7ז׳
1 א

כָּל הַנִּשְׁבָּעִין שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, נִשְׁבָּעִין וְלֹא מְשַׁלְּמִין. וְאֵלּוּ נִשְׁבָּעִין וְנוֹטְלִין, הַשָּׂכִיר, וְהַנִּגְזָל, וְהַנֶּחְבָּל, וְשֶׁכְּנֶגְדּוֹ חָשׁוּד עַל הַשְּׁבוּעָה, וְהַחֶנְוָנִי עַל פִּנְקָסוֹ. הַשָּׂכִיר כֵּיצַד, אָמַר לוֹ תֶּן לִי שְׂכָרִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִי בְיָדֶךָ, הוּא אוֹמֵר נָתַתִּי, וְהַלָּה אוֹמֵר לֹא נָטַלְתִּי, הוּא נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא שָׁם מִקְצָת הוֹדָאָה. כֵּיצַד, אָמַר לוֹ תֶּן לִי שְׂכָרִי חֲמִשִּׁים דִּינָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִי בְיָדֶךָ, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר הִתְקַבַּלְתָּ דִינַר זָהָב:

All whom the Torah obligates to take an oath, take an oath, and do not pay. But these take an oath, and receive [payment]: the hired laborer, he who has been robbed, he who has been wounded, and he whose opponent is suspected of taking a false oath, and the shopkeeper with his account book. “The hired laborer” How so? [If] he says to him [his employer], “Give me my wages which you owe me,” and he replies, “I have given,” and the other says, “I have not received it,” he [the laborer] takes an oath and collects his wages. Rabbi Judah says: “[There is no oath] unless there is partial admission: How so? If he says to him, “Give me my wages, fifty denarii, which you owe me,” and the other says, “You have received a gold denar (25 silver denar).”

2 ב

הַנִּגְזָל כֵּיצַד, הָיוּ מְעִידִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְבֵיתוֹ לְמַשְׁכְּנוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בִרְשׁוּת, הוּא אוֹמֵר כֵּלַי נָטַלְתָּ, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לֹא נָטַלְתִּי, הֲרֵי זֶה נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא שָׁם מִקְצָת הוֹדָאָה. כֵּיצַד, אָמַר לוֹ שְׁנֵי כֵלִים נָטַלְתָּ, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לֹא נָטַלְתִּי אֶלָּא אֶחָד:

“He who has been robbed” How so? If they testified of a man that he entered into another’s house to take a pledge without permission, and the other says, “You have taken my vessels, and he says, “I have not taken them,” he takes an oath, and takes back his vessels. Rabbi Judah says: “[There is no oath] unless there is partial admission: How so? He said to him, “You have taken two vessels,” and the other says, “I have taken only one.”

3 ג

הַנֶּחְבָּל כֵּיצַד, הָיוּ מְעִידִים אוֹתוֹ שֶׁנִּכְנַס תַּחַת יָדוֹ שָׁלֵם וְיָצָא חָבוּל, וְאָמַר לוֹ חָבַלְתָּ בִּי, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לֹא חָבַלְתִּי, הֲרֵי זֶה נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא שָׁם מִקְצָת הוֹדָאָה. כֵּיצַד, אָמַר לוֹ חָבַלְתָּ בִּי שְׁתַּיִם, וְהַלָּה אוֹמֵר לֹא חָבַלְתִּי בְךָ אֶלָּא אֶחָת:

“He who has been wounded,” How so? If they testified about a person that another went onto his property whole, and came out wounded, and he said to him, “You have wounded me,” and the other said, “I have not wounded you,” he takes an oath, and receives [damages]. R. Judah says: “[There is no oath] unless there is partial admission: How so? He said to him, you have inflicted on me two wounds,” and the other said, “I inflicted on you only one wound.”

4 ד

וְשֶׁכְּנֶגְדּוֹ חָשׁוּד עַל הַשְּׁבוּעָה כֵּיצַד, אַחַת שְׁבוּעַת הָעֵדוּת וְאַחַת שְׁבוּעַת הַפִּקָּדוֹן, וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁבוּעַת שָׁוְא. הָיָה אֶחָד מֵהֶן מְשַׂחֵק בְּקֻבְיָא, וּמַלְוֶה בְרִבִּית, וּמַפְרִיחֵי יוֹנִים, וְסוֹחֲרֵי שְׁבִיעִית, שֶׁכְּנֶגְדּוֹ נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל. הָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן חֲשׁוּדִין, חָזְרָה הַשְּׁבוּעָה לִמְקוֹמָהּ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, יַחֲלֹקוּ:

“He whose opponent is suspected of taking a false oath,” How so? Whether it be the oath of testimony, or the oath of deposit, or even a vain oath. If one [of the litigants] was a dice-player, or usurer, or pigeon-flyer, or dealer in the produce of the seventh year, his opponent takes the oath and collects [his claim]. If both are suspect, the oath returns to its place, these are the words of Rabbi Yose. Rabbi Meir says: “They divide [the claim].”

5 ה

וְהַחֶנְוָנִי עַל פִּנְקָסוֹ כֵּיצַד, לֹא שֶׁיֹּאמַר לוֹ כָּתוּב עַל פִּנְקָסִי שֶׁאַתָּה חַיָּב לִי מָאתַיִם זוּז, אֶלָּא אָמַר לוֹ תֵּן לִבְנִי סָאתַיִם חִטִּין, תֵּן לְפוֹעֲלִי בְּסֶלַע מָעוֹת, הוּא אוֹמֵר נָתַתִּי וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים לֹא נָטַלְנוּ, (שְׁנֵיהֶן נִשְׁבָּעִים), הוּא נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל וְהֵן נִשְׁבָּעִין וְנוֹטְלִין. אָמַר בֶּן נַנָּס, כֵּיצַד אֵלּוּ בָאִין לִידֵי שְׁבוּעַת שָׁוְא וְאֵלּוּ בָאִין לִידֵי שְׁבוּעַת שָׁוְא, אֶלָּא הוּא נוֹטֵל שֶׁלֹּא בִשְׁבוּעָה וְהֵן נוֹטְלִין שֶׁלֹּא בִשְׁבוּעָה:

“And the shopkeeper with his account book,” How so? Not that he [the shopkeeper] says to him [the customer], “It is written in my account book that you owe me two hundred zuz”. Rather he [the customer] says to him [the shopkeeper], “Give my son two seahs of wheat,” or, “Give my laborer small change to the value of a sela” and then he says, “I have given,” and they say, “We have not received”; he [the shopkeeper] takes an oath, and receives [his due from the customer]. And they take an oath, and receive [their due]. Ben Nanas said: “How can both be permitted to come to a vain oath? Rather he takes without an oath, and they take without an oath.”

6 ו

אָמַר לַחֶנְוָנִי תֶּן לִי בְדִינָר פֵּרוֹת וְנָתַן לוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ תֶּן לִי הַדִּינָר, אָמַר לוֹ נְתַתִּיו לְךָ וּנְתַתּוֹ בָאֹנְפָּלִי, יִשָּׁבַע בַּעַל הַבָּיִת. נָתַן לוֹ אֶת הַדִּינָר, אָמַר לוֹ תֶּן לִי אֶת הַפֵּרוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ נְתַתִּים לְךָ וְהוֹלַכְתָּן לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ, יִשָּׁבַע חֶנְוָנִי. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל שֶׁהַפֵּרוֹת בְּיָדוֹ, יָדוֹ עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנָה. אָמַר לַשֻּׁלְחָנִי תֶּן לִי בְדִינָר מָעוֹת וְנָתַן לוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ תֶּן לִי אֶת הַדִּינָר, אָמַר לוֹ נְתַתִּיו לְךָ וּנְתַתּוֹ בָאֹנְפָּלִי, יִשָּׁבַע בַּעַל הַבָּיִת. נָתַן לוֹ אֶת הַדִּינָר, אָמַר לוֹ תֶּן לִי אֶת הַמָּעוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ נְתַתִּים לְךָ וְהִשְׁלַכְתָּם לְתוֹךְ כִּיסֶךָ, יִשָּׁבַע שֻׁלְחָנִי. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵין דֶּרֶךְ שֻׁלְחָנִי לִתֵּן אִסָּר עַד שֶׁיִּטֹּל דִּינָרוֹ:

If he said to a shopkeeper, “Give me fruit for a denar,” and he gave him, and then the shopkeeper said to him, “Give me the denar”, and he replied to him, “I gave it to you, and you placed it in the till”, the customer takes an oath. If he gave him the denar, and said to him, “Give me the fruit,” and the shopkeeper says to him, “I have given it to you, and you took it to your house,” the shopkeeper takes an oath. Rabbi Judah says: “He who has the fruit in his possession, has the advantage.” If he said to a money-changer, “Give me change for a denar,” and he gave him; and said to him, “Give me the denar,” and the other said, “I have given it to you, and you placed it in the till,” the customer takes an oath. If he gave him the denar, and said to him, “Give me the small change,” and the other said to him, “I have given it to you, and you threw it in your purse,” the money -changer takes an oath. Rabbi Judah says: “It is not usual for a money-changer to give [even] an issar until he receives the denar.”

7 ז

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָמְרוּ, הַפּוֹגֶמֶת כְּתֻבָּתָהּ לֹא תִפָּרַע אֶלָּא בִשְׁבוּעָה, וְעֵד אֶחָד מְעִידָהּ שֶׁהִיא פְרוּעָה, לֹא תִפָּרַע אֶלָּא בִשְׁבוּעָה. מִנְּכָסִים מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים וּמִנִּכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים, לֹא תִפָּרַע אֶלָּא בִשְׁבוּעָה. וְהַנִּפְרַעַת שֶׁלֹּא בְּפָנָיו, לֹא תִפָּרַע אֶלָּא בִשְׁבוּעָה. וְכֵן הַיְתוֹמִים לֹא יִפָּרְעוּ אֶלָּא בִשְׁבוּעָה, שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא פְקָדָנוּ אַבָּא, וְלֹא אָמַר לָנוּ אַבָּא, וְשֶׁלֹּא מָצִינוּ בֵין שְׁטָרוֹתָיו שֶׁל אַבָּא שֶׁשְּׁטָר זֶה פָרוּעַ. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָה אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ נוֹלַד הַבֵּן לְאַחַר מִיתַת הָאָב, הֲרֵי זֶה נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, אִם יֵשׁ עֵדִים שֶׁאָמַר הָאָב בִּשְׁעַת מִיתָתוֹ שְׁטָר זֶה אֵינוֹ פָרוּעַ, הוּא נוֹטֵל שֶׁלֹּא בִשְׁבוּעָה:

So too they have said that she who impairs her kethubah [by admitting that it had already been partially paid] cannot receive [the remainder of the] payment except on oath; And that if one witness testifies against her that it [the kethubah] has been paid [in full], she cannot receive payment except on oath; And that from assigned property or orphans’ property she cannot exact payment [for her kethubah] except on oath; And that if she claims [her kethubah] not in his presence, she cannot receive payment except on oath. So, too, orphans cannot receive payment except on oath [namely]: “We swear that our father did not enjoin in his will, neither did our father say unto us, nor did we find [written] among the documents of our father that this document is paid.” Rabbi Yochanan ben Beroka says: “Even if the son was born after his father’s death he may take an oath, and collect his claim.” Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel said: “If there are witnesses that the father said at the time of his death that this document was not paid, he receives [his claim] without an oath.”

8 ח

וְאֵלּוּ נִשְׁבָּעִים שֶׁלֹּא בְטַעֲנָה, הַשֻּׁתָּפִין, וְהָאֲרִיסִין, וְהָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפִּין, וְהָאִשָּׁה הַנּוֹשֵׂאת וְהַנּוֹתֶנֶת בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת, וּבֶן הַבָּיִת. אָמַר לוֹ מָה אַתָּה טוֹעֲנֵנִי, רְצוֹנִי שֶׁתִּשָּׁבַע לִי, חַיָּב. חָלְקוּ הַשֻּׁתָּפִין וְהָאֲרִיסִין, אֵין יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁבִּיעוֹ. נִתְגַּלְגְּלָה לוֹ שְׁבוּעָה מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר, מְגַלְגְּלִין עָלָיו אֶת הַכֹּל. וְהַשְּׁבִיעִית מְשַׁמֶּטֶת אֶת הַשְּׁבוּעָה:

And these take an oath though there is no [definite] claim: partners, tenants, guardians, the wife who transacts the affairs in the house, and the son of the house. [If] he said to him, “What do you claim of me?”, [and the other replied,] “I want you to swear to me”, he must take an oath. If the partners or tenants had divided, he cannot impose an oath upon them. If an oath was imposed upon him in another case, they impose upon him the whole. And the seventh year cancels the oath.