6ו׳
1 א

שְׁנֵי שְׂעִירֵי יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, מִצְוָתָן שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן שָׁוִין בְּמַרְאֶה וּבְקוֹמָה וּבְדָמִים וּבִלְקִיחָתָן כְּאֶחָד. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן שָׁוִין, כְּשֵׁרִין. לָקַח אֶחָד הַיּוֹם וְאֶחָד לְמָחָר, כְּשֵׁרִין. מֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן, אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא הִגְרִיל מֵת, יִקַּח זוּג לַשֵּׁנִי. וְאִם מִשֶּׁהִגְרִיל מֵת, יָבִיא זוּג אַחֵר וְיַגְרִיל עֲלֵיהֶם בַּתְּחִלָּה, וְיֹאמַר, אִם שֶׁל שֵׁם מֵת, זֶה שֶׁעָלָה עָלָיו הַגּוֹרָל לַשֵּׁם יִתְקַיֵּם תַּחְתָּיו. וְאִם שֶׁל עֲזָאזֵל מֵת, זֶה שֶׁעָלָה עָלָיו הַגּוֹרָל לַעֲזָאזֵל יִתְקַיֵּם תַּחְתָּיו. וְהַשֵּׁנִי יִרְעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּסְתָּאֵב, וְיִמָּכֵר וְיִפְּלוּ דָמָיו לִנְדָבָה, שֶׁאֵין חַטַּאת צִבּוּר מֵתָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, תָּמוּת. וְעוֹד אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, נִשְׁפַּךְ הַדָּם, יָמוּת הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ. מֵת הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ, יִשָּׁפֵךְ הַדָּם:

The two [sacrificial] goats of Yom Kippur, it is a mitzvah that they be equal in appearance, height, value and be bought at the same time. But even if they are not equal, they are kosher. If one was bought one day, and another the next day, they are kosher. If one [of the goats] dies, if it dies before the lots were drawn, a partner for the second should be bought. If it dies after the lots were drawn, then another pair [of goats] should be brought and lots drawn over them as before, and [the one drawing lots] should say, if [the goat that was intended] for Hashem died, "Let the one for which the lot 'for Hashem' is drawn be established in its place." And if [the goat that was intended for] Azazel died, "Let the one for which the lot "for Azazel" is drawn be established in its place." The second [remaining goat] is left to graze until it develops a blemish, and then is sold, and its monetary value [is used to buy] free-will offerings, for we do not leave a communal chattat [sin] offering to die. Rabbi Yehuda says, We leave it to die. Rabbi Yehuda also said, if [the goat for Hashem's] blood spilled [before it could be sprinkled], the goat sent [to Azazel] is left to die [and another pair are brought]. If the goat sent [to Azazel] has died [first], then the blood [of the goat for Hashem] must be poured out [i.e., discarded, and another pair are brought].

2 ב

בָּא לוֹ אֵצֶל שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ וְסוֹמֵךְ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עָלָיו וּמִתְוַדֶּה. וְכָךְ הָיָה אוֹמֵר, אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם, עָווּ פָּשְׁעוּ חָטְאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָנָּא בַּשֵּׁם, כַּפֶּר נָא לָעֲוֹנוֹת וְלַפְּשָׁעִים וְלַחֲטָאִים, שֶׁעָווּ וְשֶׁפָּשְׁעוּ וְשֶׁחָטְאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל, כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת משֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ לֵאמֹר (ויקרא טז), כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְיָ תִּטְהָרוּ. וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם הָעוֹמְדִים בָּעֲזָרָה, כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹמְעִים שֵׁם הַמְפֹרָשׁ שֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא מִפִּי כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, הָיוּ כּוֹרְעִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים וְנוֹפְלִים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם, וְאוֹמְרִים, בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד:

[The High Priest] would come to the goat for Azazel and place his two hands on it, and confess. And this is what he would say: "Please God, we, Your people the House of Israel, have committed wrongdoing, transgressed, and sinned before You. Please God, please forgive the wrongdoing, transgressions and sins that we, Your people the House of Israel, have committed, transgressed, and sinned before You. As it is written in the Torah of Moses Your servant (Leviticus 16:30), 'On this day, you will be forgiven and cleansed from all your sins—before Hashem you will be cleansed.'" Then, the priests and the people standing in the courtyard, when they heard the explicit Name from the mouth of the High Priest, would bend their knees, bow down and fall on their faces, and they would say, "Blessed be the Honored Name of His Sovereignty forever."

3 ג

מְסָרוֹ לְמִי שֶׁהָיָה מוֹלִיכוֹ. הַכֹּל כְּשֵׁרִין לְהוֹלִיכוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁעָשׂוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים גְּדוֹלִים קֶבַע וְלֹא הָיוּ מַנִּיחִין אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהוֹלִיכוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, מַעֲשֶׂה וְהוֹלִיכוֹ עַרְסְלָא, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל הָיָה:

They turned over [the goat sent to Azazel] to the person leading it [out to the wilderness]. Anyone could lead the goat out; however, the leading priests fixed a procedure [that a priest would lead it out] and would not allow a Yisrael [Jew not a member of the tribe of Levi] to lead it out. Rabbi Yose says, It once happened that Arsala led it out and he was a Yisrael.

4 ד

וְכֶבֶשׁ עָשׂוּ לוֹ מִפְּנֵי הַבַּבְלִיִּים, שֶׁהָיוּ מְתַלְּשִׁים בִּשְׂעָרוֹ, וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ, טֹל וָצֵא, טֹל וָצֵא. מִיַּקִּירֵי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם הָיוּ מְלַוִּין אוֹתוֹ עַד סֻכָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. עֶשֶׂר סֻכּוֹת מִירוּשָׁלַיִם וְעַד צוּק, תִּשְׁעִים רִיס, שִׁבְעָה וּמֶחֱצָה לְכָל מִיל:

They made a special ramp for him [who led the goat out], because of the Babylonians who used to pull at his hair, and say to him, Take [our sins] and go quickly, take [our sins] and go quickly. The leading citizens of Jerusalem would accompany him to the first booth. There were ten booths from Jerusalem to Tzuk [the cliff to which the goat was taken], a distance of ninety ris [2/15 of a mil], seven and a half ris per mil [two thousand cubits, for a total distance of twelve milin].

5 ה

עַל כָּל סֻכָּה וְסֻכָּה אוֹמְרִים לוֹ, הֲרֵי מָזוֹן וַהֲרֵי מַיִם. וּמְלַוִּין אוֹתוֹ מִסֻּכָּה לְסֻכָּה, חוּץ מֵאַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁבָּהֶן, שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַגִּיעַ עִמּוֹ לַצּוּק, אֶלָּא עוֹמֵד מֵרָחוֹק וְרוֹאֶה אֶת מַעֲשָׂיו:

At every booth, they would say to him, Here is food and water. And they would accompany him from one booth to the next, except for the last one, since the escort would not go with him all the way to the cliff, but rather, he would watch his actions from a distance.

6 ו

מֶה הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה, חוֹלֵק לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית, חֶצְיוֹ קָשַׁר בַּסֶּלַע וְחֶצְיוֹ קָשַׁר בֵּין שְׁתֵּי קַרְנָיו, וּדְחָפוֹ לַאֲחוֹרָיו, וְהוּא מִתְגַּלְגֵּל וְיוֹרֵד, וְלֹא הָיָה מַגִּיעַ לַחֲצִי הָהָר עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה אֵבָרִים אֵבָרִים. בָּא וְיָשַׁב לוֹ תַּחַת סֻכָּה אַחֲרוֹנָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשָׁךְ. וּמֵאֵימָתַי מְטַמֵּא בְגָדִים, מִשֶּׁיֵּצֵא חוּץ לְחוֹמַת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, מִשְּׁעַת דְּחִיָּתוֹ לַצּוּק:

What did he do [when he reached the cliff]? He divided the thread of the crimson wool, tied half to the rock, and tied the other half between its horns, and he pushed it from behind. It went rolling down, and before it reached half-way downhill, it was dashed to pieces. He returned and sat in the last booth until it became dark. And at what point did his garments become impure? From the moment he left the walls of Jerusalem. Rabbi Shimon says: from the moment he pushed it off the cliff.

7 ז

בָּא לוֹ אֵצֶל פָּר וְשָׂעִיר הַנִּשְׂרָפִין. קְרָעָן וְהוֹצִיא אֶת אֵמוּרֵיהֶן, נְתָנָן בְּמָגֵיס, וְהִקְטִירָן עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. קְלָעָן בְּמִקְלָעוֹת, וְהוֹצִיאָן לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה. וּמֵאֵימָתַי מְטַמְּאִין בְּגָדִים, מִשֶּׁיֵּצְאוּ חוּץ לְחוֹמַת הָעֲזָרָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁיִּצַּת הָאוּר בְּרֻבָּן:

He [the High Priest] would go to the bull and the goat for the burnt offering [after sending off the goat to Azazel]. He would split [their carcasses] and remove their fats, place them on a tray and offer them on the altar. He reassembled the carcasses and took them out to the place of burning. And at what point would his clothing become impure? From the moment he went outside the walls of the Temple court. Rabbi Shimon says: From the moment the fire took hold in the majority [of the carcasses].

8 ח

אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, הִגִּיעַ שָׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר. וּמִנַּיִן הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין שֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר, דַּרְכִּיּוֹת הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין, וּמְנִיפִין בַּסּוּדָרִין, וְיוֹדְעִין שֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, וַהֲלֹא סִימָן גָּדוֹל הָיָה לָהֶם, מִירוּשָׁלַיִם וְעַד בֵּית חִדּוּדוֹ שְׁלשָׁה מִילִין. הוֹלְכִין מִיל, וְחוֹזְרִין מִיל, וְשׁוֹהִין כְּדֵי מִיל, וְיוֹדְעִין שֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, וַהֲלֹא סִימָן אַחֵר הָיָה לָהֶם, לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית הָיָה קָשׁוּר עַל פִּתְחוֹ שֶׁל הֵיכָל, וּכְשֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׂעִיר לַמִּדְבָּר הָיָה הַלָּשׁוֹן מַלְבִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה א), אִם יִהְיוּ חֲטָאֵיכֶם כַּשָּׁנִים כַּשֶּׁלֶג יַלְבִּינוּ:

They would say to the High Priest: The goat [for Azazel] has reached the wilderness. And how did they know that the goat had reached the wilderness? They used to set up towers and wave signal cloths, and thus they would know that the goat had reached the wilderness. Rabbi Yehuda says: But did they not have an obvious sign? The distance from Jerusalem to the place where the goat was pushed [off the cliff] was three milin. They could thus walk a mil, return a mil, and wait the amount of time it would take to walk a mil, and thus, they would know that the goat had reached the wilderness. Rabbi Yishmael says: But did they not also have another sign? They had a strip of crimson wool tied to the door of the Heikhal, and when the goat reached the wilderness, the crimson wool turned white, as it is written, "Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow" (Isaiah 1:18).