מָעוֹת שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ בֵּין הַשְּׁקָלִים לִנְדָבָה, קָרוֹב לַשְּׁקָלִים יִפְּלוּ לַשְּׁקָלִים, לַנְּדָבָה יִפְּלוּ לַנְּדָבָה, מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה יִפְּלוּ לַנְּדָבָה. בֵּין עֵצִים לִלְבוֹנָה, קָרוֹב לָעֵצִים יִפְּלוּ לָעֵצִים, לַלְּבוֹנָה יִפְּלוּ לַלְּבוֹנָה, מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה יִפְּלוּ לַלְּבוֹנָה. בֵּין קִנִּין לְגוֹזְלֵי עוֹלָה, קָרוֹב לַקִּנִּין יִפְּלוּ לַקִּנִּין. לְגוֹזְלֵי עוֹלָה יִפְּלוּ לְגוֹזְלֵי עוֹלָה, מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה יִפְּלוּ לְגוֹזְלֵי עוֹלָה. בֵּין חֻלִּין לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי, קָרוֹב לַחֻלִּין יִפְּלוּ לַחֻלִּין, לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי יִפְּלוּ לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי, מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה יִפְּלוּ לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. זֶה הַכְּלָל, הוֹלְכִים אַחַר הַקָּרוֹב (לְהָקֵל). מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה לְהַחְמִיר: Coins which were found between the [chest inscribed] “shekels” and the [chests inscribed] “freewill-offerings: Nearer to [the chest inscribed] “shekels”, they go to the shekels; [Nearer to the chests inscribed] “freewill-offerings”, they go to freewill-offerings; Half way in between, they go to freewill-offerings. [Coins which were found] between [the chest inscribed] “wood” and [the chest inscribed] “frankincense”: Nearer to [the chest inscribed] “wood”, they go to the wood; [Nearer to the chest inscribed] “frankincense”, they go to frankincense; Half way in between, they go to frankincense. [Coins which were found] between [the chest inscribed] “bird-offerings” and [the chest inscribed] “young pigeons for burnt-offerings”: Nearer to [the chest inscribed] “bird-offerings” they go to bird-offerings; [Nearer to the chest inscribed] “young pigeons for burnt-offerings”, they go to young pigeons for burnt-offerings; Half way in between, they go to young pigeons for burnt-offerings. [Coins which were found] between non-sacred [money] and [second] tithes [money]: Nearer to the non-sacred [money], they go to common [money]; Nearer to the [second] tithes [money], they go to [second] tithes; Half way in between, they are considered [second] tithes. This is the general rule: the go to that which is nearer [even if this] is lenient; but if half way in between, [they must go] to that which is the more stringent.
מָעוֹת שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ לִפְנֵי סוֹחֲרֵי בְּהֵמָה, לְעוֹלָם מַעֲשֵׂר. בְּהַר הַבַּיִת, חֻלִּין. בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם בִּשְׁעַת הָרֶגֶל, מַעֲשֵׂר. וּבִשְׁאָר כָּל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה, חֻלִּין: Money which was found in front of animal dealers [in Jerusalem], it is always [second] tithes [money]; [If it was found] on the Temple Mount it is non-sacred [money]. [If it was found] in Jerusalem during the time of a festival, it is [second] tithes [money]. But all the rest of the year it is non-sacred [money].
בָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּמְצָא בָּעֲזָרָה, אֵבָרִים, עוֹלוֹת. וַחֲתִיכוֹת, חַטָאוֹת. בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים. זֶה וָזֶה תְּעֻבַּר צוּרָתוֹ וְיֵצֵא לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה. נִמְצָא בַּגְּבוּלִין, אֵבָרִים, נְבֵלוֹת. חֲתִיכוֹת, מֻתָּרוֹת. וּבִשְׁעַת הָרֶגֶל שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר מְרֻבֶּה, אַף אֵבָרִים מֻתָּרִין: Meat which was found in the Temple courtyard: Limbs: [they must be treated as belonging to] whole burnt-offerings; Pieces: [they must be treated as belonging to] sin-offerings. [Meat which was found] in Jerusalem, [must be treated as belonging to] wellbeing-offerings. In both cases it must be left to become disqualified and must then go out to the place of burning. [Meat which was] found within the borders [of Israel but outside of Jerusalem]: Limbs: [they must be treated as] carrion; Pieces: they are permitted. But [if found] during the time of a festival, when meat is abundant, it is permitted [to eat it] even when cut up in limbs.
בְּהֵמָה שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת מִירוּשָׁלַיִם וְעַד מִגְדַּל עֵדֶר, וּכְמִדָּתָהּ לְכָל רוּחַ, זְכָרִים, עוֹלוֹת. נְקֵבוֹת, זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָרָאוּי לִפְסָחִים, פְּסָחִים קֹדֶם לָרֶגֶל שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם: Beasts which were found in Jerusalem as far as Migdal Eder and within the same distance in any direction: Males are [considered as] burnt-offerings; Females are [considered as] peace-offerings. Rabbi Judah says: that which is fit for a pesach offering, is [considered as] a pesach-offerings [when found] within thirty days before the pilgrimage [of Pesach].
בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ מְמַשְׁכְּנִין אֶת מוֹצְאֶיהָ, עַד שֶׁהוּא מֵבִיא נְסָכֶיהָ. חָזְרוּ לִהְיוֹת מַנִּיחִין אוֹתָהּ וּבוֹרְחִין. הִתְקִינוּ בֵּית דִּין שֶׁיְּהוּ נְסָכֶיהָ בָּאִין מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר: In olden times they used to take a pledge from any one who had found such a [stray] animal, until he brought its libation-offerings. Then people would leave the animal and run away. So the court decreed that its libation-offerings should come from public funds.
אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים הִתְקִינוּ בֵּית דִּין, וְזֶה אֶחָד מֵהֶן, נָכְרִי שֶׁשִּׁלַּח עוֹלָתוֹ מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם וְשִׁלַּח עִמָּהּ נְסָכִים, קְרֵבִין מִשֶׁלּוֹ. וְאִם לָאו, קְרֵבִין מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. וְכֵן גֵּר שֶׁמֵּת וְהִנִּיחַ זְבָחִים, אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ נְסָכִים, קְרֵבִין מִשֶּׁלּוֹ. וְאִם לָאו, קְרֵבִין מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. וּתְנַאי בֵּית דִּין הוּא עַל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁמֵּת, שֶׁתְּהֵא מִנְחָתוֹ קְרֵבָה מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁל יוֹרְשִׁין. וּשְׁלֵמָה הָיְתָה קְרֵבָה: Rabbi Shimon said: there were seven things that the court decree and that was one of them. [The others were the following:]A non-Jew who sent a burnt-offering from overseas and he sent with it its libation-offerings, they are offered out of his own; But if [he did] not [send its libation-offerings], they should be offered out of public funds. So too [in the case of] a convert who had died and left sacrifices, if he had also left its libation-offerings they are offered out of his own; But if not, they should be offered out of public funds. It was also a condition laid down by the court in the case of a high priest who had died that his minhah should be offered out of public funds. Rabbi Judah says: [it was offered out] of the property of his heirs, And had to be offered of the whole [tenth].
עַל הַמֶּלַח וְעַל הָעֵצִים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים נֵאוֹתִים בָּהֶן, וְעַל הַפָּרָה שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ מוֹעֲלִין בְּאֶפְרָהּ, וְעַל הַקִּנִּין הַפְּסוּלוֹת שֶׁיְּהוּ בָאוֹת מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, הַמְסַפֵּק אֶת הַקִּנִּין, מְסַפֵּק אֶת הַפְּסוּלוֹת: [They further decreed] concerning the salt and the wood that the priests may benefit from them. And concerning the [red] heifer that using its ashes is not considered sacrilege. And concerning bird-offerings which had become unfit [for sacrifice], that [others] should be offered [in their place] out of public funds. Rabbi Yose says: the one who supplied the bird-offerings was bound to supply [those which had to be offered in the place of] those which had become unfit.