָל בְּנַחַת כְּמוֹ הַנָּשִׁים וְגַסֵּי הָרוּחַ כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ג טז) "הָלוֹךְ וְטָפֹף תֵּלַכְנָה וּבְרַגְלֵיהֶם תְּעַכַּסְנָה". וְלֹא יָרוּץ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים כְּמִנְהַג מְשֻׁגָּעִים. וְלֹא יִכְפֹּף קוֹמָתוֹ כְּבַעֲלֵי חֲטוֹטֶרֶת. אֶלָּא מִסְתַּכֵּל לְמַטָּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בִּתְפִלָּה. וּמְהַלֵּךְ בַּשּׁוּק כְּאָדָם שֶׁהוּא טָרוּד בַּעֲסָקָיו. גַּם מִמַּהֲלָכוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם נִכָּר אִם חָכָם וּבַעַל דֵּעָה הוּא אוֹ שׁוֹטֶה וְסָכָל. וְכֵן אָמַר שְׁלֹמֹה בְּחָכְמָתוֹ (קהלת י ג) "וְגַם בַּדֶּרֶךְ כְּשֶׁסָּכָל הלֵךְ לִבּוֹ חָסֵר וְאָמַר לַכּל סָכָל הוּא". הוּא מוֹדִיעַ לַכּל עַל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁהוּא סָכָל:

A disciple of the wise shall not walk about with his head high up in the air and neck stretched out, the subject of which was denounced, saying: "And they walk with stretched necks and wanton eyes" (Is. 3.16); nor overslow as bringing heel to toe like some women and the arrogant, the subject of which was denounced, saying: "Walking and measuring as they go, and making a tinkling with their feet" (Ibid.); nor run about after the fashion of the mad, nor bent as if hunch-backed, but looking downward as if in praying position, and as if occupied and going on some errand of business. Even from the way a person walks it is apparent whether he is wise and sensible or foolish and imprudent. For even so did Solomon in his wisdom say: "Yea also, when a fool walketh by the way, his understanding faileth him, and he saith to every one that he is a fool" (Ecc. 10.3), meaning that he himself proclaims to everybody that he is a fool.11Berakot, 43b. C.

9 ט

מַלְבּוּשׁ תַּלְמִיד חָכָם מַלְבּוּשׁ נָאֶה וְנָקִי. וְאָסוּר לוֹ שֶׁיִּמָּצֵא בְּבִגְדוֹ כֶּתֶם אוֹ שַׁמְנוּנִית וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן. וְלֹא יִלְבַּשׁ לֹא מַלְבּוּשׁ מְלָכִים כְּגוֹן בִּגְדֵי זָהָב וְאַרְגָּמָן שֶׁהַכּל מִסְתַּכְּלִין בָּהֶן. וְלֹא מַלְבּוּשׁ עֲנִיִּים שֶׁהוּא מְבַזֶּה אֶת לוֹבְשָׁיו אֶלָּא בְּגָדִים בֵּינוֹנִים נָאִים. וְלֹא יְהֵא בְּשָׂרוֹ נִרְאֶה מִתַּחַת מַדָּיו כְּמוֹ בִּגְדֵי הַפִּשְׁתָּן הַקַּלִּים בְּיוֹתֵר שֶׁעוֹשִׂים בְּמִצְרַיִם. וְלֹא יִהְיוּ בְּגָדָיו סְחוּבִין עַל הָאָרֶץ כְּמוֹ בִּגְדֵי גַּסֵּי הָרוּחַ אֶלָּא עַד עֲקֵבוֹ וּבֵית יָד שֶׁלּוֹ עַד רָאשֵׁי אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו. וְלֹא יְשַׁלְשֵׁל טַלִּיתוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כְּגַסּוּת הָרוּחַ אֶלָּא בְּשַׁבָּת בִּלְבַד אִם אֵין לוֹ לְהַחֲלִיף. וְלֹא יִנְעַל מִנְעָלִים מְטֻלָּאִים טְלַאי עַל גַּבֵּי טְלַאי בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה. אֲבָל בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים מֻתָּר אִם הָיָה עָנִי. לֹא יֵצֵא מְבֻשָּׂם לַשּׁוּק וְלֹא בִּבְגָדִים מְבֻשָּׂמִים וְלֹא יָשִׂים בּשֶֹׁם בִּשְׂעָרוֹ. אֲבָל אִם מָשַׁח בְּשָׂרוֹ בְּבשֶֹׁם כְּדֵי לְהַעֲבִיר אֶת הַזֻּהֲמָא מֻתָּר. וְכֵן לֹא יֵצֵא יְחִידִי בַּלַּיְלָה. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה לוֹ זְמַן קָבוּעַ לָצֵאת בּוֹ לְתַלְמוּדוֹ. כָּל אֵלּוּ מִפְּנֵי הַחֲשָׁד:

The disciple of the wise should wear becoming and clean clothes, and it is forbidden to have a spot or grease or anything of a like unclean nature, found upon his garment. He should not wear clothes fit for a king such as trimmed with gold or purple which attract everybody's gaze, nor the clothes of a pauper which put the wearer to shame, but average garments of becoming style. He should not wear transparent garments as, for example, garments made of very fine linen which are made in Egypt; nor should they be too long, trailing upon the ground, like the garments of the arrogant, but it may reach to the heel, and the sleeves to his finger-tips. He should not permit to trail his fringed garment, as it appears arrogant, save only on the Sabbath, if he has no other to change. He should not wear patched-up shoes, patch upon a patch, in summer time; but in winter time it is permitted if he be poor. He should not go out on the street perfumed, nor with perfumed garments, nor put perfume in his hair; but if he puts perfume upon his skin to remove perspiration there is no rule forbidding it. Likewise should he not go out alone at night, unless he had set a specified time to go out to his studies. All these ethical rules are so as not to cast any suspicion upon the disciples of the wise.12Hullin, 91b; Pesahim 112a; Berakot 45b C. G.

10 י

תַּלְמִיד חָכָם מְכַלְכֵּל דְּבָרָיו בְּמִשְׁפָּט. אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה וְזָן אֶת אַנְשֵׁי בֵּיתוֹ כְּפִי מָמוֹנוֹ וְהַצְלָחָתוֹ. וְלֹא יַטְרִיחַ עַל עַצְמוֹ יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי. צִוּוּ חֲכָמִים בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶרֶץ שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל אָדָם בָּשָׂר אֶלָּא לְתֵאָבוֹן. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יב כ) "כִּי תְאַוֶּה נַפְשְׁךָ לֶאֱכל בָּשָׂר". דַּיּוֹ לַבָּרִיא לֶאֱכל בָּשָׂר מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת לְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. וְאִם הָיָה עָשִׁיר כְּדֵי לֶאֱכל בָּשָׂר בְּכָל יוֹם אוֹכֵל. צִוּוּ חֲכָמִים וְאָמְרוּ לְעוֹלָם יֹאכַל אָדָם פָּחוֹת מִן הָרָאוּי לוֹ לְפִי מָמוֹנוֹ וְיִלְבַּשׁ כָּרָאוּי לוֹ וִיכַבֵּד אִשְׁתּוֹ וּבָנָיו יוֹתֵר מִן הָרָאוּי לוֹ:

A disciple of the wise adjusts his affairs judiciously: he eats, drinks and supports his family within his capital and material success; but he should not overburden himself more than necessary. The wise men command a worldly custom that a man should not eat meat save when craving it, even as it is said: "Because thy soul desireth to eat flesh" (Deut. 12.20). It is enough for a healthy person to eat meat from Friday night to Friday night. If, however, he be rich enough to eat meat daily he may eat. The wise men commanded and said: "Ever let a man eat less than what his financial means allow, dress within his means, but honor his wife and children with more than his means allow".13Hullin, 84b. C.

11 יא

דֶּרֶךְ בַּעֲלֵי דֵּעָה שֶׁיִּקְבַּע לוֹ אָדָם מְלָאכָה הַמְפַרְנֶסֶת אוֹתוֹ תְּחִלָּה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִקְנֶה בֵּית דִּירָה. וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִשָּׂא אִשָּׁה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כ ו) "מִי הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר נָטַע כֶּרֶם וְלֹא חִלְּלוֹ". (דברים כ ה) "מִי הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר בָּנָה בַיִת חָדָשׁ וְלֹא חֲנָכוֹ". (דברים כ ז) "מִי הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר אֵרַשׂ אִשָּׁה וְלֹא לְקָחָהּ". אֲבָל הַטִּפְּשִׁין מַתְחִילִין לִשָּׂא אִשָּׁה וְאַחַר כָּךְ אִם תִּמְצָא יָדוֹ יִקְנֶה בַּיִת וְאַחַר כָּךְ בְּסוֹף יָמָיו יְחַזֵּר לְבַקֵּשׁ אֻמָּנוּת אוֹ יִתְפַּרְנֵס מִן הַצְּדָקָה. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בַּקְּלָלוֹת (דברים כח ל) "אִשָּׁה תְאָרֵשׂ" (דברים כח ל) "בַּיִת תִּבְנֶה" (דברים כח ל) "כֶּרֶם תִּטַּע". כְּלוֹמַר יִהְיוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ הֲפוּכִין כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תַּצְלִיחַ אֶת דְּרָכֶיךָ. וּבַבְּרָכָה הוּא אוֹמֵר (שמואל א יח יד) "וַיְהִי דָוִד לְכָל דְּרָכָו מַשְׂכִּיל וַה' עִמּוֹ":

The way of sensible people: A man should first select a permanent vocation out of which to derive a livelihood, then buy a home, and after that take unto himself a wife, as it is said: "And what man is there that built a new house and hath not dedicated it, And what man is there that hath planted a vineyard, and hath not used the fruit thereof, And what man is there that hath betrothed a wife and hath not taken her". (Deut. 20.5–7).14The Hebrew text quotes “And what man is there that hath planted a vineyard” first, which is an evident error; Maimonides only emphasizes that marriage should take place only after attaining an established livelihood. G. But fools reverse it by taking a wife first, and after that, if he be able, purchase a home, and after that, in his declining years, he will turn about looking for a vocation, or be supported on charity. Even so is it reversed when pronouncing adversity: "Thou shalt betroth a wife, thou shalt build a house, thou shalt plant a vineyard" (Deut. 28.30), meaning, thy actions shall be reverse so that thou be unsuccessful in thy ways. But of a blessing it is said: "And David acted wisely in all his ways, and the Lord was with him" (First Samuel. 18.14).15See Pesahim, 50, about one who is supported by his wife’s earnings. G.

12 יב

וְאָסוּר לוֹ לָאָדָם לְהַפְקִיר אוֹ לְהַקְדִּישׁ כָּל נְכָסָיו וְיַטְרִיחַ עַל הַבְּרִיּוֹת. וְלֹא יִמְכֹּר שָׂדֶה וְיִקְנֶה בַּיִת וְלֹא בַּיִת וְיִקְנֶה מִטַּלְטְלִין אוֹ יַעֲשֶׂה סְחוֹרָה בִּדְמֵי בֵּיתוֹ. אֲבָל מוֹכֵר הוּא מִטַּלְטְלִין וְקוֹנֶה שָׂדֶה. כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר יָשִׂים מְגַמָּתוֹ לְהַצְלִיחַ נְכָסָיו וּלְהַחֲלִיף הַכָּלֶה בְּקַיָּם. וְלֹא תִּהְיֶה כַּוָּנָתוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מְעַט לְפִי שָׁעָה אוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מְעַט וְיַפְסִיד הַרְבֵּה:

A man is forbidden either to give away or to make holy all of his property and burden society for his support. He should not sell a farm and buy a house, or a house and buy moveables; or engage in merchandise with the proceeds of his house; but he may sell moveables and buy a farm. As a general rule in such matter, he should set his mind to increase his property successfully and exchange the thing which is perishable for the thing which is lasting; he should not direct his intention to find a bit of temporary joy, or enjoy for a while and thereby sustain great loss.16Arakin, 28a. C.

13 יג

מַשָּׂאוֹ וּמַתָּנוֹ שֶׁל תַּלְמִיד חָכָם בֶּאֱמֶת וּבֶאֱמוּנָה. אוֹמֵר עַל לָאו לָאו וְעַל הֵן הֵן. מְדַקְדֵּק עַל עַצְמוֹ בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן וְנוֹתֵן וּמְוַתֵּר לַאֲחֵרִים כְּשֶׁיִּקַּח מֵהֶן וְלֹא יְדַקְדֵּק עֲלֵיהֶן. וְנוֹתֵן דְּמֵי הַמִּקָּח לְאַלְתַּר וְאֵינוֹ נַעֲשֶׂה לֹא עָרֵב וְלֹא קַבְּלָן וְלֹא יָבוֹא בְּהַרְשָׁאָה. (אֵינוֹ) מְחַיֵּב עַצְמוֹ בְּדִבְרֵי מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא חִיְּבָה אוֹתוֹ תּוֹרָה. כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲמֹד בְּדִבּוּרוֹ וְלֹא יְשַׁנֵּהוּ. וְאִם נִתְחַיְּבוּ לוֹ אֲחֵרִים בַּדִּין מַאֲרִיךְ וּמוֹחֵל לָהֶן וּמַלְוֶה וְחוֹנֵן. וְלֹא יֵרֵד לְתוֹךְ אֻמָּנוּת חֲבֵרוֹ. וְלֹא יָצֵר לְאָדָם לְעוֹלָם בְּחַיָּיו. כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר יִהְיֶה מִן הַנִּרְדָּפִים וְלֹא מִן הָרוֹדְפִים מִן הַנֶּעֱלָבִים וְלֹא מִן הָעוֹלְבִים. וְאָדָם שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה כָּל הַמַּעֲשִׂים הָאֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר וַיֹּאמֶר לִי עַבְדִּי אָתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר בְּךָ אֶתְפָּאָר:

The business conduct of the disciple of the wise must be accompanied by truth and good faith; he must say: no, when it is no, and yea, when it is yea; restricting himself in accounting to others, but liberal in giving to and benevolent when receiving from others and place no restrictions upon them; he should make payment immediately after the bargain is made; he should not become surety for others, nor act as trustee, or agent; he should not oblige himself in matters of business in instances where the Torah made it not obligatory upon him, so that he be able to keep his word and not change he obtain judgment by law against others, he should grant them delay, be forgiving to them, aid them with a loan and be gracious to them. He must not go down after the trade of his neighbor, nor ever in his life oppress any one in the world. As a rule he should be among the pursued and not among the pursuers, among the insulted and not among the insulting. For, a man who does all such deeds or their like, of him the Verse says: "And He said unto me, 'thou art My servant, Israel in whom I will be glorified'" (Is. 49.3).17Gittin, 52b; Yoma, 86a; Shebu’ot, 31a; Sanhedrin, 81b; Baba Kamma, 93a; Yoma, 20a; Gittin, 36b. C.