15ט״ו
1 א

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהָלְכָה הִיא וּבַעְלָהּ לִמְדִינַת הַיָּם, שָׁלוֹם בֵּינוֹ לְבֵינָהּ וְשָׁלוֹם בָּעוֹלָם, וּבָאתָה וְאָמְרָה, מֵת בַּעְלִי, תִּנָּשֵׂא. מֵת בַּעְלִי, תִּתְיַבֵּם. שָׁלוֹם בֵּינוֹ לְבֵינָהּ וּמִלְחָמָה בָעוֹלָם, קְטָטָה בֵינוֹ לְבֵינָהּ וְשָׁלוֹם בָּעוֹלָם, וּבָאתָה וְאָמְרָה, מֵת בַּעְלִי, אֵינָהּ נֶאֱמֶנֶת. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם אֵינָהּ נֶאֱמֶנֶת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בָּאתָה בוֹכָה וּבְגָדֶיהָ קְרוּעִין. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אַחַת זוֹ וְאַחַת זוֹ, תִּנָּשֵׂא:

[If] a woman and her husband went overseas and there was peace between them and peace in the world, and she came and said, "My husband died", she may marry. [If she said], "My husband died" she may undergo Yibum [Levirate marriage wherein a man weds his childless brother's widow]. [If] there was peace between them and war in the world, [or] strife between them and peace in the world, and she came and said, "My husband died", she is not trusted. Rabbi Yehudah says: She is only trusted if she comes crying and in torn clothes. They [the Sages] said to him: She may marry in either case.

2 ב

בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, לֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ אֶלָּא בְּבָאָה מִן הַקָּצִיר, וּבְאוֹתָהּ מְדִינָה, וּכְמַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהָיָה. אָמְרוּ לָהֶן בֵּית שַׁמַּאי, אַחַת הַבָּאָה מִן הַקָּצִיר, וְאַחַת הַבָּאָה מִן הַזֵּיתִים, וְאַחַת הַבָּאָה מִן הַבָּצִיר, וְאַחַת הַבָּאָה מִמְּדִינָה לִמְדִינָה. לֹא דִבְּרוּ חֲכָמִים בַּקָּצִיר אֶלָּא בַהֹוֶה. חָזְרוּ בֵית הִלֵּל לְהוֹרוֹת כְּבֵית שַׁמָּאי:

Beit Hillel say: We have heard that this [that she may re-marry upon reporting her husband's death] only applies if she comes from the harvest, and within the same country, and like a case that happened. Beit Shammai said to them: [She may re-marry] whether she comes from the harvest or from the olive [harvest] or from the grape [harvest], or whether she comes from a different country - the Sages only spoke of the harvest since that was what happened. And Beit Hillel retracted to teach according to Beit Shammai.

3 ג

בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, תִּנָּשֵׂא וְתִטֹּל כְּתֻבָּתָהּ. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, תִּנָּשֵׂא וְלֹא תִטֹּל כְּתֻבָּתָהּ. אָמְרוּ לָהֶן בֵּית שַׁמַּאי, הִתַּרְתֶּם עֶרְוָה חֲמוּרָה, לֹא תַתִּירוּ אֶת מָמוֹן הַקַּל. אָמְרוּ לָהֶן בֵּית הִלֵּל, מָצִינוּ שֶׁאֵין הָאַחִים נִכְנָסִים לַנַּחֲלָה עַל פִּיהָ. אָמְרוּ לָהֶם בֵּית שַׁמַּאי, וַהֲלֹא מִסֵּפֶר כְּתֻבָּתָהּ נִלְמֹד, שֶׁהוּא כוֹתֵב לָהּ, שֶׁאִם תִּנָּשְׂאִי לְאַחֵר, תִּטְּלִי מַה שֶׁכָּתוּב לִיכִי. וְחָזְרוּ בֵית הִלֵּל לְהוֹרוֹת כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמָּאי:

Beit Shammai say: [The woman who reports her husband's death] may marry and collect her Ketubah [a monetary settlement payable to a woman upon divorce or the death of her husband]. Beit Hillel say: She may marry but does not collect her Ketubah. Beit Shammai said to them: You allow the stringent Ervah [forbidden union], will you not allow the lenient monetary issue? Beit Hillel said to them: We find that brothers do not inherit based on her word. Beit Shammai said to them: Alas, we learn from the text of the Ketubah that he writes for her, "That if you marry somebody else you may collect what is written for you". And Beit Hillel retracted to teach according to Beit Shammai.

4 ד

הַכֹּל נֶאֱמָנִים לַהֲעִידָהּ, חוּץ מֵחֲמוֹתָהּ, וּבַת חֲמוֹתָהּ, וְצָרָתָהּ, וִיבִמְתָּהּ, וּבַת בַּעְלָהּ. מַה בֵּין גֵּט לְמִיתָה, שֶׁהַכְּתָב מוֹכִיחַ. עֵד אוֹמֵר מֵת, וְנִשֵּׂאת, וּבָא אַחֵר וְאָמַר לֹא מֵת, הֲרֵי זוֹ לֹא תֵצֵא. עֵד אוֹמֵר מֵת, וּשְׁנַיִם אוֹמְרִים לֹא מֵת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת, תֵּצֵא. שְׁנַיִם אוֹמְרִים מֵת, וְעֵד אוֹמֵר לֹא מֵת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִשֵּׂאת, תִּנָּשֵׂא:

All people are trusted to testify to her except for her mother-in-law, and her mother-in-law's daughter, and her rival, and her Yevama [her brother-in-law's wife], and her husband's daughter. Why is [reporting] a bill of divorce different than [reporting] a death? Because the writing [in the bill of divorce] proves [the divorce]. [If a single] witness states, "He died", and she married, and a different [witness] came and said, "He did not die", she does not go out. [If a single] witness states, "He died", and two [other witnesses] state, "He did not die", even if she has married - she goes out. [If] two witnesses state, "He died", and a [single] witness states "He did not die", even though she has not married, she may marry.

5 ה

אַחַת אוֹמֶרֶת מֵת וְאַחַת אוֹמֶרֶת לֹא מֵת, זוֹ שֶׁאוֹמֶרֶת מֵת תִּנָּשֵׂא וְתִטֹּל כְּתֻבָּתָהּ. וְזוֹ שֶׁאוֹמֶרֶת לֹא מֵת לֹא תִנָּשֵׂא וְלֹא תִטֹּל כְּתֻבָּתָהּ. אַחַת אוֹמֶרֶת מֵת וְאַחַת אוֹמֶרֶת נֶהֱרָג, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, הוֹאִיל וּמַכְחִישׁוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לֹא יִנָּשֵׂאוּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמְרִים, הוֹאִיל וְזוֹ וָזוֹ מוֹדוֹת שֶׁאֵינוֹ קַיָּם, יִנָּשֵׂאוּ. עֵד אוֹמֵר מֵת וְעֵד אוֹמֵר לֹא מֵת, אִשָּׁה אוֹמֶרֶת מֵת וְאִשָּׁה אוֹמֶרֶת לֹא מֵת, הֲרֵי זוֹ לֹא תִנָּשֵׂא:

[If] one [of a man's two wives] states, "He died," and one states, "He did not die", the one who states "He died" may marry and collect her Ketubah, and the one who states "He did not die" may not marry or collect her Ketubah. [If] one [of a man's two wives] states, "He died," and one states, "He was killed", Rabbi Meir says: Since they contradict each other they may not marry. Rabbi Yehudah and Rabbi Shimon say: Since they both agree he is no longer alive, they may marry. [If one] witness states, "He died" and [one] witness states, "He did not die"; or [if one] woman states "He died" and [one] woman states, "He did not die", she may not marry.

6 ו

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהָלְכָה הִיא וּבַעְלָהּ לִמְדִינַת הַיָּם, וּבָאָה וְאָמְרָה מֵת בַּעְלִי, תִּנָּשֵׂא וְתִטֹּל כְּתֻבָּתָהּ, וְצָרָתָהּ אֲסוּרָה. הָיְתָה בַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְכֹהֵן, תֹּאכַל בַּתְּרוּמָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אֵין זוֹ דֶרֶךְ מוֹצִיאַתָּה מִידֵי עֲבֵרָה, עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא אֲסוּרָה לִנָּשֵׂא, וַאֲסוּרָה מִלֶּאֱכֹל בַּתְּרוּמָה:

[If] a woman and her husband went overseas and she came and said, "My husband died", she may marry and collect her Ketubah, but her rival [from the original husband] is forbidden [to marry]. If she [the rival] was the daughter of an Israelite [married] to a priest she may eat Terumah [a portion of a crop given to a priest which becomes holy upon separation and may only be consumed by priests and their households], these are the words of Rabbi Tarfon. Rabbi Akiva says: This is not the way to prevent her from sin, rather she is forbidden to marry and forbidden to eat Terumah.

7 ז

אָמְרָה מֵת בַּעְלִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת חָמִי, תִּנָּשֵׂא וְתִטֹּל כְּתֻבָּתָהּ, וַחֲמוֹתָהּ אֲסוּרָה. הָיְתָה בַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְכֹהֵן, תֹּאכַל בַּתְּרוּמָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אֵין זוֹ דֶרֶךְ מוֹצִיאַתָּה מִידֵי עֲבֵרָה, עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא אֲסוּרָה לִנָּשֵׂא, וַאֲסוּרָה לֶאֱכֹל בַּתְּרוּמָה. קִדֵּשׁ אַחַת מֵחָמֵשׁ נָשִׁים וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזוֹ קִדֵּשׁ, כָּל אַחַת אוֹמֶרֶת אוֹתִי קִדֵּשׁ, נוֹתֵן גֵּט לְכָל אַחַת וְאֶחָת, וּמַנִּיחַ כְּתֻבָּה בֵּינֵיהֶן וּמִסְתַּלֵּק, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אֵין זוֹ דֶרֶךְ מוֹצִיאַתּוּ מִידֵי עֲבֵרָה, עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן גֵּט וּכְתֻבָּה לְכָל אַחַת וְאֶחָת. גָּזַל אֶחָד מֵחֲמִשָּׁה וְאֵין יוֹדֵעַ מֵאֵיזֶה גָזַל, כָּל אֶחָד אוֹמֵר אוֹתִי גָזַל, מַנִּיחַ גְּזֵלָה בֵּינֵיהֶן וּמִסְתַּלֵּק, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אֵין זוֹ דֶרֶךְ מוֹצִיאַתּוּ מִידֵי עֲבֵרָה, עַד שֶׁיְּשַׁלֵּם גְּזֵלָה לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד:

[If] a woman said, "My husband died and then my father-in-law died", she may marry and collect her Ketubah, but her mother-in-law is forbidden [to marry]. If she [the mother-in-law] was the daughter of an Israelite [married] to a priest she may eat Terumah, these are the words of Rabbi Tarfon. Rabbi Akiva says: This is not the way to prevent her from sin, rather she is forbidden to marry and forbidden to eat Terumah. [If] an individual betrothed one of five women but does not know which [of them] he betrothed, [and] each one says, "He betrothed me" - he gives a bill of divorce to each one, and places [the value of] a Ketubah among them and bolts, these are the words of Rabbi Tarfon. Rabbi Akiva says: This is not the way to prevent him from sin, rather he must give a bill of divorce and a Ketubah to each one. [If] an individual stole from one of five people but does not know from which [of them] he stole, [and] each one says, "He robbed me" - he places the stolen object among them and bolts, these are the words of Rabbi Tarfon. Rabbi Akiva says: This is not the way to prevent him from sin, rather he must pay [the value of] the stolen object to each one.

8 ח

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהָלְכָה הִיא וּבַעְלָהּ לִמְדִינַת הַיָּם וּבְנָהּ עִמָּהֶם, וּבָאָה וְאָמְרָה מֵת בַּעְלִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת בְּנִי, נֶאֱמֶנֶת. מֵת בְּנִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת בַּעְלִי, אֵינָהּ נֶאֱמֶנֶת, וְחוֹשְׁשִׁים לִדְבָרֶיהָ, וְחוֹלֶצֶת וְלֹא מִתְיַבֶּמֶת:

[If] a woman and her husband went overseas and her son was with them, and she came and said, "My husband died and then my son died", she is trusted. [If she said], "My son died and then my husband died", she is not trusted. But we are worried about her claim and she performs Chalitzah [the ceremony releasing the widow of a childless man from the obligation of Levirate marriage] but does not undergo Yibum [Levirate marriage wherein a man weds his childless brother's widow].

9 ט

נִתַּן לִי בֵן בִּמְדִינַת הַיָּם, וְאָמְרָה מֵת בְּנִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת בַּעְלִי, נֶאֱמֶנֶת. מֵת בַּעְלִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת בְּנִי, אֵינָהּ נֶאֱמֶנֶת, וְחוֹשְׁשִׁים לִדְבָרֶיהָ, וְחוֹלֶצֶת וְלֹא מִתְיַבֶּמֶת:

[If] a woman [states], "I was given a son [that is, she bore a son] overseas", and then states "My son died and then later my husband died", she is trusted; [but if she states], "My husband died and then later my son died", she is not trusted. But we are worried about her claim and she performs Chalitzah but does not undergo Yibum.

10 י

נִתַּן לִי יָבָם בִּמְדִינַת הַיָּם, אָמְרָה מֵת בַּעְלִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת יְבָמִי, יְבָמִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ בַּעְלִי, נֶאֱמֶנֶת. הָלְכָה הִיא וּבַעְלָהּ וִיבָמָהּ לִמְדִינַת הַיָּם, אָמְרָה מֵת בַּעְלִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת יְבָמִי, יְבָמִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ בַּעְלִי, אֵינָהּ נֶאֱמֶנֶת. שֶׁאֵין הָאִשָּׁה נֶאֱמֶנֶת לוֹמַר מֵת יְבָמִי, שֶׁתִּנָּשֵׂא. וְלֹא, מֵתָה אֲחוֹתִי, שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס לְבֵיתוֹ. וְאֵין הָאִישׁ נֶאֱמָן לוֹמַר מֵת אָחִי, שֶׁיְּיַבֵּם אִשְׁתּוֹ. וְלֹא, מֵתָה אִשְׁתִּי, שֶׁיִּשָּׂא אֲחוֹתָהּ:

[If] a woman [states], "I was given a Yavam [one upon whom has fallen the obligation to perform Levirate marriage] overseas" [that is, her mother-in-law had a son there], and then states, "My husband died and then later my Yavam died", [or] "My Yavam died and then later my husband died," she is trusted. [If] she and her husband and her Yavam went overseas, [and] she states, "My husband died and then later my Yavam died", [or] "My Yavam died and then later my husband died," she is not trusted, since a woman is not trusted to state "My Yavam died" [which would allow her] to marry, and [she is] not [trusted to state] "My sister died" [which would allow her] to enter [her sister's husband's] house. And a man is not trusted to state, "My brother died" [which would allow] him to perform Yibum for his wife, and [he is] not [trusted to state] "My wife died" [which would allow] him to marry her sister.