Mishnah Shevuot
1א׳
1 א

שְׁבוּעוֹת שְׁתַּיִם שֶׁהֵן אַרְבַּע, יְדִיעוֹת הַטֻּמְאָה שְׁתַּיִם שֶׁהֵן אַרְבַּע, יְצִיאוֹת הַשַּׁבָּת שְׁתַּיִם שֶׁהֵן אַרְבַּע, מַרְאוֹת נְגָעִים שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהֵם אַרְבָּעָה:

Oaths are of two kinds, subdivided into four; The laws concerning the discovery of having contracted uncleanness are of two kinds, subdivided into four; The laws concerning carrying on the Sabbath are of two kinds, subdivided into four. The symptoms of negas are of two kinds, subdivided into four.

2 ב

כֹּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ יְדִיעָה בַתְּחִלָּה וִידִיעָה בַסּוֹף וְהֶעְלֵם בֵּינְתַּיִם, הֲרֵי זֶה בְּעוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד. יֶשׁ בָּהּ יְדִיעָה בַתְּחִלָּה וְאֵין בָּהּ יְדִיעָה בַסּוֹף, שָׂעִיר שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה בִפְנִים וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים תּוֹלֶה, עַד שֶׁיִּוָּדַע לוֹ וְיָבִיא בְעוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד:

Where there is knowledge at the beginning and at the end but forgetfulness between, a “sliding scales” sacrifice is brought. Where there is knowledge at the beginning but not at the end, the goat which is [sacrificed and its blood sprinkled] within [the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement] together with the Day of Atonement itself hold the sin in suspense until it become known to the sinner, and he brings the “sliding scale” sacrifice.

3 ג

אֵין בָּהּ יְדִיעָה בַתְּחִלָּה אֲבָל יֶשׁ בָּהּ יְדִיעָה בַסּוֹף, שָׂעִיר הַנַּעֲשֶׂה בַחוּץ וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מְכַפֵּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כט) מִלְּבַד חַטַּאת הַכִּפֻּרִים, עַל מַה שֶּׁזֶּה מְכַפֵּר, זֶה מְכַפֵּר. מַה הַפְּנִימִי אֵין מְכַפֵּר אֶלָּא עַל דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ יְדִיעָה, אַף הַחִיצוֹן אֵין מְכַפֵּר אֶלָּא עַל דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ יְדִיעָה:

Where there is no knowledge at the beginning but there is knowledge at the end, the goat sacrificed on the outer altar together with the day of atonement bring atonement, for it says: “[one he-goat for a sin-offering] beside the sin-offering of atonement” (Numbers 29:1: for that which this goat [prepared inside the Holy of Holies] atones this goat [prepared outside] atones: just as the ‘inner’ goat atones only for a sin where there was knowledge [at the beginning], so the “outer” goat atones only for a sin where there was knowledge [at the end].

4 ד

וְעַל שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ יְדִיעָה לֹא בַתְּחִלָּה וְלֹא בַסּוֹף, שְׂעִירֵי הָרְגָלִים וּשְׂעִירֵי רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים מְכַפְּרִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׂעִירֵי הָרְגָלִים מְכַפְּרִין, אֲבָל לֹא שְׂעִירֵי רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים. וְעַל מַה שְׂעִירֵי רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים מְכַפְּרִין, עַל הַטָּהוֹר שֶׁאָכַל אֶת הַטָּמֵא. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַשְּׂעִירִים כַּפָּרָתָן שָׁוָה עַל טֻמְאַת מִקְדָּשׁ וְקָדָשָׁיו. הָיָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׂעִירֵי רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים מְכַפְּרִין עַל הַטָּהוֹר שֶׁאָכַל אֶת הַטָּמֵא, וְשֶׁל רְגָלִים מְכַפְּרִין עַל שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ יְדִיעָה לֹא בַתְּחִלָּה וְלֹא בַסּוֹף, וְשֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מְכַפֵּר עַל שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ יְדִיעָה בַתְּחִלָּה אֲבָל יֶשׁ בָּהּ יְדִיעָה בַסּוֹף. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מַהוּ שֶׁיִּקְרְבוּ זֶה בָזֶה. אָמַר לָהֶם, יִקְרָבוּ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין כַּפָּרָתָן שָׁוָה, הֵיאַךְ קְרֵבִין זֶה בָזֶה. אָמַר לָהֶן, כֻּלָּן בָּאִין לְכַפֵּר עַל טֻמְאַת מִקְדָּשׁ וְקָדָשָׁיו:

Where there is no knowledge [of the impurity] either at the beginning or at the end, the goats offered as sin-offerings on festivals and new months bring atonement, the words of Rabbi Judah. Rabbi Shimon says: “The festival goats atone [for such sins] and not the new moon goats. And for what do the new month goats bring atonement? For a pure man who ate impure holy food.” Rabbi Meir says: “All the goats have equal powers of atonement for imparting impurity to the Temple and holy food. Rabbi Shimon used to say: “The new month goats bring atonement for a pure man who ate impure holy food; and the festival goats atone for transgression of the laws of impurity where there was no knowledge either at the beginning or at the end; and the ‘outer’ goat of the Day of Atonement atones for transgression of these laws where there was no knowledge at the beginning but there was knowledge at the end. They said to him: “Is it permitted to offer up the goat set apart for one day on another?” He said to them: “Let it be offered.” They said to him: “Since they are not equal in the atonement they bring how can they take each other's place?” He replied: “They are all at least equal [in the wider sense] in that they bring atonement for transgressions of the laws of impurity in connection with the temple and holy food.”

5 ה

רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר מִשְּׁמוֹ, שְׂעִירֵי רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים מְכַפְּרִין עַל טָהוֹר שֶׁאָכַל אֶת הַטָּמֵא. מוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁל רְגָלִים, שֶׁמְּכַפְּרִין עַל טָהוֹר שֶׁאָכַל אֶת הַטָּמֵא וְעַל שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ יְדִיעָה לֹא בַתְּחִלָּה וְלֹא בַסּוֹף. מוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, שֶׁהֵן מְכַפְּרִין עַל הַטָּהוֹר שֶׁאָכַל אֶת הַטָּמֵא, וְעַל שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ יְדִיעָה לֹא בַתְּחִלָּה וְלֹא בַסּוֹף, וְעַל שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ יְדִיעָה בַתְּחִלָּה אֲבָל יֶשׁ בָּהּ יְדִיעָה בַסּוֹף. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מַהוּ שֶׁיִּקְרְבוּ זֶה בָזֶה. אָמַר לָהֶם, הֵן. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אִם כֵּן, יִהְיוּ שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים קְרֵבִין בְּרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים, אֲבָל הֵיאַךְ שֶׁל רָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים קְרֵבִין בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים לְכַפֵּר כַּפָּרָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁלָּהּ. אָמַר לָהֶן, כֻּלָּן בָּאִין לְכַפֵּר עַל טֻמְאַת מִקְדָּשׁ וְקָדָשָׁיו:

Rabbi Shimon ben Judah said in his name [of Rabbi Shimon (bar Yohai)]: “The new month goats bring atonement for a pure person who ate impure holy food; the festival goats, in addition to bringing atonement for a pure person who ate impure holy food, atone also for a case where there was no knowledge either at the beginning or at the end; the ‘outer’ goat of the Day of Atonement, in addition to bringing atonement for a pure person who ate impure holy food and for a case where there was no knowledge either at the beginning or at the end, atones also for a case where there was no knowledge at the beginning but there was knowledge at the end. They said to him: “Is it permitted to offer up the goat set apart for one day on another?” He said, “Yes.” They [further] said to him: “Granted that the Day of Atonement goat may be offered up on the new month, but how can the new month goat be offered up on the Day of Atonement to bring atonement for a sin that is not within its scope?” He replied: “They are all at least equal [in the wider sense] in that they bring atonement for transgressions of the laws of impurity in connection with the temple and holy food.”

6 ו

וְעַל זְדוֹן טֻמְאַת מִקְדָּשׁ וְקָדָשָׁיו, שָׂעִיר הַנַּעֲשֶׂה בִפְנִים וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מְכַפְּרִין. וְעַל שְׁאָר עֲבֵרוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, הַקַּלּוֹת וְהַחֲמוּרוֹת, הַזְּדוֹנוֹת וְהַשְּׁגָגוֹת, הוֹדַע וְלֹא הוֹדַע, עֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, כְּרֵתוֹת וּמִיתוֹת בֵּית דִּין, שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ מְכַפֵּר:

For intentional transgressions of the laws of impurity in connection with the temple and holy food, the goat offered inside [the Holy of Holies] on the Day of Atonement together with the Day of Atonement itself bring atonement. For other transgressions of the Torah, light and grave, intentional and unintentional, known and unknown, positive and negative, those punishable by kareth and those punishable by death imposed by the court for all these the scapegoat [sent out on the Day of Atonement] brings atonement.

7 ז

אֶחָד יִשְׂרְאֵלִים, וְאֶחָד כֹּהֲנִים, וְאֶחָד כֹּהֵן מָשׁוּחַ. מַה בֵּין יִשְׂרְאֵלִים לְכֹהֲנִים וּלְכֹהֵן מָשׁוּחַ, אֶלָּא שֶׁדַּם הַפָּר מְכַפֵּר עַל הַכֹּהֲנִים עַל טֻמְאַת מִקְדָּשׁ וְקָדָשָׁיו. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁדַּם הַשָּׂעִיר הַנַּעֲשֶׂה בִפְנִים מְכַפֵּר עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, כָּךְ דַּם הַפָּר מְכַפֵּר עַל הַכֹּהֲנִים. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁוִּדּוּיוֹ שֶׁל שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ מְכַפֵּר עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, כָּךְ וִדּוּיוֹ שֶׁל פָּר מְכַפֵּר עַל הַכֹּהֲנִים:

[The scapegoat] brings atonement to Israelites, priests, and the anointed high priest alike. What [then] is the difference between Israelites, priests, and the anointed high priest? [None], save that the bullock [offered on the Day of Atonement] brings atonement to the priests for transgressions of the laws of impurity in connection with the temple and holy food. Rabbi Shimon says: “Just as the blood of the goat that is offered within [the Holy of Holies] brings atonement for Israelites, so the blood of the bullock [offered on the Day of Atonement] brings atonement for priests; and just as the confession of sins pronounced over the scapegoat brings atonement for Israelites, so the confession pronounced over the bullock brings atonement for priests.