23כ״ג
1 א

שׁוֹאֵל אָדָם מֵחֲבֵרוֹ כַּדֵּי יַיִן וְכַדֵּי שֶׁמֶן, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר לוֹ הַלְוֵנִי, וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה מֵחֲבֶרְתָּהּ כִּכָּרוֹת. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מַאֲמִינוֹ, מַנִּיחַ טַלִּיתוֹ אֶצְלוֹ וְעוֹשֶׂה עִמּוֹ חֶשְׁבּוֹן לְאַחַר שַׁבָּת. וְכֵן עֶרֶב פֶּסַח בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, מַנִּיחַ טַלִּיתוֹ אֶצְלוֹ וְנוֹטֵל אֶת פִּסְחוֹ, וְעוֹשֶׂה עִמּוֹ חֶשְׁבּוֹן לְאַחַר יוֹם טוֹב:

One may borrow jugs of wine and jugs of oil from another on Shabbat, as long as one does not say the following to him: Loan me. And similarly, a woman may borrow from another loaves of bread on Shabbat. And if the lender does not trust him that he will return them, the borrower may leave his cloak with him as collateral and make the proper calculation with him after Shabbat. And similarly, on the eve of Passover in Jerusalem, when it occurs on Shabbat, one who is procuring a Paschal lamb may leave his cloak with him, i.e., the person from whom he is purchasing it, and take the lamb to bring as his Paschal lamb, and then make the proper calculation with him after the Festival.

2 ב

מוֹנֶה אָדָם אֶת אוֹרְחָיו וְאֶת פַּרְפְּרוֹתָיו מִפִּיו, אֲבָל לֹא מִן הַכְּתָב. וּמֵפִיס עִם בָּנָיו וְעִם בְּנֵי בֵיתוֹ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְכַּוֵּן לַעֲשׂוֹת מָנָה גְדוֹלָה כְּנֶגֶד קְטַנָּה, מִשּׁוּם קֻבְיָא. וּמַטִּילִין חֲלָשִׁים עַל הַקָּדָשִׁים בְּיוֹם טוֹב, אֲבָל לֹא עַל הַמָּנוֹת:

One may count his guests who are coming to his meal and his appetizers, as long as he does so from memory; but one may not read them from a written list, the reason for which will be explained in the Gemara. A person may draw lots with his children and family members at the table on Shabbat, in order to determine who will receive which portion, as long as he does not intend to set a large portion against a small portion in such a lottery. Rather, the portions must be of equal size. And one may cast lots among the priests for sanctified foods on a Festival, but not for the specific portions.

3 ג

לֹא יִשְׂכֹּר אָדָם פּוֹעֲלִים בְּשַׁבָּת, וְלֹא יֹאמַר אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ לִשְׂכֹּר לוֹ פוֹעֲלִים. אֵין מַחְשִׁיכִין עַל הַתְּחוּם לִשְׂכֹּר פּוֹעֲלִים וּלְהָבִיא פֵרוֹת, אֲבָל מַחְשִׁיךְ הוּא לִשְׁמֹר, וּמֵבִיא פֵרוֹת בְּיָדוֹ. כְּלָל אָמַר אַבָּא שָׁאוּל, כֹּל שֶׁאֲנִי זַכַּאי בַּאֲמִירָתוֹ, רַשַּׁאי אֲנִי לְהַחְשִׁיךְ עָלָיו:

A person may not hire workers on Shabbat to work for him after Shabbat because even speaking about weekday matters is prohibited on Shabbat. Similarly, a person may not tell another on Shabbat to hire workers for him. One may not even wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to leave the boundary immediately after Shabbat to hire workers for himself or to bring produce from his field. But he may wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to guard his produce that is outside the Shabbat boundary, and he may then bring produce back in his hand, since he did not initially intend to wait at the edge of the boundary for this purpose. Abba Shaul stated a general principle: With regard to anything that I am permitted to discuss on Shabbat, I am permitted to wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary for its sake.

4 ד

מַחְשִׁיכִין עַל הַתְּחוּם לְפַקֵּחַ עַל עִסְקֵי כַלָּה, וְעַל עִסְקֵי הַמֵּת לְהָבִיא לוֹ אָרוֹן וְתַכְרִיכִין. גּוֹי שֶׁהֵבִיא חֲלִילִין בְּשַׁבָּת, לֹא יִסְפֹּד בָּהֶן יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בָּאוּ מִמָּקוֹם קָרוֹב. עָשׂוּ לוֹ אָרוֹן וְחָפְרוּ לוֹ קֶבֶר, יִקָּבֵר בּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאִם בִּשְׁבִיל יִשְׂרָאֵל, לֹא יִקָּבֵר בּוֹ עוֹלָמִית:

One may wait for nightfall at the Shabbat boundary to attend to the needs of a bride and the needs of a corpse, such as to bring him a coffin and shrouds. If a gentile brought flutes on Shabbat in order to play music during the eulogy and funeral procession, a Jew may not eulogize with them as accompaniment, unless they were brought from a nearby location within the Shabbat boundary and transporting them did not include any violation of halakha. If gentiles made someone a coffin and dug him a grave on Shabbat, and they then changed their minds and decided to give it to someone else, a Jew may be buried in it. However, if it was initially intended for a Jew, a Jew may never be buried in it.

5 ה

עוֹשִׂין כָּל צָרְכֵי הַמֵּת, סָכִין וּמְדִיחִין אוֹתוֹ, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יָזִיזוּ בוֹ אֵבֶר. שׁוֹמְטִין אֶת הַכַּר מִתַּחְתָּיו וּמַטִּילִין אוֹתוֹ עַל הַחֹל בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיַּמְתִּין. קוֹשְׁרִים אֶת הַלֶּחִי, לֹא שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא יוֹסִיף. וְכֵן קוֹרָה שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרָה, סוֹמְכִין אוֹתָהּ בְּסַפְסָל אוֹ בַּאֲרֻכּוֹת הַמִּטָּה, לֹא שֶׁתַּעֲלֶה, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא תוֹסִיף. אֵין מְעַמְּצִין אֶת הַמֵּת בְּשַׁבָּת, וְלֹא בְחֹל עִם יְצִיאַת נֶפֶשׁ. וְהַמְעַמֵּץ עִם יְצִיאַת נֶפֶשׁ, הֲרֵי זֶה שׁוֹפֵךְ דָּמִים:

One may perform all of the needs of the dead on Shabbat. One may smear oil on the body and rinse it with water, and all of this is permitted provided that one does not move any of its limbs, which would constitute a violation of the laws of set-aside objects. When necessary, one may also remove a pillow from beneath it and thereby place it on cold sand in order to delay its decomposition. Similarly, one may tie the jaw of a corpse that is in the process of opening. One may not move it directly so that it will rise back to its original position, but so that it will not continue to open. And similarly, if one has a roof beam that has broken on Shabbat, one may support it with a bench or with long poles from a bed. One may not move it so that the beam will rise back to its original place, but so that it will not continue to fall. One may not shut the eyes of the dead on Shabbat because the body is set-aside. And one may not shut the eyes even on a weekday while the soul departs. One must wait until the person has died. And one who shuts the eyes while the soul departs is a murderer because he has hastened the person’s death.