4ד׳
1 א

רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, נִדָּה שֶׁיָּשְׁבָה עִם הַטְּהוֹרָה בְּמִטָּה, כִּפָּה שֶׁבְּרֹאשָׁהּ טָמֵא מִדְרָס. יָשְׁבָה בִסְפִינָה, כֵּלִים שֶׁבְּרֹאשׁ הַנֵּס שֶׁבַּסְּפִינָה טְמֵאִין מִדְרָס. נוֹטֶלֶת עֲרֵבָה מְלֵאָה בְגָדִים, בִּזְמַן שֶׁמַּשָּׂאָן כָּבֵד, טְמֵאִין. בִּזְמַן שֶׁמַּשָּׂאָן קַל, טְהוֹרִין. זָב שֶׁהִקִּישׁ עַל כְּצוֹצְרָא, וְנָפַל כִּכָּר שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה, טָהוֹר:

Rabbi Joshua said: if a menstruant sat in a bed with a clean woman, [even] the cap on her head contracts midras uncleanness. And if she sat in a boat, the vessels on the top of the mast [also] contract midras uncleanness. If there was [on the boat] a tub full of clothes: If their weight was heavy, they become unclean, But if their weight was light, they remain clean. If a zav knocked against a balcony and thereby caused a loaf of terumah to fall down, it remains clean.

2 ב

הִקִּישׁ עַל הַמָּרִישׁ, עַל הַמַּלְבֵּן, עַל הַצִּנּוֹר, וְעַל הַדַּף, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עָשׂוּי בַּחֲבָלִים, עַל הַתַּנּוּר, וְעַל הַיָּם, וְעַל אִצְטְרֻבָּל, וְעַל חֲמוֹר שֶׁל רֵחַיִם שֶׁל יָד, וְעַל סְאָה שֶׁל רֵחַיִם שֶׁל זֵיתִים, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אַף עַל קוֹרַת הַבַּלָּנִין, טָהוֹר:

If he knocked against a strong beam, a window-frame, water-pipe, a shelf, even though it was fixed with ropes, or an oven, a flour container, the lower mill-stone, the base of a hand-mill, or the se'ah measure of an olive-grinder, [the loaf remains clean]. Rabbi Yose adds: also [if he knocks] against the beam of the bath-keeper, it remains clean.

3 ג

הִקִּישׁ עַל הַדֶּלֶת, עַל הַנֶּגֶר, עַל הַמַּנְעוּל, עַל הַמָּשׁוֹט, וְעַל הַקֶּלֶת, וְעַל אִילָן שֶׁכֹּחוֹ רַע, וְעַל סוֹכָה שֶׁכֹּחָהּ רַע, עַל אִילָן יָפֶה, עַל סֻלָּם מִצְרִי בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָבוּעַ בְּמַסְמֵר, עַל הַכֶּבֶשׁ, עַל הַקּוֹרָה וְעַל הַדֶּלֶת בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינָן עֲשׂוּיִין בְּטִיט, טְמֵאִין. עַל הַשִּׁדָּה, עַל הַתֵּבָה וְעַל הַמִּגְדָּל, טְמֵאִין. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מְטַהֲרִין בָּאֵלּוּ:

If he knocked against a door, doorbolt, lock, oar, mill basket, or against a weak tree, or weak branch of a strong tree, or against an Egyptian ladder unsecured by nails, or against a bridge, beam or door, not made secure with clay, they become unclean. [If he knocked] against a chest, box or cupboard, they become unclean. Rabbi Nehemiah and Rabbi Shimon declare them clean in these cases.

4 ד

זָב שֶׁהָיָה מֻטָּל עַל חֲמִשָּׁה סַפְסָלִים אוֹ עַל חָמֵשׁ פֻּנְדִּיּוֹת, לְאָרְכָּן, טְמֵאִין. לְרָחְבָּן, טְהוֹרִין. יָשֵׁן, סָפֵק שֶׁנִּתְהַפֵּךְ עֲלֵיהֶן, טְמֵאִין. הָיָה מֻטָּל עַל שִׁשָּׁה כִסְיוֹת, שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עַל שְׁנַיִם, שְׁתֵּי רַגְלָיו עַל שְׁנַיִם, רֹאשׁוֹ עַל אֶחָד, גּוּפוֹ עַל אֶחָד, אֵין טָמֵא אֶלָּא זֶה שֶׁתַּחַת הַגּוּף. עוֹמֵד עַל שְׁנֵי כִסְאוֹת, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אִם רְחוֹקִין זֶה מִזֶּה, טְהוֹרִין:

A zav who lays across five benches, or five money-belts: If lengthwise, he [makes them] unclean; But breadthwise, they are clean. If he slept [on them], and it was doubful that he had turned over onto them, they are unclean. If he was lying on six seats, with two hands on two [seats], two feet on another two, his head on one, with his body on another one, only that one on which his body lay is rendered unclean. If [a zav] stood on two seats: Rabbi Shimon says: if these were distant one from the other, they remain clean.

5 ה

עֶשֶׂר טַלִּיּוֹת זוֹ עַל גַּב זוֹ, יָשֵׁן עַל גַּבֵּי הָעֶלְיוֹנָה, כֻּלָּן טְמֵאוֹת. הַזָּב בְּכַף מֹאזְנַיִם וּמִשְׁכָּב וּמוֹשָׁב כְּנֶגְדּוֹ, כָּרַע הַזָּב, טְהוֹרִין. כָּרְעוּ הֵן, טְמֵאִין. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, בִּיחִידִי, טָמֵא. וּבִמְרֻבִּין, טָהוֹר, שֶׁאֵין אֶחָד נוֹשֵׂא אֶת רֻבּוֹ:

Ten cloaks one on top of the other, if he sat on the uppermost one, all are unclean. A zav who was on one scale of a balance and in the other scale opposite there were objects fit to sit or lie upon: If the zav pushed them up, they are clean. But if they pushed him up, they are unclean. Rabbi Shimon says: if there was one object it becomes unclean, but if there were many they remain clean, since none of them had borne the greater part [of the zav's weight].

6 ו

הַזָּב בְּכַף מֹאזְנַיִם וְאֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין בְּכַף שְׁנִיָּה, טְמֵאִין. וּבַמֵּת, הַכֹּל טָהוֹר, חוּץ מִן הָאָדָם. זֶה חֹמֶר בַּזָּב מִבַּמֵּת. חֹמֶר בַּמֵּת מִבַּזָּב, שֶׁהַזָּב עוֹשֶׂה מִשְׁכָּב וּמוֹשָׁב מִתַּחְתָּיו לְטַמֵּא אָדָם וּלְטַמֵּא בְגָדִים, וְעַל גַּבָּיו מַדָּף לְטַמֵּא אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין, מַה שֶּׁאֵין הַמֵּת מְטַמֵּא. חֹמֶר בַּמֵּת, שֶׁהַמֵּת מְטַמֵּא בְאֹהֶל וּמְטַמֵּא טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה, מַה שֶּׁאֵין הַזָּב מְטַמֵּא:

If a zav [sat] in one scale of the balance, while food and liquids were in the other scale, [the latter become] unclean. In the case of a corpse, everything remains clean except for a man. This is [an example of] the greater stringency applying to a zav than to a corpse; and there is a greater stringency in the case of a corpse than a zav. For whereas the zav defiles all objects on which he sits or lies upon, so that these likewise convey uncleanness to people and garments, and he conveys to what is above him madaf uncleanness, so that these in turn defile food and liquids. Whereas in the case of a corpse no such uncleanness is conveyed. Greater stringency is also found in the case of a corpse, since it can convey uncleanness by overshadowing, and it defiles seven days’ defilement, whereas in the case of a zav no such uncleanness is conveyed.

7 ז

הָיָה יוֹשֵׁב עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּטָּה וְאַרְבַּע טַלִּיּוֹת תַּחַת אַרְבַּע רַגְלֵי הַמִּטָּה, טְמֵאוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לַעֲמֹד עַל שָׁלשׁ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מְטַהֵר. הָיָה רוֹכֵב עַל גַּבֵּי בְהֵמָה וְאַרְבַּע טַלִּיּוֹת תַּחַת אַרְבַּע רַגְלֵי בְהֵמָה, טְהוֹרוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא יְכוֹלָה לַעֲמֹד עַל שְׁלשָׁה. הָיְתָה טַלִּית אַחַת תַּחַת שְׁנֵי יָדַיִם, תַּחַת שְׁנֵי רַגְלַיִם, תַּחַת יָד וָרֶגֶל, טְמֵאָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, הַסּוּס מְטַמֵּא בְרַגְלָיו וְהַחֲמוֹר בְּיָדָיו, שֶׁמִּשְׁעֶנֶת הַסּוּס עַל רַגְלָיו וּמִשְׁעֶנֶת הַחֲמוֹר עַל יָדָיו. יָשַׁב עַל קוֹרַת בֵּית הַבַּד, כֵּלִים שֶׁבָּעֵקֶל טְמֵאִין. עַל הַמַּכְבֵּשׁ שֶׁל כּוֹבֵס, כֵּלִים שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו, טְהוֹרִין. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה מְטַמֵּא:

If he sat on a bed and there were four cloaks under the four legs of the bed, all become unclean, since the bed cannot stand on three legs; But Rabbi Shimon declares them clean. If he rode on a beast and there were four cloaks under the legs of the beast, they are clean, since the beast can stand upon three legs. If there was one cloak under its two forelegs or its two hindlegs, or under a foreleg and a hindleg, it becomes unclean. Rabbi Yose says: a horse conveys uncleanness through its hindlegs and a donkey through its forelegs, since a horse leans upon its hindlegs and a donkey upon its forelegs. If he sat on a beam of an olive-press, the vessels in the olive-press receptacle are unclean. [If he sat] on a clothing press, the garments beneath it are clean. Rabbi Nehemiah declares them unclean.