כָּל אֹכֶל שֶׁגִּדּוּלָיו מִן הָאָרֶץ וְנִשְׁמָר וּלְקִיטָתוֹ כֻּלּוֹ כְּאַחַת וּמַכְנִיסִין אוֹתוֹ לְקִיּוּם חַיָּב בְּפֵאָה. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט ט) (ויקרא כג כב) "וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם": Anything (1) that people eat, (2) that is raised from the soil, (3) that is supervised, (4) that is gleaned all together at once, and (5) that is put into storage is subject to the giving of the péah portion, as it is said, (Lev. 19:9, 23:22) When you reap the harvest of your land.17See Mishnah Péah 1:4 as a source for this definition.
כָּל הַדּוֹמֶה לַקָּצִיר בְּחָמֵשׁ דְּרָכִים אֵלּוּ הוּא שֶׁחַיָּב בְּפֵאָה. כְּגוֹן הַתְּבוּאָה וְהַקִּטְנִיּוֹת וְהֶחָרוּבִין וְהָאֱגוֹזִין וְהַשְּׁקֵדִים וְהָרִמּוֹנִים וְהָעֲנָבִים וְהַזֵּיתִים וְהַתְּמָרִים בֵּין יְבֵשִׁים בֵּין רַכִּים וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בְּאֵלּוּ. אֲבָל אִסְטִיס וּפוּאָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן פְּטוּרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן אֹכֶל. וְכֵן כְּמֵהִין וּפִטְרִיּוֹת פְּטוּרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין גִּדּוּלֵיהֶן מִן הָאָרֶץ כִּשְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת הָאָרֶץ. וְכֵן הַהֶפְקֵר פָּטוּר שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מִי שֶׁיִּשְׁמְרֶנּוּ שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מֻפְקָר לַכּל. וְכֵן הַתְּאֵנִים פְּטוּרִין מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לְקִיטָתָן כְּאַחַת אֶלָּא יֵשׁ בְּאִילָן זֶה מַה שֶּׁיִּגָּמֵר הַיּוֹם וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ מַה שֶּׁיִּגָּמֵר לְאַחַר כַּמָּה יָמִים. וְכֵן יָרָק פָּטוּר שֶׁאֵין מַכְנִיסִין אוֹתוֹ לְקִיּוּם. הַשּׁוּמִים וְהַבְּצָלִים חַיָּבִין בְּפֵאָה שֶׁהֲרֵי מְיַבְּשִׁין אוֹתָן וּמַכְנִיסִין אוֹתָן לְקִיּוּם. וְכֵן הָאֲמָהוֹת שֶׁל בְּצָלִים שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין אוֹתָן בָּאָרֶץ לִקַּח מֵהֶן הַזֶּרַע חַיָּבוֹת בְּפֵאָה. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן: Anything to be harvested that shares these five characteristics is liable for the giving of the péah portion, such as produce, legumes, carob, nuts, almonds, pomegranates, grapes, olives, dates whether dried or fresh, and such, but woad [a plant that is harvested for blue dye] and rubia [a plant that is harvested for red dye] and similar things are exempt because they are not edible. So also with morils and truffles [which are kinds of mushrooms] because they are not raised from the soil like other produce of the earth. So also is property that has been appropriated by the court ["ownerless property"] exempt, for there is no specific person to supervise it, for it was appropriated for all. So also are figs exempt because they are not picked all at once but rather there are some that are ready on one day and some a few days later. So also are herbs exempt, for they are not put into storage. Garlic and onions [however] are liable for giving of péah, for people dry them and put them into storage. So also are the shoots of onions liable for the giving of péah, for they are put in the ground in order to get their seeds, and so also with similar things.18See Mishnah Péah 1:4-5. Maimonides adds a great deal to the Mishnah, but he follows the same principle: food for the poor included basic kinds of food that were processed in the usual way under regular processes and supervision. In addition, the food also needed to be able to be conserved for future consumption as a matter of practical interest and to avoid waste. Luxury items, such as figs and herbs, which required special care, were exempt, but garlic and onions, which do not require special care and can be harvested like a regular crop, are not. It is also interesting to note that the principle of conservation also extends to the shoots of onions, implying that the poor might participate in the processes of planting and harvesting on land of their own.
קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיֶּבֶת בְּפֵאָה וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה שֶׁל שֻׁתָּפִין שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט ט) (ויקרא כג כב) "קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם" אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל רַבִּים: Cultivated land of any kind is liable for the giving of péah, even if it is owned in a partnership, as it is said, (Lev. 19:9, 23:22) When you reap the harvest of your land, even if it is land owned by many.
שָׂדֶה שֶׁקָּצְרוּ נָכְרִים לְעַצְמָן אוֹ שֶׁקְּצָרוּהָ לִסְטִים אוֹ קִרְסְמוּהָ גְּמַלִּים אוֹ שְׁבָרְתָּהּ הָרוּחַ אוֹ בְּהֵמָה הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּטוּרָה מִן הַפֵּאָה. שֶׁחוֹבַת הַפֵּאָה בְּקָמָה: A field that was harvested by Gentiles for themselves, or one that was harvested by bandits, or one that was chewed down by ants,19Some texts read milnb, "camels," but as this is based upon Mishnah Péah 2:7, "ants" is what was intended. or one that was laid low by the wind or cattle is exempt from the giving of péah, for the obligation of péah is on things still standing.20However, see law 2:10 of this chapter where the Gentiles are not robbers but hired workers.
קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וְקָצְרוּ הַלִּסְטִים חֶצְיָהּ שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּטוּרָה. שֶׁהַחִיּוּב בַּחֵצִי שֶׁקָּצְרוּ הַלִּסְטִים. אֲבָל אִם קָצְרוּ הַלִּסְטִים חֶצְיָהּ וְחָזַר הוּא וְקָצַר הַשְּׁאָר נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה כְּשִׁעוּר מַה שֶּׁקָּצַר. קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וּמָכַר חֶצְיָהּ הַלּוֹקֵחַ נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה (לַכּל). קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וְהִקְדִּישׁ חֶצְיָהּ הַפּוֹדֶה מִיַּד הַגִּזְבָּר נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לַכּל. קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וְהִקְדִּישׁוֹ מַנִּיחַ מִן הַנִּשְׁאָר פֵּאָה הָרְאוּיָה לַכּל: One who harvested half [of his field] and then bandits harvested the other half that remained is exempt [from giving péah], for the obligation was to come from the half that the bandits harvested. But if the bandits harvested half and then the owner came back and harvested the remaining half, he gives péah according to the measure of what he harvested. If he harvested [the first] half and sold [the second] half, the one who took [what he sold] gives péah (for all). If he harvested [the first] half and dedicated [the second] half to the Temple, the redeemer, [who takes it] from the possession of the treasurer, gives péah for all.21See Mishnah Péah 2:7-8. There is no péah obligation for anything dedicated to the Temple. If he harvested [the first] half and redeemed it, he leaves péah from what remains as is appropriate for all of the crop.
כֶּרֶם שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹצֵר מִמֶּנּוּ עֲנָבִים לִמְכֹּר בַּשּׁוּק וּבְדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ הַשְּׁאָר לַגַּת לִדְרֹךְ אוֹתוֹ. אִם הָיָה בּוֹצֵר לַשּׁוּק מִכָּאן וּמִכָּאן הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לְמַה שֶּׁבּוֹצֵר לַגַּת כְּפִי הַנִּשְׁאָר. וְאִם הָיָה בּוֹצֵר לַשּׁוּק מֵרוּחַ אַחַת בִּלְבַד הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה מִן הַנִּשְׁאָר כְּפִי הָרָאוּי לְכָל הַכֶּרֶם הוֹאִיל וּבָצַר מֵרוּחַ אַחַת אֵינוֹ כְּבוֹצֵר עַרְאַי מְעַט מִכָּאן וּמְעַט מִכָּאן שֶׁהוּא פָּטוּר. וְכֵן כָּל הַקּוֹטֵף מְלִילוֹת מְעַט מְעַט וּמַכְנִיס לְבֵיתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ קָטַף כֵּן כָּל שָׂדֵהוּ פָּטוּר מִן הַלֶּקֶט וּמִן הַשִּׁכְחָה וּמִן הַפֵּאָה: In the case of a grape-harvester who has a field from which he takes grapes to sell in the market and the remainder he intends to leave for the wine press, if the grape-harvester took the grapes to the market a bit from here and a bit from there, then the grape-harvester gives péah from what he left for the wine press according to the measure of what was left. But if the grape-harvester took the grapes to the market all from one side of his field, then he should give péah from the remaining grapes according to the measure of the entire vineyard because one who harvests grapes all from one side of his field is not like a grape-harvester who by chance takes a little bit from here and a little bit from there, who, in that case, is exempt. So also this applies to one who plucks parched ears of corn bit by bit and brings them into his house.22This is apparently different because this is for consumption in the home. Even if he plucks his entire field this way, he is exempt from leket, shikhecha, and péah.23The fourth qualification was that produce be gleaned all at once, like an ordinary crop, and not like a home garden for personal consumption. These instances present ambiguities in this area.
הַקּוֹצֵר כָּל שָׂדֵהוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁתֻּגְמַר וַעֲדַיִן לֹא הֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ הֲרֵי זוֹ פְּטוּרָה. וְאִם הִגִּיעָה לִשְׁלִישׁ חַיֶּבֶת. וְכֵן בְּפֵרוֹת הָאִילָן אִם נִגְמְרוּ שְׁלִישׁ גְּמִירָתָן חַיָּבִין: One who harvests his field before it has ripened, that is, it has not yet ripened one-third of the way, it [this field] is exempt, but if it was one-third of the way ripened, it [the field's produce] is subject to péah. So also with the fruit of trees that if it is one-third of the way ripened, it [the fruit] is subject to péah.
הַמַּקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֵהוּ וְהִיא קָמָה חַיֶּבֶת בְּפֵאָה. קְצָרָהּ הַגִּזְבָּר וְאַחַר כָּךְ פְּדָאָהּ פְּטוּרָה. שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת חִיּוּב הַפֵּאָה הָיְתָה קֹדֶשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּפֵאָה: One who sanctifies corn [and redeems it] while it is still standing [and not yet harvested] owes péah. If the treasurer harvested it and afterwards he [the owner] redeemed it, it is exempt, for at the time of the obligation of péah the crop was sanctified and [therefore] he does not owe péah.24See Mishnah Péah 4:7.
נָכְרִי שֶׁקָּצַר שָׂדֵהוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְגַּיֵּר הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַפֵּאָה וּמִן הַלֶּקֶט וּמִן הַשִּׁכְחָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַשִּׁכְחָה אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הָעִמּוּר: A Gentile who harvested his field and afterwards converted is exempt from péah, leket, and shikhecha, even though shikhecha can only be owed during the time of carrying the sheaves home [when he would have been considered a Jew].25See Mishnah Péah 4:6.
אֵין שׂוֹכְרִין פּוֹעֲלִים נָכְרִים לִקְצֹר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָן בְּקִיאִין בְּלֶקֶט וּפֵאָה. וְאִם שָׂכַר וְקָצְרוּ אֶת כֻּלּוֹ הֲרֵי זוֹ חַיֶּבֶת בְּפֵאָה: One should not hire Gentile workers for harvesting because they are not familiar with the laws of leket and péah, but if one hired them and they harvested everything, then the owner still owes péah.26See Tosefta Péah 3:1.
בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁקָּצַר כָּל שָׂדֵהוּ וְלֹא הִנִּיחַ פֵּאָה. הֲרֵי זֶה נוֹתֵן מִן הַשִּׁבֳּלִים פֵּאָה לָעֲנִיִּים. וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְעַשֵּׂר. וְאִם נָתַן לָהֶם רֹב הַקָּצִיר מִשּׁוּם פֵּאָה הֲרֵי זֶה פָּטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. וְכֵן אִם דָּשׁ וַעֲדַיִן לֹא זָרָה נוֹתֵן לָהֶם הַפֵּאָה קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּעַשֵּׂר. אֲבָל דָּשׁ וְזָרָה בְּרַחַת וּבְמִזְרֶה וְגָמַר מְלַאכְתּוֹ מְעַשֵּׂר וְנוֹתֵן לָהֶם מִן הַפֵּרוֹת הַמְּעֻשָּׂרִין שִׁעוּר הַפֵּאָה הָרְאוּיָה לְאוֹתָהּ שָׂדֶה. וְכֵן בְּאִילָנוֹת: A landowner who harvested his field and did not leave péah should give péah from the harvested sheaves to the poor, and he does not need to tithe it. And if he gave them the majority of his harvest in the name of giving péah, he is exempt from tithes. So also this applies if he threshed his produce but still did not bundle it, he must give péah before he has tithed. But if he threshed and bundled with a winnowing shovel and a winnowing fan and thus finished all of his labor, he tithes and then gives [péah] to them from the tithed produce according to the measure of what is fitting for that field. So also does this apply to produce from trees.27See Mishnah Péah 1:6. While the situations described here are different from that of the Mishnah, the ideas seem to be related. The system of tithes is described in Chapter 6. See also Babylonian Talmud Bava Kama 94a.
אֵין מַנִּיחִין אֶת הַפֵּאָה אֶלָּא בְּסוֹף הַשָּׂדֶה. כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עֲנִיִּים יוֹדְעִין מָקוֹם שֶׁיָּבוֹאוּ לוֹ וּכְדֵי שֶׁתִּהְיֶה נִכֶּרֶת לָעוֹבְרִים וְלַשָּׁבִים וְלֹא יֵחָשֵׁד. וּמִפְּנֵי הָרַמָּאִים שֶׁלֹּא יִתְכַּוֵּן לִקְצֹר הַכּל וְאוֹמֵר לְאֵלּוּ שֶׁרוֹאִים אוֹתוֹ קוֹצֵר סוֹף הַשָּׂדֶה בִּתְחִלַּת הַשָּׂדֶה הִנַּחְתִּי. וְעוֹד שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁמֹר שָׁעָה שֶׁאֵין שָׁם אָדָם וְיַנִּיחֶנָּהּ וְיִתְּנֶנָּה לֶעָנִי הַקָּרוֹב לוֹ. עָבַר וְהִנִּיחַ הַפֵּאָה בִּתְחִלַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אוֹ בְּאֶמְצָעָהּ הֲרֵי זוֹ פֵּאָה. וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ בְּסוֹף הַשָּׂדֶה כְּשִׁעוּר הַפֵּאָה הָרְאוּיָה לְמַה שֶּׁנִּשְׁאַר בַּשָּׂדֶה אַחַר שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹנָה: One should only leave péah from the end of one's field so that the poor know the place they are to go and so that it is known to the passers-by, so they will not suspect anything. This is so because there are liars who intend to harvest the whole field who could say to those who see him harvesting the end of the field, "I left my due from the beginning of the field." And moreover [this applies so] he will not wait until a time when no one is around and leaves [his due] to his poor relative. But, if he transgressed and left péah from the beginning of the field or from the middle, this still counts toward [the total amount of] the péah portion. However, he still needs to leave the rest [of his due] from the end of the field so as to fulfill the fitting measure of péah after he has separated the first part.28See Tosefta Péah 1:7 and Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 23a-b. This law speaks to the transparency of the system of giving to the poor and fighting corruption. Also illustrated here is a principle of what should be in theory versus accepting something not scrupulously done after the fact.
בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁנָּתַן פֵּאָה לָעֲנִיִּים וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ תֵּן לָנוּ מִצַּד זֶה וְנָתַן לָהֶם מִצַּד אַחֵר זוֹ וְזוֹ פֵּאָה. וְכֵן בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁהִפְרִישׁ פֵּאָה וְאָמַר הֲרֵי זוֹ פֵּאָה וְגַם זוֹ אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר הֲרֵי זוֹ פֵּאָה וְזוֹ הֲרֵי שְׁתֵּיהֶן פֵּאָה: A landowner who gave péah from one side to the poor, and they say to him, "Give to us from that side," and he gave to them from that other side, both portions count as péah. So also with a landowner who separates his portion for péah and said, "This is péah and so also is this," or he said, "This is péah and this;" both of them count toward the péah portion.29See Tosefta Péah 2:6.
אָסוּר לַפּוֹעֲלִים לִקְצֹר אֶת כָּל הַשָּׂדֶה אֶלָּא מַנִּיחִין בְּסוֹף הַשָּׂדֶה כְּשִׁעוּר הַפֵּאָה. וְאֵין לָעֲנִיִּים בָּהּ כְּלוּם עַד שֶׁיַּפְרִישֶׁנָּה בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מִדַּעְתּוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ עָנִי שֶׁרָאָה פֵּאָה בְּסוֹף שָׂדֶה אָסוּר לִגַּע בָּהּ מִשּׁוּם גֵּזֶל עַד שֶׁיִּוָּדַע לוֹ שֶׁהִיא מִדַּעַת בַּעַל הַבַּיִת: It is forbidden for workers to harvest all of a field unless they leave at the end of the field the appropriate area for giving péah, and nothing is given to the poor at all until the landowner separates it for that purpose in full knowledge. Therefore, for a poor person who sees péah at the end of the field, it is forbidden for him to labor in it because it would be considered as theft until he knows for certain that this is the intention of the owner.30See Tosefta Péah 2:7-8.
הַפֵּאָה שֶׁל תְּבוּאָה וְקִטְנִיּוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִזְּרָעִים הַנִּקְצָרִים וְכֵן פְּאַת הַכֶּרֶם וְהָאִילָנוֹת נִתֶּנֶת בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע וְהָעֲנִיִּים בּוֹזְזִין אוֹתָהּ בְּיָדָם. וְאֵין קוֹצְרִין אוֹתָהּ בְּמַגָּלוֹת וְאֵין עוֹקְרִין אוֹתָהּ בְּקַרְדֻּמּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַכּוּ אִישׁ אֶת רֵעֵהוּ. רָצוּ הָעֲנִיִּים לְחַלְּקָהּ בֵּינֵיהֶם הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְחַלְּקִין. אֲפִלּוּ תִּשְׁעִים וְתִשְׁעָה אוֹמְרִין לְחַלֵּק וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר לָבֹז לְזֶה הָאֶחָד שׁוֹמְעִין שֶׁאָמַר כַּהֲלָכָה: The péah portion of grain, legumes, and similar plants that are harvested, and so also with the péah portions of the vineyard and the trees, [the produce of] which is directly connected to the ground which the poor must pull up with their hands, they [the poor] may not harvest them with scythes and may not uproot them with spades so that one does not strike another. If the poor people want to divide up the produce among them [rather than on a first-come, first-serve basis by pulling with their hands] then they may divide it up, but if ninety-nine [out of a hundred] say to divide it and one says to pull it up with their hands [on a first-come, first-serve basis], they heed the one, for he spoke according to the law.31See Mishnah Péah 4:1-2, 4. Violence among the poor was obviously a concern as they fought for food.
פֵּאָה שֶׁל דָּלִית וְשֶׁל דֶּקֶל שֶׁאֵין עֲנִיִּים מַגִּיעִין לָבֹז אוֹתָהּ אֶלָּא בְּסַכָּנָה גְּדוֹלָה. בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מוֹרִיד אוֹתָהּ וּמְחַלֵּק אוֹתָהּ בֵּין הָעֲנִיִּים. וְאִם רָצוּ כֻּלָּן לָבֹז אוֹתָהּ לְעַצְמָן בּוֹזְזִין. אֲפִלּוּ תִּשְׁעִים וְתִשְׁעָה אוֹמְרִים לָבֹז וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר לְחַלֵּק שׁוֹמְעִין לָאֶחָד שֶׁאָמַר כַּהֲלָכָה וּמְחַיְּבִין בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לְהוֹרִיד וּלְחַלֵּק בֵּינֵיהֶן: In the case of the péah portion that is given from suspended vines32A suspended vine is also known as a trained vine because it is trained to grow in a certain direction and suspended up high. or from date palm trees [that are up high] that the poor cannot reach to pick without great risk, the landowner must bring the food down and divide it up evenly among the poor people. If they want to [go up and] pick it themselves, they may do so. But even if ninety-nine [out of a hundred] say to pick them and one says to divide them, they heed the one, for he spoke according to the law, and the landowner is obligated to bring the produce down and divide it among them.33See Mishnah Péah 4:1-2, 4. In both this and the previous passage, there is a conflict with what might be easier and even more reasonable versus the literal letter of the law. Because the law is understood to be holy, there must be unanimous consensus to accomplish the goal of distributing this produce in a fashion different from the literal method.
בְּשָׁלֹשׁ עִתּוֹת בַּיּוֹם מְחַלְּקִין אֶת הַפֵּאָה לָעֲנִיִּים בַּשָּׂדֶה אוֹ מַנִּיחִין אוֹתָם לָבֹז. בַּשַּׁחַר. וּבַחֲצִי הַיּוֹם. וּבַמִּנְחָה. וְעָנִי שֶׁבָּא שֶׁלֹּא בִּזְמַן זֶה אֵין מַנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ לִטּל. כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה עֵת קָבוּעַ לָעֲנִיִּים שֶׁיִּתְקַבְּצוּ בּוֹ כֻּלָּן לִטּל. וְלָמָּה לֹא קָבְעוּ לָהּ עֵת אַחַת בַּיּוֹם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם עֲנִיּוֹת מֵינִיקוֹת שֶׁצְּרִיכוֹת לֶאֱכל בִּתְחִלַּת הַיּוֹם. וְיֵשׁ שָׁם עֲנִיִּים קְטַנִּים שֶׁאֵין נֵעוֹרִין בַּבֹּקֶר וְלֹא יַגִּיעוּ לַשָּׂדֶה עַד חֲצִי הַיּוֹם. וְיֵשׁ שָׁם זְקֵנִים שֶׁאֵינָם מַגִּיעִין עַד הַמִּנְחָה: At three times of the day they divide up the péah portion in the field for the poor or leave it for them to pick: at dawn, at noon, and at mincha,34Late afternoon. and they do not leave anything for the poor person who does not come at these times so that there is a set time for the poor to gather together and take [what they need]. Why was there not only one set time during the day? Because there are nursing mothers who are poor who need to eat at the beginning of the day, there are poor children who do not stir during the morning and do not arrive to the field until noon, and there are old people who cannot arrive until mincha.35See Mishnah Péah 4:5.
עָנִי שֶׁנָּטַל מִקְצָת הַפֵּאָה וְזָרַק עַל הַשְּׁאָר אוֹ שֶׁנָּפַל עָלֶיהָ אוֹ שֶׁפֵּרֵשׂ טַלִּיתוֹ עָלֶיהָ קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ וּמַעֲבִירִין אוֹתוֹ מִמֶּנָּה וַאֲפִלּוּ מַה שֶּׁנָּטַל לוֹקְחִין אוֹתוֹ מִיָּדוֹ וְיִנָּתֵן לֶעָנִי אַחֵר [וְכֵן בְּלֶקֶט וְכֵן בְּעֹמֶר הַשִּׁכְחָה]: If a poor person takes his portion of péah and throws something on the remainder, falls on it, or spreads out his garment on it [as an act of claiming it], they fine him and take him away and they even confiscate what he took from him and give it to another poor person. So also with leket and so with shikhecha.36See Mishnah Péah 4:3.
מִי שֶׁלָּקַח אֶת הַפֵּאָה וְאָמַר הֲרֵי זֶה לְאִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי הֶעָנִי. אִם עָנִי הוּא זֶה שֶׁלָּקַח מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁזּוֹכֶה בּוֹ לְעַצְמוֹ זָכָה בּוֹ לְאוֹתוֹ פְּלוֹנִי. וְאִם עָשִׁיר הוּא לֹא זָכָה לוֹ אֶלָּא יִתְּנֶנָּה לֶעָנִי שֶׁנִּמְצָא רִאשׁוֹן: If someone took the péah portion and said, "This is for so-and-so, who is poor," if he [the taker] is poor, then he can take it on his own merit and thus have it for so-and-so, but if he [the taker] is a wealthy person, he may not have it, but rather he must give it to the next poor person who appears.37See Mishnah Péah 4:9.
בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁהִנִּיחַ פֵּאָה לַעֲנִיִּים אֵלּוּ הָעוֹמְדִים לְפָנָיו וּבָא עָנִי אַחֵר מֵאֲחוֹרָיו וּנְטָלָהּ זָכָה בָּהּ שֶׁאֵין אָדָם זוֹכֶה בְּלֶקֶט שִׁכְחָה וּפֵאָה וְסֶלַע שֶׁל מְצִיאָה עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְיָדוֹ: When a landowner leaves péah for those poor people who stand [in a line] before him, and another poor person comes up behind him and takes from it [the pile of produce to be given out], he [the poor person] may keep it [even though he acquired it unfairly], for no one possesses leket or shikhecha or péah or even a coin that was found until it is in his hand [and without possession those standing in line have no legal claim to it as their property].38See Tosefta Péah 2:2.