4ד׳
1 א

בִּשְׁלשָׁה פְרָקִים בַּשָּׁנָה כֹּהֲנִים נוֹשְׂאִין אֶת כַּפֵּיהֶן אַרְבַּע פְּעָמִים בַּיּוֹם, בַּשַּׁחֲרִית, בַּמּוּסָף וּבַמִּנְחָה וּבִנְעִילַת שְׁעָרִים, בַּתַּעֲנִיּוֹת וּבַמַּעֲמָדוֹת וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים:

At three periods of the year, the priests shall raise their hands [to bless the people], in each prayer, [and] four times [in one of them], in the morning, additional, afternoon, and closing [or concluding] prayers. [The three mentioned periods are] on the fast-days, on the fast of the standing men, and on the day of atonement.

2 ב

אֵלּוּ הֵן מַעֲמָדוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כח), צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי, וְכִי הֵיאַךְ קָרְבָּנוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם קָרֵב, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד עַל גַּבָּיו, הִתְקִינוּ נְבִיאִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבַּע מִשְׁמָרוֹת. עַל כָּל מִשְׁמָר וּמִשְׁמָר הָיָה מַעֲמָד בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים, שֶׁל לְוִיִּם, וְשֶׁל יִשְׂרְאֵלִים. הִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַמִּשְׁמָר לַעֲלוֹת, כֹּהֲנִים וּלְוִיִּם עוֹלִים לִירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁבְּאוֹתוֹ מִשְׁמָר מִתְכַּנְּסִין לְעָרֵיהֶן וְקוֹרְאִין בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית:

These are ‏מעמדות‎, standing men [and this is the cause of their institution]. It is written (Numbers 28:2), "Command the children of Israel, and say unto them, My offering, viz. my bread," &c. How can an offering be brought for a person without his standing near it [at the time of its being sacrificed]? Therefore did the elder prophets institute twenty-four "mishmaroth" [or divisions of orders]; each mishmarah had always a "mahamad" [or section of standing men], composed of cohanim [priests], Levites, and Israelites, stationed at Jerusalem. When it came to the turn of each mishmarah to go up [from their cities to the Temple], the priests and Levites went up to Jerusalem, and the Israelites who belonged to that mishmarah, assembled in [the synagogues of] their cities to read the history of the creation [viz. the 1st chapter of Genesis].

3 ג

וְאַנְשֵׁי הַמַּעֲמָד הָיוּ מִתְעַנִּין אַרְבָּעָה יָמִים בַּשָּׁבוּעַ, מִיּוֹם שֵׁנִי וְעַד יוֹם חֲמִישִׁי. וְלֹא הָיוּ מִתְעַנִּין עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, מִפְּנֵי כְבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת. וְלֹא בְאֶחָד בַּשַּׁבָּת, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵצְאוּ מִמְּנוּחָה וָעֹנֶג לִיגִיעָה וְתַעֲנִית וְיָמוּתוּ. בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, בְּרֵאשִׁית, וִיְהִי רָקִיעַ. בַּשֵּׁנִי, יְהִי רָקִיעַ, וְיִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם. בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי, יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם, וִיְהִי מְאֹרֹת. בָּרְבִיעִי, יְהִי מְאֹרֹת, וְיִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם. בַּחֲמִישִׁי, יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, וְתּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ. בַּשִּׁשִּׁי, תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ, וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם. פָּרָשָׁה גְדוֹלָה, קוֹרִין אוֹתָהּ בִּשְׁנַיִם, וְהַקְּטַנָּה בְּיָחִיד, בַּשַּׁחֲרִית וּבַמּוּסָף. וּבַמִּנְחָה נִכְנָסִין וְקוֹרִין עַל פִּיהֶן, כְּקוֹרִין אֶת שְׁמַע. עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת בַּמִּנְחָה לֹא הָיוּ נִכְנָסִין, מִפְּנֵי כְבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת:

The standing men used to fast four times in the week, viz. from Monday till Thursday [inclusive], but they did not fast on Friday, on account of the honour due to the Sabbath, nor on Sunday, that they might not [suddenly] pass over from repose and pleasure to weariness and fasting, which might endanger their lives. On Sunday they read [the sections] ‏בראשית‎ and ‏יהי רקיע‎ (Gen. i. 1, &c. and v. 6, &c.); on Monday ‏יהי רקיע‎ (v. 6, &c.) and ‏יקוו המים‎ (v. 9, &c.); on Tuesday ‏יקוו המים‎ (v. 9, &c.) and ‏יהי מאורות‎ (v. 14); on Wednesday ‏יהי מאורות‎ (v. 14) and ‏ישרצו המים‎ (v. 20); on Thursday ‏ישרצו המים‎ (v. 20) and ‏תוצא הארץ‎ (v. 24); on Friday ‏תוצא הארץ‎ (v. 24) and ‏ויכלו‎ (ii. 1–4). A long section was read by two persons, and a short one by one only; that is to say, in the morning and additional prayers, but at the afternoon prayers they entered [the synagogue] and read the mentioned sections by heart, even as the "Shemah" is read. On Friday [afternoon] they did not go [to the synagogue] at all, in honour of the Sabbath.

4 ד

כָּל יוֹם שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ הַלֵּל, אֵין בּוֹ מַעֲמָד בַּשַּׁחֲרִית. קָרְבַּן מוּסָף, אֵין בּוֹ בַנְּעִילָה. קָרְבַּן עֵצִים, אֵין בּוֹ בַמִּנְחָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. אָמַר לוֹ בֶן עַזַּאי, כָּךְ הָיָה רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שׁוֹנֶה, קָרְבַּן מוּסָף, אֵין בּוֹ בַמִּנְחָה. קָרְבַּן עֵצִים, אֵין בּוֹ בַנְּעִילָה. חָזַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא לִהְיוֹת שׁוֹנֶה כְבֶן עַזַּאי:

On those days on which "Hallel" is sung, the standing men used not to attend during the morning prayer [in Jerusalem]. When there was an additional offering ‏קרבן מוסף‎, they did not assemble at the time of the closing prayer. When a wood-offering 6 was brought, they did not assemble during the afternoon prayer. Thus saith R. Akivah; but Ben Azzai said to him, "Rabbi Joshua taught as follows: When there was an additional offering, the standing men did not assemble during the afternoon prayers; when a wood-offering was brought, they did not assemble at the time of the closing prayer." Then R. Akivah changed [his opinion] and taught like Ben Azzai.

5 ה

זְמַן עֲצֵי כֹהֲנִים וְהָעָם, תִּשְׁעָה. בְּאֶחָד בְּנִיסָן, בְּנֵי אָרַח בֶּן יְהוּדָה. בְּעֶשְׂרִים בְּתַמּוּז, בְּנֵי דָוִד בֶּן יְהוּדָה. בַּחֲמִשָּׁה בְאָב, בְּנֵי פַרְעֹשׁ בֶּן יְהוּדָה. בְּשִׁבְעָה בוֹ, בְּנֵי יוֹנָדָב בֶּן רֵכָב. בַּעֲשָׂרָה בוֹ, בְּנֵי סְנָאָה בֶן בִּנְיָמִין. בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בּוֹ, בְּנֵי זַתּוּא בֶן יְהוּדָה, וְעִמָּהֶם כֹּהֲנִים וּלְוִיִּם וְכָל מִי שֶׁטָּעָה בְשִׁבְטוֹ, וּבְנֵי גוֹנְבֵי עֱלִי בְּנֵי קוֹצְעֵי קְצִיעוֹת. בְּעֶשְׂרִים בּוֹ, בְּנֵי פַחַת מוֹאָב בֶּן יְהוּדָה. בְּעֶשְׂרִים בֶּאֱלוּל, בְּנֵי עָדִין בֶּן יְהוּדָה. בְּאֶחָד בְּטֵבֵת שָׁבוּ בְנֵי פַרְעֹשׁ שְׁנִיָּה. בְּאֶחָד בְּטֵבֵת לֹא הָיָה בוֹ מַעֲמָד, שֶׁהָיָה בוֹ הַלֵּל וְקָרְבַּן מוּסָף וְקָרְבַּן עֵצִים:

The times [of the delivery] of wood [for the altar] by priests and people, were on nine appointed days; on the 1st of Nissan, the family Arah ben Jehudah [delivered]; on the 20th of Tamuz, the family of David ben Jehudah; on the 5th of Ab, the family of Parhos ben Jehudah; on the 7th, the family of Jonadab ben Rechab; on the 10th, the family of Sinha ben Benjamin; on the 15th, the family of Zatoo ben Jehudah, and with them priests and Levites, and all those who did not know from what tribe [they were descended], also the family of Gonebé Eli, and that of Kosehai Kesignot; and on the 20th, the family Pachat Moab ben Jehudah; on the 20th of Elul, the family Adeen ben Jehudah; on the 1st of Tebet, the family Parhos, for the second time. There was no meeting of the standing men on the 1st of Tebet; because "Hallel" was sung, and an additional sacrifice and wood-offering were brought [on that day].

6 ו

חֲמִשָּׁה דְבָרִים אֵרְעוּ אֶת אֲבוֹתֵינוּ בְּשִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּתַמּוּז וַחֲמִשָּׁה בְּתִשְׁעָה בְאָב. בְּשִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּתַמּוּז נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ הַלּוּחוֹת, וּבָטַל הַתָּמִיד, וְהֻבְקְעָה הָעִיר, וְשָׂרַף אַפּוֹסְטֹמוֹס אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, וְהֶעֱמִיד צֶלֶם בַּהֵיכָל. בְּתִשְׁעָה בְאָב נִגְזַר עַל אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנְסוּ לָאָרֶץ, וְחָרַב הַבַּיִת בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וּבַשְּׁנִיָּה, וְנִלְכְּדָה בֵיתָר, וְנֶחְרְשָׁה הָעִיר. מִשֶּׁנִּכְנַס אָב, מְמַעֲטִין בְּשִׂמְחָה:

Five [calamitous] events happened to our ancestors on the 17th of Tamuz, and five on the 9th of Ab. On the 17th of Tamuz, the tables of the Holy Law were broken; on that day the continual sacrifice ceased, and the city of Jerusalem was stormed; on it Opostamos burned the Holy Law, and placed an idol in the Temple; on the 9th of Ab, it was decreed that our ancestors should not enter the Holy Land; on the same day the first and second Temples were destroyed the city of Bethar was taken, 12 and the site of [Jerusalem] was ploughed [like a field 13]. From the 1st of Ab a person is bound to lessen his participation in joyous occasions [till after the fast on the 9th].

7 ז

שַׁבָּת שֶׁחָל תִּשְׁעָה בְאָב לִהְיוֹת בְּתוֹכָהּ, אָסוּר מִלְּסַפֵּר וּמִלְּכַבֵּס, וּבַחֲמִישִׁי מֻתָּרִין מִפְּנֵי כְבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת. עֶרֶב תִּשְׁעָה בְאָב לֹא יֹאכַל אָדָם שְׁנֵי תַבְשִׁילִין, לֹא יֹאכַל בָּשָׂר וְלֹא יִשְׁתֶּה יָיִן. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, יְשַׁנֶּה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מְחַיֵּב בִּכְפִיַּת הַמִּטָּה, וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים:

During the week in which the 9th of Ab happens, it is prohibited to a person to shave himself, or to wash [his clothes 14], but on Thursday it is allowed in honour of the Sabbath. On the day before the 9th of Ab, a person may not partake of two [different kinds] of cookeries [or dishes], eat meat, or drink wine thereon. Rabbon Simeon ben Gamaliel says "[It is sufficient to] alter [from one's customary mode of living]." R. Jehudah considers it obligatory to turn over the bed places, but the sages do not agree in this.

8 ח

אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, לֹא הָיוּ יָמִים טוֹבִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר בְּאָב וּכְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, שֶׁבָּהֶן בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם יוֹצְאוֹת בִּכְלֵי לָבָן שְׁאוּלִין, שֶׁלֹּא לְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ. כָּל הַכֵּלִים טְעוּנִין טְבִילָה. וּבְנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלַיִם יוֹצְאוֹת וְחוֹלוֹת בַּכְּרָמִים. וּמֶה הָיוּ אוֹמְרוֹת, בָּחוּר, שָׂא נָא עֵינֶיךָ וּרְאֵה, מָה אַתָּה בוֹרֵר לָךְ. אַל תִּתֵּן עֵינֶיךָ בַנּוֹי, תֵּן עֵינֶיךָ בַמִּשְׁפָּחָה. שֶׁקֶר הַחֵן וְהֶבֶל הַיֹּפִי, אִשָּׁה יִרְאַת ה' הִיא תִתְהַלָּל (משלי לא). וְאוֹמֵר, תְּנוּ לָהּ מִפְּרִי יָדֶיהָ, וִיהַלְלוּהָ בַשְּׁעָרִים מַעֲשֶׂיהָ. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר, צְאֶינָה וּרְאֶינָה בְּנוֹת צִיּוֹן בַּמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה בָּעֲטָרָה שֶׁעִטְּרָה לּוֹ אִמּוֹ בְּיוֹם חֲתֻנָּתוֹ וּבְיוֹם שִׂמְחַת לִבּוֹ (שיר השירים ג). בְּיוֹם חֲתֻנָּתוֹ, זֶה מַתַּן תּוֹרָה. וּבְיוֹם שִׂמְחַת לִבּוֹ, זֶה בִּנְיַן בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, שֶׁיִּבָּנֶה בִמְהֵרָה בְיָמֵינוּ. אָמֵן:

Rabbon Simeon hen Gamaliel says, "Never were more joyous festivals in Israel than the 15th of Ab and the day of atonement, for on them the maidens of Jerusalem used to go out dressed in white garments—borrowed ones, in order not to cause shame to those who had them not of their own;—these clothes were also to be previously immersed, and thus they went out and danced in the vineyards, saying, Young men, look and observe well whom you are about to choose [as a spouse]; regard not beauty [alone], but rather look to a virtuous family, for 'Gracefulness is deceitful, and beauty is a vain thing, but the woman that feareth the Lord, she is worthy of praise' (Prov. 31:3); and it is also said (Prov. 31:31), 'Give her of the fruit of her hands, and let her own works praise her in the gates.' And thus is it said [in allusion to this custom], 'Go out, maidens of Jerusalem, and look on King Solomon, and on the crown wherewith his mother has encircled [his head] on the day of his espousals, and on the day of the gladness of his heart' (Cant. iii. 11); 'the day of his espousals,' alludes to the day of the gift of the law, and 'the day of the gladness of his heart,' was that when the building of the Temple was completed." May it soon be rebuilt in our days. Amen!