5ה׳
1 א

בְּנוֹת שׁוּחַ, שְׁבִיעִית שֶׁלָּהֶן, שְׁנִיָּה, שֶׁהֵן עוֹשׂוֹת לְשָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הַפַּרְסָאוֹת, שְׁבִיעִית שֶׁלָּהֶן, מוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית, שֶׁהֵן עוֹשׂוֹת לִשְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא בְנוֹת שׁוּחַ:

White figs: their “sheviit” is in the second year [of the sabbatical year], since they ripen once in three years. Rabbi Judah says: Persian figs, their “sheviit” is in the year following the seventh year, since they ripen once in two years. Thereupon they said to him: this was said only of the species of white figs.

2 ב

הַטּוֹמֵן אֶת הַלּוּף בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִסָּאתַיִם, עַד גֹּבַהּ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים, וְטֶפַח עָפָר עַל גַּבָּיו. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, לֹא יִפְחֹת מֵאַרְבַּעַת קַבִּים, עַד גֹּבַהּ טֶפַח, וְטֶפַח עָפָר עַל גַּבָּיו. וְטוֹמְנוֹ בִמְקוֹם דְּרִיסַת אָדָם:

One who buries luf (a type of onion) in the soil during the sabbatical year:Rabbi Meir says: it must be not less than two seahs in quantity, three handbreadths in height, and covered with earth one handbreadth deep. The sages say: it must be not less than four kabs in quantity, one handbreadth high, and covered with earth one handbreadth deep. And he should bury it in a place where people walk.

3 ג

לוּף שֶׁעָבְרָה עָלָיו שְׁבִיעִית, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אִם לָקְטוּ הָעֲנִיִּים אֶת עָלָיו, לָקָטוּ. וְאִם לָאו, יַעֲשֶׂה חֶשְׁבּוֹן עִם הָעֲנִיִּים. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, אִם לָקְטוּ הָעֲנִיִּים אֶת עָלָיו, לָקָטוּ. וְאִם לָאו, אֵין לָעֲנִיִּים עָלָיו חֶשְׁבּוֹן:

Luf which has remained [in the ground until] after the passing of the seventh year:Rabbi Eliezer says: if the poor had gathered its leaves, then they have gathered. If not, then an account must be made with the poor. Rabbi Joshua says: if the poor had gathered its leaves, then they have gathered. If not, the poor have no account with him (the field owner).

4 ד

לוּף שֶׁל עֶרֶב שְׁבִיעִית שֶׁנִכְנַס לַשְּׁבִיעִית, וְכֵן בְּצָלִים הַקֵּיצוֹנִים, וְכֵן פּוּאָה שֶׁל עִדִּית, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, עוֹקְרִין אוֹתָן בְּמַאֲרוּפוֹת שֶׁל עֵץ. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, בְּקַרְדֻּמּוֹת שֶׁל מַתָּכוֹת. וּמוֹדִים בְּפוּאָה שֶׁל צְלָעוֹת, שֶׁעוֹקְרִין אוֹתָהּ בְּקַרְדֻּמּוֹת שֶׁל מַתָּכוֹת:

Luf of the sixth year that has entered the seventh year, similarly summer onions and puah (madder) grown in good soil:Bet Shammai says: they must be uprooted with wooden rakes. Bet Hillel says: [even] with metal rakes. They agree in the case of puah with strong roots, that they may be uprooted with metal spades.

5 ה

מֵאֵימָתַי מֻתָּר אָדָם לִקַּח לוּף בְּמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מִיָּד. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מִשֶּׁיִּרְבֶּה הֶחָדָשׁ:

From when may one buy luf after the seventh year? Rabbi Judah says: immediately. But the sages say: [only] after the new crop has appeared.

6 ו

אֵלּוּ כֵלִים שֶׁאֵין הָאֻמָּן רַשַּׁאי לְמָכְרָם בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, מַחֲרֵשָׁה וְכָל כֵּלֶיהָ, הָעוֹל, וְהַמִּזְרֶה, וְהַדָּקָר. אֲבָל מוֹכֵר הוּא מַגַּל יָד וּמַגַּל קָצִיר, וַעֲגָלָה וְכָל כֵּלֶיהָ. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל שֶׁמְּלַאכְתּוֹ מְיֻחֶדֶת לַעֲבֵרָה, אָסוּר. לְאִסּוּר וּלְהֶתֵּר, מֻתָּר:

These are the implements which a craftsman may not sell in the seventh year:A plow and all its [accompanying] implements, a yoke, a winnowing-fan, and a pickax. But he may sell a sickle used by hand, a scythe, and a cart with all its implements. This is the general principle: any tools designed for work involving a transgression [in the seventh year] is prohibited; but if for a forbidden and a permissible purpose, it may be [sold].

7 ז

הַיּוֹצֵר, מוֹכֵר חֲמִשָּׁה כַּדֵּי שֶׁמֶן וַחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר כַּדֵּי יַיִן, שֶׁכֵּן דַּרְכּוֹ לְהָבִיא מִן הַהֶפְקֵר. וְאִם הֵבִיא יוֹתֵר מִכָּאן, מֻתָּר. וּמוֹכֵר לְנָכְרִים בָּאָרֶץ, וּלְיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ:

The potter may sell five oil-jars and fifteen wine-jars, for this is the usual amount one collects from ownerless produce. But if he brought more, it is still permitted. He may also sell [more jars] to Gentiles in the land of Israel and to Jews outside of the land.

8 ח

בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, לֹא יִמְכֹּר לוֹ פָרָה חוֹרֶשֶׁת בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַתִּירִין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לְשָׁחֲטָהּ. מוֹכֵר לוֹ פֵּרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת הַזֶּרַע, וּמַשְׁאִיל לוֹ סְאָתוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ גֹּרֶן, וּפוֹרֵט לוֹ מָעוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ פּוֹעֲלִים. וְכֻלָּן, בְּפֵרוּשׁ, אֲסוּרִין:

Bet Shammai says: one must not sell him a plowing cow in the seventh year. But Bet Hillel permits, since he may slaughter it. One may sell him produce even at sowing time. And one may lend him a seah measure, even though he knows that he has a threshing-floor. One may exchange coins for him, even though he knows that he has workers. But all these things, if he expresses [that they will be used for unlawful purposes], then they are forbidden.

9 ט

מַשְׁאֶלֶת אִשָּׁה לַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ הַחֲשׁוּדָה עַל הַשְּׁבִיעִית נָפָה וּכְבָרָה וְרֵחַיִם וְתַנּוּר. אֲבָל לֹא תָבוֹר וְלֹא תִטְחַן עִמָּהּ. אֵשֶׁת חָבֵר מַשְׁאֶלֶת לְאֵשֶׁת עַם הָאָרֶץ נָפָה וּכְבָרָה, וּבוֹרֶרֶת וְטוֹחֶנֶת וּמַרְקֶדֶת עִמָּהּ. אֲבָל מִשֶּׁתַּטִּיל הַמַּיִם, לֹא תִגַּע אֶצְלָהּ, שֶׁאֵין מַחְזִיקִין יְדֵי עוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרָה. וְכֻלָּן לֹא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. וּמַחֲזִיקִין יְדֵי נָכְרִים בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, אֲבָל לֹא יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְשׁוֹאֲלִין בִּשְׁלוֹמָן, מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם:

A woman may lend to her neighbor who is suspect of transgressing the laws of the sabbatical year, a sifter, a sieve, a hand-mill, or an oven. But she may not sift or grind with her. The wife of a haver may lend to the wife of an am haaretz a sifter and a sieve and may even sift, grind, or sift flour with her. But once she poured water [over the flour], she may not touch [it] with her, for one may not aid those who commit a transgression. And all these things were only allowed in the interests of peace. They may offer encouragement to Gentiles during the sabbatical year, but not to Jews. In the interests of peace, one may also offer greetings to Gentiles.