Mishneh Torah, Fasts
Chapter 1א׳
1 א

מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה מִן הַתּוֹרָה לִזְעֹק וּלְהָרִיעַ בַּחֲצוֹצְרוֹת עַל כָּל צָרָה שֶׁתָּבוֹא עַל הַצִּבּוּר. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר י ט) "עַל הַצַּר הַצֹּרֵר אֶתְכֶם וַהֲרֵעֹתֶם בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת". כְּלוֹמַר כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁיָּצֵר לָכֶם כְּגוֹן בַּצֹּרֶת וְדֶבֶר וְאַרְבֶּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן זַעֲקוּ עֲלֵיהֶן וְהָרִיעוּ:

It is a positive commandment from the Torah to cry out and to sound trumpets for all troubles that come upon the community, as it is said, "upon an enemy who attacks you and you sound trumpets (Numbers 10:9)." That is to say, every matter that troubles you like famine, plague, locusts, and so forth, cry out because of them and sound the trumpets.

2 ב

וְדָבָר זֶה מִדַּרְכֵי הַתְּשׁוּבָה הוּא. שֶׁבִּזְמַן שֶׁתָּבוֹא צָרָה וְיִזְעֲקוּ עָלֶיהָ וְיָרִיעוּ יֵדְעוּ הַכּל שֶׁבִּגְלַל מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם הָרָעִים הוּרַע לָהֶן כַּכָּתוּב (ירמיה ה כה) "עֲוֹנוֹתֵיכֶם הִטּוּ" וְגוֹ'. וְזֶה הוּא שֶׁיִּגְרֹם לָהֶם לְהָסִיר הַצָּרָה מֵעֲלֵיהֶם:

2 And this thing is from the ways of repentance. For when a trouble comes and they yell out about it and sound [trumpets], everyone will know that it was because of their evil deeds that this bad was done to them. As it is stated (Jeremiah 5:25), "It is your iniquities that have diverted, etc." And this is what will cause them to remove the trouble from upon them.

3 ג

אֲבָל אִם לֹא יִזְעֲקוּ וְלֹא יָרִיעוּ אֶלָּא יֹאמְרוּ דָּבָר זֶה מִמִּנְהַג הָעוֹלָם אֵרַע לָנוּ וְצָרָה זוֹ נִקְרָה נִקְרֵית. הֲרֵי זוֹ דֶּרֶךְ אַכְזָרִיּוּת וְגוֹרֶמֶת לָהֶם לְהִדַּבֵּק בְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם הָרָעִים. וְתוֹסִיף הַצָּרָה צָרוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת. הוּא שֶׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה (ויקרא כו כז) "וַהֲלַכְתֶּם עִמִּי בְּקֶרִי" (ויקרא כו כח) "וְהָלַכְתִּי גַּם אֲנִי עִמָּכֶם בַּחֲמַת קֶרִי"???. כְּלוֹמַר כְּשֶׁאָבִיא עֲלֵיכֶם צָרָה כְּדֵי שֶׁתָּשׁוּבוּ אִם תֹּאמְרוּ שֶׁהִיא קֶרִי אוֹסִיף לָכֶם חֲמַת אוֹתוֹ קֶרִי:

But if they do not cry out and sound trumpets, but rather say: "What has happed is the way of the world, is merely happenstance". This is a cruel way, and it causes them to stick to their bad deeds. And the trouble will add other troubles. About this it is written in the Torah (Not an exact quote, seems to be referring to Leviticus 26, 27-28): "but walk contrary unto Me then I will walk contrary unto you in fury". That is, when I will bring upon you troubles, if you will say that it is happenstance I will increase the fury of this tear.

4 ד

וּמִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהִתְעַנּוֹת עַל כָּל צָרָה שֶׁתָּבוֹא עַל הַצִּבּוּר עַד שֶׁיְּרֻחֲמוּ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם. וּבִימֵי הַתַּעֲנִיּוֹת הָאֵלּוּ זוֹעֲקִין בִּתְפִלּוֹת וּמִתְחַנְּנִים וּמְרִיעִין בַּחֲצוֹצְרוֹת בִּלְבַד. וְאִם הָיוּ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ מְרִיעִין בַּחֲצוֹצְרוֹת וּבְשׁוֹפָר. הַשּׁוֹפָר מְקַצֵּר וְהַחֲצוֹצְרוֹת מַאֲרִיכוֹת. שֶׁמִּצְוַת הַיּוֹם בַּחֲצוֹצְרוֹת. וְאֵין תּוֹקְעִין בַּחֲצוֹצְרוֹת וְשׁוֹפָר כְּאֶחָד אֶלָּא בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהילים צח ו) "בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת וְקוֹל שׁוֹפָר הָרִיעוּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ ה'":

4 And it is (a rabbinic commandment) from the words of the Scribes to fast for each trouble that comes upon the community until they are granted mercy from the Heavens. And on these fast days, we yell out with prayers and supplicate and sound only the trumpets. And if they were in the Temple, they would sound trumpets and the shofar. The shofar blows short and the trumpets blow long, since the commandment of the day is with trumpets. And we only blow with the trumpets and the shofar at the same time in the Temple, as it is stated (Psalms 78:6), "With trumpets and the blast of the horn raise a shout before the Lord, the King."

5 ה

תַּעֲנִיּוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁגּוֹזְרִין עַל הַצִּבּוּר מִפְּנֵי הַצָּרוֹת אֵינָן יוֹם אַחַר יוֹם. שֶׁאֵין רֹב הַצִּבּוּר יְכוֹלִים לַעֲמֹד בְּדָבָר זֶה. וְאֵין גּוֹזְרִין בַּתְּחִלָּה תַּעֲנִית אֶלָּא בְּשֵׁנִי בְּשַׁבָּת וּבַחֲמִישִׁי שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו וּבְשֵׁנִי שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו וְכֵן עַל הַסֵּדֶר הַזֶּה שֵׁנִי וַחֲמִישִׁי וְשֵׁנִי עַד שֶׁיְּרֻחֲמוּ:

5 These fasts that we decree upon the community on account of troubles are not one day after [another] - since most of the community cannot withstand this thing. And we may only decree a fast at the outset for the Second Day from Shabbat (Monday) and the Fifth after it and the Second after that and so on in this order - Second, Fifth and Second - until they are granted mercy.

6 ו

אֵין גּוֹזְרִין תַּעֲנִית עַל הַצִּבּוּר לֹא בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת וְלֹא בְּיָמִים טוֹבִים. וְכֵן אֵין תּוֹקְעִין בָּהֶן לֹא בְּשׁוֹפָר וְלֹא בַּחֲצוֹצְרוֹת וְלֹא זוֹעֲקִים וּמִתְחַנְּנִים בָּהֶם בַּתְּפִלָּה. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיְתָה עִיר שֶׁהִקִּיפוּהָ עַכּוּ''ם אוֹ נָהָר אוֹ סְפִינָה הַמִּטָּרֶפֶת בַּיָּם. אֲפִלּוּ יָחִיד הַנִּרְדָּף מִפְּנֵי עַכּוּ''ם מִפְּנֵי לִסְטִים וּמִפְּנֵי רוּחַ רָעָה (מִתְעַנִּין עֲלֵיהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת וְ) זוֹעֲקִין וּמִתְחַנְּנִים עֲלֵיהֶם בַּתְּפִלָּה. אֲבָל אֵין תּוֹקְעִין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן תָּקְעוּ לְקַבֵּץ אֶת הָעָם לַעֲזֹר אוֹתָם וּלְהַצִּילָן:

6 We do not decree a fast on the community on Shabbats, nor on holidays. And likewise do we not blow with the shofar or with trumpets on them, not do we cry out or supplicate in prayer on them - unless it was a city that was surrounded by idolaters or a river, or a ship shipwrecked in the waters. We even (fast on Shabbat and) cry out and supplicate in prayer for an individual pursued by idolaters or brigands or an evil spirit. But we only sound [the trumpets] to gather the people to help them and save them.

7 ז

וְכֵן אֵין גּוֹזְרִין תַּעֲנִית בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים אוֹ בַּחֲנֻכָּה וּפוּרִים אוֹ בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד. וְאִם הִתְחִילוּ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת עַל הַצָּרָה אֲפִלּוּ יוֹם אֶחָד וּפָגַע בָּהֶן יוֹם מֵאֵלּוּ מִתְעַנִּין וּמַשְׁלִימִין הַיּוֹם בְּתַעֲנִית:

7 And likewise do we not decree a fast at the outset on [a] Rosh Chodesh or on Chanukkah or Purim or the intermediate days of a festival. But if they started to fast about a trouble even one day, and one of these [days] ran into [the order of the fasts], we fast and complete the day in fasting.

8 ח

תַּעֲנִיּוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁמִּתְעַנִּין עַל הַצָּרוֹת אֵין מִתְעַנִּין בָּהֶן לֹא עֻבָּרוֹת וְלֹא מֵינִיקוֹת וְלֹא קְטַנִּים. וּמֻתָּרִין לֶאֱכל בַּלַּיְלָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּתְעַנִּין לְמָחָר חוּץ מִתַּעֲנִיּוֹת הַמָּטָר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר. וְכָל תַּעֲנִית שֶׁאוֹכְלִין בָּהּ בַּלַּיְלָה בֵּין צִבּוּר בֵּין יָחִיד הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה עַד שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר. וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יָשֵׁן אֲבָל אִם יָשֵׁן אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְאוֹכֵל:

8 [Regarding] these fasts that we fast about troubles - pregnant women, nursing woman and infants do not fast. And we are permitted to eat at night, even though we fast on the morrow - except for a fast for rain, as will be explained. And [on] any fast upon which we eat at night - whether a community or an individual - this one may surely eat and drink until the rise of the dawn. And this is so long as he does not sleep. But if he slept, he may not eat again.

9 ט

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהַצִּבּוּר מִתְעַנִּים עַל צָרָתָן כָּךְ הַיָּחִיד מִתְעַנֶּה עַל צָרָתוֹ. כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ חוֹלֶה אוֹ תּוֹעֶה בַּמִּדְבָּר אוֹ אָסוּר בְּבֵית הָאֲסוּרִין. יֵשׁ לוֹ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת עָלָיו וּלְבַקֵּשׁ רַחֲמִים בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ. וְאוֹמֵר עֲנֵנוּ וְכוּ' בְּכָל תְּפִלָּה שֶׁמִּתְפַּלֵּל. וְלֹא יִתְעַנֶּה בְּשַׁבָּתוֹת וְלֹא בְּמוֹעֲדוֹת וְלֹא בְּרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים וְלֹא בַּחֲנֻכָּה וּפוּרִים:

9 Just like the community fasts about their troubles, so [too] does the individual fast about his trouble. How is this? See that [if] he had a sick person or one lost in the wilderness or imprisoned in a prison, he should fast for him and request mercy in his prayer. And (on these fasts), he should say, "Answer us, etc.," in every prayer that he prays. But he should not fast on Shabbat, nor on festivals nor on Rosh Chodesh, nor on Chanukkah or Purim.

10 י

כָּל תַּעֲנִית שֶׁלֹּא קִבְּלָהּ עָלָיו הַיָּחִיד מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אֵינוֹ תַּעֲנִית. כֵּיצַד מְקַבְּלָהּ. כְּשֶׁיִּתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת מִנְחָה אוֹמֵר אַחַר הַתְּפִלָּה מָחָר אֱהֵא בְּתַעֲנִית וְגוֹמֵר בְּלִבּוֹ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת לְמָחָר. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אוֹכֵל בַּלַּיְלָה לֹא הִפְסִיד כְּלוּם. וְכֵן אִם גָּמַר בְּלִבּוֹ וְקִבֵּל עָלָיו לְהִתְעַנּוֹת שְׁלֹשָׁה אוֹ אַרְבָּעָה יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אוֹכֵל כָּל לַיְלָה וְלַיְלָה לֹא הִפְסִיד תַּעֲנִיתוֹ. וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ כַּוָּנָה לְכָל יוֹם וָיוֹם מִבְּעוֹדוֹ:

10 Any fast that an individual does not accept upon himself from when it is still (the previous) day is not [considered] a fast. How does he accept it? From when he prays the afternoon prayer, he says after the prayer, "Tomorrow I will be fasting," and he concludes in his heart to fast on the morrow. And even though he eats at night, he does not lose anything. And likewise if he concluded in his heart to fast three or four days - one after the other - even though he eats each and every night, he did not lose his fast; and he did not need intention for each and every day while it was still [the day before it].

11 יא

קִבֵּל עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לְהִתְעַנּוֹת לְמָחָר בִּלְבַד וְהִתְעַנָּה. וּבַלַּיְלָה נִמְלַךְ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלָּן בְּתַעֲנִיתוֹ אֵינָהּ תַּעֲנִית מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא קִבְּלָהּ עָלָיו מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁהָיָה אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה בַּלַּיְלָה וְהִשְׁכִּים בַּבֹּקֶר וְנִמְלַךְ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת שֶׁאֵין זוֹ תַּעֲנִית כְּלָל:

11 [If] he accepted to fast only on the morrow from when it was still day and he fasted; and he reconsidered to fast a second day - even though he laid down in his fasting (did not eat in between) - it is not a fast, since he did not accept it upon himself from when it was still day. And it is not necessary to say that [if] he ate and drank at night and got up in the morning and reconsidered to fast, that it is not a fast at all.

12 יב

הָרוֹאֶה חֲלוֹם רַע צָרִיךְ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת לְמָחָר. כְּדֵי שֶׁיָּשׁוּב וְיֵעוֹר בְּמַעֲשָׂיו וִיחַפֵּשׂ בָּהֶן וְיַחֲזֹר בִּתְשׁוּבָה. וּמִתְעַנֶּה וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת. וּמִתְפַּלֵּל עֲנֵנוּ בְּכָל תְּפִלָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא קִבְּלָהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. וְהַמִּתְעַנֶּה בְּשַׁבָּת מִתְעַנֶּה יוֹם אַחֵר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבִּטֵּל עֹנֶג שַׁבָּת:

12 One who sees a bad dream needs to fast on the morrow, so as to return, become cognizant of his actions, examine them and repent. And he should fast even on Shabbat; and he should recite the prayer, "Answer us," in every prayer - even though he did not accept it from when it was still day. One who fasts on Shabbat must fast another day on account of his nullifying the [commandment] of delighting in the Shabbat (oneg Shabbat).

13 יג

מִתְעַנֶּה אָדָם שָׁעוֹת וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל כְּלוּם שְׁאָר הַיּוֹם. כֵּיצַד. הֲרֵי שֶׁהָיָה טָרוּד בַּחֲפָצָיו ומִתְעַסֵּק בִּצְרָכָיו וְלֹא אָכַל עַד חֲצוֹת אוֹ עַד תֵּשַׁע שָׁעוֹת וְנִמְלַךְ לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בַּשָּׁעוֹת שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲרוּ מִן הַיּוֹם. הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְעַנֶּה אוֹתָן שָׁעוֹת וּמִתְפַּלֵּל בָּהֶן עֲנֵנוּ. שֶׁהֲרֵי קִבֵּל עָלָיו הַתַּעֲנִית קֹדֶם שְׁעוֹת הַתַּעֲנִית. וְכֵן אִם אָכַל וְשָׁתָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִתְחִיל לְהִתְעַנּוֹת שְׁאָר הַיּוֹם הֲרֵי זֶה תַּעֲנִית שָׁעוֹת:

13 One may fast [for] hours - and that is that he not eat anything the rest of the day. How is this? See that [if] he was preoccupied with his affairs and involved with his needs and did not eat until midday or until nine hours, and reconsidered to fast during the hours that remained in the day - this one surely fasts [for] those hours and recites the prayer, "Answer us," during them. For he surely accepted the fast upon himself before the hours of the fast. And likewise if he ate and drank, and afterwards began to fast the rest of the day - it is surely a fast of hours.

14 יד

כָּל הַשָּׁרוּי בְּתַעֲנִית. בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה מִתְעַנֶּה עַל צָרָתוֹ אוֹ עַל חֲלוֹמוֹ בֵּין שֶׁהָיָה מִתְעַנֶּה עִם הַצִּבּוּר עַל צָרָתָם. הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִנְהֹג עִדּוּנִין בְּעַצְמוֹ וְלֹא יָקֵל רֹאשׁוֹ וְלֹא יִהְיֶה שָׂמֵחַ וְטוֹב לֵב אֶלָּא דּוֹאֵג וְאוֹנֵן כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איכה ג לט) "מַה יִּתְאוֹנֵן אָדָם חָי גֶּבֶר עַל חֲטָאָיו". וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לִטְעֹם אֶת הַתַּבְשִׁיל וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּכְדֵי רְבִיעִית וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִבְלַע אֶלָּא טוֹעֵם וּפוֹלֵט. שָׁכַח וְאָכַל מַשְׁלִים תַּעֲנִיתוֹ:

14 Anyone involved in a fast - whether he was fasting about his trouble or about his dream, or he was fasting with the community about their trouble - this one should surely not indulge himself or be lightheaded or be happy and of good heart. Rather he should be worried and mournful, as the matter that is stated (Lamentations 3:39), "Of what shall a living man complain; of his own sins!" But it is permissible to taste a dish - and even up to a reviit. And that is so long as he does not swallow, but rather tastes [it] and spits out. [If] he forgot and ate, he should [still] complete his fast.

15 טו

יָחִיד שֶׁהָיָה מִתְעַנֶּה עַל הַחוֹלֶה וְנִתְרַפֵּא. עַל צָרָה וְעָבְרָה. הֲרֵי זֶה מַשְׁלִים תַּעֲנִיתוֹ. הַהוֹלֵךְ מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁמִּתְעַנִּין לְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מִתְעַנִּין הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְעַנֶּה וּמַשְׁלִים תַּעֲנִיתוֹ. הָלַךְ מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מִתְעַנִּין לְמָקוֹם שֶׁמִּתְעַנִּין הֲרֵי זֶה מִתְעַנֶּה עִמָּהֶן. שָׁכַח וְאָכַל וְשָׁתָה אַל יִתְרָאֶה בִּפְנֵיהֶם וְאַל יִנְהֹג עִדּוּנִין בְּעַצְמוֹ:

15 [In a case of] an individual who was fasting for a sick person and he became healed; about a trouble and it passed: This one should surely complete his fast. [In a case of] one who walks from a place where they are fasting to a place where they are not fasting: This one should surly fast and complete his fast. [If] he went from a place where they are not fasting to a place where they are fasting - this one should surely fast with them. [If] he forgot and ate and drank - he should not let himself be seen, nor should he indulge himself.

16 טז

צִבּוּר שֶׁהָיוּ מִתְעַנִּין עַל הַגְּשָׁמִים וְיָרְדוּ לָהֶן גְּשָׁמִים. אִם קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת יָרְדוּ לֹא יַשְׁלִימוּ אֶלָּא אוֹכְלִין וְשׁוֹתִין וּמִתְכַּנְּסִין וְקוֹרְאִין הַלֵּל הַגָּדוֹל. שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִין הַלֵּל הַגָּדוֹל אֶלָּא בְּנֶפֶשׁ שְׂבֵעָה וְכֶרֶס מְלֵאָה. וְאִם אַחַר חֲצוֹת הוֹאִיל וְעָבַר רֹב הַיּוֹם בִּקְדֻשָּׁה יַשְׁלִימוּ תַּעֲנִיתָן. וְכֵן אִם הָיוּ מִתְעַנִּין עַל צָרָה וְעָבְרָה אוֹ עַל גְּזֵרָה וּבָטְלָה. אִם קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת לֹא יַשְׁלִימוּ וְאִם אַחַר חֲצוֹת יַשְׁלִימוּ:

16 [In a case of] a community which was fasting about rain, and it rained for them: If it was before midday, they do not complete [the fast], but rather eat, drink and gather to recite the Great Hallel (Psalms 136) - since we only recite the Great Hallel from a sated spirit and a full stomach. But if it was after midday - since most of the day passed in purity, they should complete their fast. And likewise if they were fasting about a trouble and it passed or a [bad] decree and it was nullified: If it was before midday, they do not complete [it]; but if after midday, they should complete [it].

17 יז

בְּכָל יוֹם תַּעֲנִית שֶׁגּוֹזְרִין עַל הַצִּבּוּר מִפְּנֵי הַצָּרוֹת. בֵּית דִּין וְהַזְּקֵנִים יוֹשְׁבִין בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וּבוֹדְקִים עַל מַעֲשֵׂי אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר מֵאַחַר תְּפִלַּת שַׁחֲרִית עַד חֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם. וּמְסִירִין הַמִּכְשׁוֹלוֹת שֶׁל עֲבֵרוֹת. וּמַזְהִירִין וְדוֹרְשִׁין וְחוֹקְרִין עַל בַּעֲלֵי חָמָס וַעֲבֵרוֹת וּמַפְרִישִׁין אוֹתָן. וְעַל בַּעֲלֵי זְרוֹעַ וּמַשְׁפִּילִין אוֹתָן. וְכַיּוֹצֵא בִּדְבָרִים אֵלּוּ. וּמֵחֲצִי הַיּוֹם וְלָעֶרֶב רְבִיעַ הַיּוֹם קוֹרְאִין בִּבְרָכוֹת וּקְלָלוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג יא) "מוּסַר ה' בְּנִי אַל תִּמְאָס וְאַל תָּקֹץ בְּתוֹכַחְתּוֹ". וּמַפְטִירִין בַּנָּבִיא בְּתוֹכָחוֹת מֵעִנְיַן הַצָּרָה. וּרְבִיעַ הַיּוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן מִתְפַּלְּלִים מִנְחָה וּמִתְחַנְּנִים וְזוֹעֲקִים וּמִתְוַדִּים כְּפִי כֹּחָם:

17 On every fast day that we decree on the community on account of troubles, the court and the elders sit in the synagogue and examine the actions of the people of the city from after the morning prayers until midday. And they remove stumbling blocks [that lead to] sin; they warn, pursue and investigate men of violence and sin, and separate them [from their ways]; and [do the same with] extortionists and humble them; and that which is similar to these things. And from midday to the evening: A fourth of the day, they read the blessings and curses that are in the Torah, as it is stated (Proverbs 3:11), "Do not reject the discipline of the Lord, and do not despise His rebuke." And we read a haftara that is from the topic of the trouble. And [in] the last quarter of the day, they pray the afternoon service, supplicate, cry out and confess [their sins] according to their ability.