אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, מִנַּיִן לַעֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁמְּטַמְּאָה בְמַשָּׂא כַּנִּדָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ל) תִּזְרֵם כְּמוֹ דָוָה, צֵא תֹּאמַר לוֹ, מַה נִּדָּה מְטַמְּאָה בְמַשָּׂא, אַף עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה מְטַמְּאָה בְמַשָּׂא: Rabbi Akiva said: From where is it derived that idolatry, e.g., a statue of a deity, transmits impurity imparted by carrying even when the person who carries it does not come into contact with it, just as a menstruating woman does? As it is stated: “And you will defile the silver overlays of your statues, and the golden plating of your idols, you will cast them away as you would a menstruating woman [dava], you will tell it, get out” (Isaiah 30:22). Just as a menstruating woman transmits impurity imparted by carrying, so too, idolatry transmits impurity imparted by carrying.
מִנַּיִן לִסְפִינָה שֶׁהִיא טְהוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ל) דֶּרֶךְ אֳנִיָּה בְלֶב יָם. מִנַּיִן לַעֲרוּגָה שֶׁהִיא שִׁשָּׁה עַל שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים שֶׁזּוֹרְעִין בְּתוֹכָהּ חֲמִשָּׁה זֵרְעוֹנִין, אַרְבָּעָה בְאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הָעֲרוּגָה וְאֶחָד בָּאֶמְצַע, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סא) כִּי כָאָרֶץ תּוֹצִיא צִמְחָהּ וּכְגַנָּה זֵרוּעֶיהָ תַצְמִיחַ, זַרְעָהּ לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא זֵרוּעֶיהָ: This is another mishna that digresses from the central topic of this tractate. It, too, is based on an allusion from the Bible. From where is it derived that the ship is ritually pure, in the sense that it cannot become impure? As it is stated: “The way of a ship in the midst of the sea” (Proverbs 30:19). The mishna continues to discuss an additional halakha based on a biblical allusion. From where is it derived that in a garden bed that is six by six handbreadths, that one may plant five different types of seeds in it? He may do so without violating the prohibition of sowing a mixture of diverse kinds of seeds in the following manner. One sows four types of plants on each of the four sides of the garden bed and one in the middle. There is an allusion to this in the text, as it is stated: “For as the earth brings forth its growth, and as a garden causes its seeds to grow, so will the Lord God cause justice and praise to spring forth before all the nations” (Isaiah 61:11). Its seed, in the singular, is not stated; rather, its seeds, written in the plural. Apparently, it is possible that several seeds may be planted in a small garden.
מִנַּיִן לְפוֹלֶטֶת שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁהִיא טְמֵאָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יט) הֱיוּ נְכוֹנִים לִשְׁלשֶׁת יָמִים. מִנַּיִן שֶׁמַּרְחִיצִין אֶת הַמִּילָה בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית לד) וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בִּהְיוֹתָם כֹּאֲבִים. מִנַּיִן שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִין לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית בְּרֹאשׁ שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה א) אִם יִהְיוּ חֲטָאֵיכֶם כַּשָּׁנִים כַּשֶּׁלֶג יַלְבִּינוּ: The mishna continues to cite a series of unrelated halakhot based upon biblical allusions. From where is it derived that a woman who discharges semen even on the third day after relations is ritually impure, just like one who touches semen (see Leviticus 15:17)? Because the semen remains fit for insemination, it can transmit impurity, as it is stated prior to the revelation at Sinai: “And he said to the people, prepare yourselves for three days, do not approach a woman” (Exodus 19:15). This three-day separation period ensured that even a woman who discharged semen would be pure. The mishna cites another halakha based on a biblical allusion: From where is it derived that one may wash the circumcision on the third day, meaning the third day after the circumcision, even if it occurs on Shabbat? As it is stated: “And it came to pass on the third day when they were in pain” (Genesis 34:25). The pain of circumcision lasts at least three days, and as long as the child is in pain he is considered to be in danger. The mishna cites another halakha with an allusion in the Bible: From where is it derived that one ties a scarlet strip of wool to the head of the scapegoat that is dispatched to Azazel? As it is stated: “If your sins be like scarlet, they will become white like snow” (Isaiah 1:18). Since the goat is offered to atone for sins, red wool is tied to its horns.
מִנַּיִן לְסִיכָה שֶׁהִיא כַשְּׁתִיָּה בְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין רְאָיָה לַדָּבָר, זֵכֶר לַדָּבָר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קט) וַתָּבֹא כַמַּיִם בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְכַשֶּׁמֶן בְּעַצְמוֹתָיו: The mishna cites another allusion. From where is it derived that smearing oil on one’s body is like drinking and is similarly prohibited on Yom Kippur? Although there is no proof for this, there is an allusion to it, as it is stated: “And it comes into his inward parts like water and like oil into his bones” (Psalms 109:18). The verse appears to equate smearing oil on one’s body with drinking water.
הַמּוֹצִיא עֵצִים, כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל בֵּיצָה קַלָּה. תְּבָלִין, כְּדֵי לְתַבֵּל בֵּיצָה קַלָּה, וּמִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה. קְלִפֵּי אֱגוֹזִים, קְלִפֵּי רִמּוֹנִים, אִסְטִיס וּפוּאָה, כְּדֵי לִצְבֹּעַ בָּהֶן בֶּגֶד קָטָן בַּסְּבָכָה. מֵי רַגְלַיִם, נֶתֶר וּבֹרִית, קִמּוֹנְיָא וְאַשְׁלָג, כְּדֵי לְכַבֵּס בָּהֶן בֶּגֶד קָטָן בַּסְּבָכָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כְּדֵי לְהַעֲבִיר עַל הַכָּתֶם: After an extended digression for a discussion of matters unrelated to the halakhot of Shabbat, this mishna resumes treatment of the halakhot of carrying from domain to domain on Shabbat. One who carries out wood on Shabbat is liable for a measure equivalent to the amount of wood necessary to cook an easily cooked egg. The measure that determines liability for carrying out spices is equivalent to that which is used to season an easily cooked egg. And all types of spices join together with one another to constitute the measure for liability. The measure that determines liability for carrying out nutshells, pomegranate peels, safflower, and madder, which are used to produce dyes, is equivalent to the amount that is used to dye a small garment placed atop a woman’s hairnet. The measure that determines liability for carrying out urine, natron, and borit, cimolian earth [Kimoleya], and potash, all of which are abrasive materials used for laundry, is equivalent to the amount that is used to launder a small garment placed atop a woman’s hairnet. And Rabbi Yehuda says: The measure that determines liability for these materials is equivalent to that which is used to remove a stain.
פִּלְפֶּלֶת, כָּל שֶׁהוּא. וְעִטְרָן, כָּל שֶׁהוּא. מִינֵי בְשָׂמִים וּמִינֵי מַתָּכוֹת, כָּל שֶׁהֵן. מֵאַבְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמֵעֲפַר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, מֶקֶק סְפָרִים וּמֶקֶק מִטְפְּחוֹתֵיהֶם, כָּל שֶׁהוּא, שֶׁמַּצְנִיעִין אוֹתָן לְגָנְזָן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף הַמּוֹצִיא מִמְּשַׁמְּשֵׁי עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים, כָּל שֶׁהוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יג) וְלֹא יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן הַחֵרֶם: The measure that determines liability for carrying out pepper on Shabbat is any amount. Similarly, the measure that determines liability for carrying out tar is any amount. The measure that determines liability for carrying out various kinds of perfumes and various kinds of metals is any amount. The measure that determines liability for carrying out stones of the altar or earth of the altar, sacred scrolls or their coverings that became tattered due to an insect called mekek that destroys scrolls, and mekek that destroys their coverings, is any amount. That is because people store them in order to bury them, due to their sanctity, and accord significance to even a small measure of those items. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even one who carries out accessories of idolatry on Shabbat is liable for carrying out any amount, as it is stated: “And there shall cleave nothing of the proscribed items to your hand” (Deuteronomy 13:18). Since even the smallest amount is prohibited and must be burned, any amount is significant.
הַמּוֹצִיא קֻפַּת הָרוֹכְלִין, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ מִינִין הַרְבֵּה, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא חַטָּאת אֶחָת. זֵרְעוֹנֵי גִנָּה, פָּחוֹת מִכַּגְּרוֹגֶרֶת. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן בְּתֵירָא אוֹמֵר, חֲמִשָּׁה. זֶרַע קִשּׁוּאִין, שְׁנַיִם. זֶרַע דְּלוּעִין, שְׁנַיִם. זֶרַע פּוֹל הַמִּצְרִי, שְׁנַיִם. חָגָב חַי טָהוֹר, כָּל שֶׁהוּא. מֵת, כַּגְּרוֹגֶרֶת. צִפֹּרֶת כְּרָמִים, בֵּין חַיָּה בֵּין מֵתָה, כָּל שֶׁהוּא, שֶׁמַּצְנִיעִין אוֹתָהּ לִרְפוּאָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף הַמּוֹצִיא חָגָב חַי טָמֵא, כָּל שֶׁהוּא, שֶׁמַּצְנִיעִין אוֹתוֹ לְקָטָן לִשְׂחֹק בּוֹ: One who carries out a merchant’s basket, even if there are many types of spices and jewelry in it, is obligated to bring only one sin-offering, because he performed only one act of carrying out. The measure that determines liability for carrying out garden seeds on Shabbat is less than a fig-bulk. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: The measure for liability is five seeds. The measure that determines liability for carrying out cucumber seeds is two seeds because they are large and conspicuous. The measure that determines liability for carrying out squash seeds is two seeds. The measure that determines liability for carrying out seeds of Egyptian beans is two. The measure that determines liability for carrying out a live kosher locust is any amount. For carrying out a dead kosher locust, which is edible, it is the same as any other food, a fig-bulk. The measure that determines liability for carrying out the locust called tzipporet keramim, whether dead or alive, is any amount; this is because one stores them for medicinal purposes or as a talisman, which renders even a small quantity significant. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even one who carries out a live non-kosher locust is liable for carrying out any amount, because people store locusts for a child who wants to play with it.