19י״ט
1 א

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אִם לֹא הֵבִיא כְלִי מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, מְבִיאוֹ בְשַׁבָּת מְגֻלֶּה. וּבַסַּכָּנָה, מְכַסֵּהוּ עַל פִּי עֵדִים. וְעוֹד אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, כּוֹרְתִין עֵצִים לַעֲשׂוֹת פֶּחָמִין וְלַעֲשׂוֹת כְּלִי בַרְזֶל. כְּלָל אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, כָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת אֵינָהּ דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, וְשֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת:

As a continuation to the discussion at the end of the previous chapter, which mentioned circumcision in the context of a discussion of the halakhot of childbirth on Shabbat, the mishna continues to address the halakhot of circumcision. Rabbi Eliezer says: If he did not bring an implement for circumcising the child on Shabbat eve, he brings it on Shabbat itself uncovered so that it will be clear to all that he is bringing a circumcision scalpel. And in times of danger, when decrees of persecution prohibit Jews from circumcising their children, one covers it in the presence of witnesses who can testify that he transported the scalpel to perform a mitzva. And furthermore, Rabbi Eliezer said with regard to this issue: One may even cut down trees to prepare charcoal in order to fashion iron tools for the purpose of circumcision. Rabbi Eliezer’s approach was not universally accepted, and a principle was stated by Rabbi Akiva: Any prohibited labor that can be performed on Shabbat eve does not override Shabbat, including transporting the circumcision scalpel. However, any prohibited labor involved in the mitzva of circumcision itself that cannot be performed on Shabbat eve overrides Shabbat.

2 ב

עוֹשִׂין כָּל צָרְכֵי מִילָה בְשַׁבָּת, מוֹהֲלִין, וּפוֹרְעִין, וּמוֹצְצִין, וְנוֹתְנִין עָלֶיהָ אִסְפְּלָנִית וְכַמּוֹן. אִם לֹא שָׁחַק מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, לוֹעֵס בְּשִׁנָּיו וְנוֹתֵן. אִם לֹא טָרַף יַיִן וְשֶׁמֶן מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, יִנָּתֵן זֶה בְעַצְמוֹ וְזֶה בְעַצְמוֹ. וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין לָהּ חָלוּק לְכַתְּחִלָּה, אֲבָל כּוֹרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ סְמַרְטוּט. אִם לֹא הִתְקִין מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, כּוֹרֵךְ עַל אֶצְבָּעוֹ וּמֵבִיא, וַאֲפִלּוּ מֵחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת:

When the eighth day of a baby’s life occurs on Shabbat, he must be circumcised on that day. Therefore, one performs all the necessities of the circumcision, even on Shabbat: One circumcises the foreskin, and uncovers the skin by removing the thin membrane beneath the foreskin, and sucks the blood from the wound, and places on it both a bandage [ispelanit] and cumin as a salve. If one did not grind the cumin from Shabbat eve, he chews it with his teeth and places it on the place of circumcision as a salve. If he did not mix wine and oil on Shabbat eve, a mixture designed to heal and strengthen the child, this, the wine, is placed on the wound by itself and that, the oil, is placed by itself. And on Shabbat one may not make a pouch to place over the circumcision as a bandage ab initio, but he may wrap a rag over it as a dressing. If he did not prepare the bandage on Shabbat eve by bringing it to the place where the circumcision was performed, he wraps the bandage on his finger and brings it on Shabbat, even from a different courtyard. While the Sages permitted it to be brought, they required that it be performed in an unusual fashion, by wearing it in the manner of a garment.

3 ג

מַרְחִיצִין אֶת הַקָּטָן, בֵּין לִפְנֵי הַמִּילָה וּבֵין לְאַחַר הַמִּילָה, וּמְזַלְּפִין עָלָיו בַּיָּד, אֲבָל לֹא בִכְלִי. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה אוֹמֵר, מַרְחִיצִין אֶת הַקָּטָן בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית לד) וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בִּהְיוֹתָם כֹּאֲבִים. סָפֵק וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס אֵין מְחַלְּלִין עָלָיו אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה מַתִּיר בְּאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס:

One may wash the baby on Shabbat, both before the circumcision and after the circumcision. And one may sprinkle hot water on him by hand but not with a vessel, in order to depart from the usual manner in which this is done. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: One may wash the baby on the third day following his circumcision, even if that third day occurs on Shabbat. On the third day following circumcision, the baby is considered to be in danger, as it is stated with regard to the men of Shekhem, who were circumcised: “And it came to pass on the third day, when they were in pain” (Genesis 34:25). This teaches us that on the third day the pain of circumcision poses a danger. If there is uncertainty whether or not to circumcise a baby, and likewise in the case of a hermaphrodite [androginos] baby, who possesses both male and female genitals, one does not desecrate Shabbat to perform the circumcision, since it is not certain that the circumcision is required. And Rabbi Yehuda permits doing so for a hermaphrodite baby.

4 ד

מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ שְׁתֵּי תִינוֹקוֹת, אֶחָד לָמוּל אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת וְאֶחָד לָמוּל בְּשַׁבָּת, וְשָׁכַח וּמָל אֶת שֶׁל אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת בְּשַׁבָּת, חַיָּב. אֶחָד לָמוּל בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְאֶחָד לָמוּל בְּשַׁבָּת, וְשָׁכַח וּמָל אֶת שֶׁל עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת בְּשַׁבָּת, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְחַיֵּב חַטָּאת, וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ פּוֹטֵר:

One who had two babies to circumcise, one of whom he needed to circumcise on the day after Shabbat, and one of whom he needed to circumcise on Shabbat, and he forgot and circumcised the one that should have been circumcised after Shabbat on Shabbat, he is liable to bring a sin-offering, because he performed the prohibited labor of causing a wound not in the framework of performing a mitzva, as no obligation yet exists to circumcise the child. If there were two babies, one to circumcise on Shabbat eve, and one to circumcise on Shabbat, and he forgot and circumcised the one that he should have circumcised on Shabbat eve on Shabbat, Rabbi Eliezer deems him liable to bring a sin-offering, as circumcision after its appointed time does not override Shabbat. And Rabbi Yehoshua exempts him; since he intended to perform a mitzva, and despite his error in fact performed a mitzva, he is exempt from bringing a sin-offering.

5 ה

קָטָן נִמּוֹל לִשְׁמֹנָה, לְתִשְׁעָה, וְלַעֲשָׂרָה, וּלְאַחַד עָשָׂר, וְלִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר, לֹא פָחוֹת וְלֹא יוֹתֵר. הָא כֵּיצַד. כְּדַרְכּוֹ, לִשְׁמֹנָה. נוֹלַד לְבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, נִמּוֹל לְתִשְׁעָה. בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁל עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, נִמּוֹל לַעֲשָׂרָה. יוֹם טוֹב לְאַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת, נִמּוֹל לְאַחַד עָשָׂר. שְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, נִמּוֹל לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר. קָטָן הַחוֹלֶה, אֵין מוֹהֲלִין אוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּבְרִיא:

Although a child is generally circumcised at eight days, as the verse states: “And on the eighth day, the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised” (Leviticus 12:3), nevertheless, at times he is circumcised at nine days, at times at ten days, at eleven days, and at twelve days, no earlier and no later. How so? In his usual manner, a child is circumcised at eight days. If he was born at twilight and it is therefore uncertain on which day he was born, he is circumcised at nine days, as his circumcision is postponed due to that uncertainty, as perhaps the eighth day from his birth has not yet arrived. If he was born at twilight on Shabbat eve, he is not circumcised on the following Shabbat, due to the uncertainty whether it is the eighth or ninth day since his birth, and only a circumcision definitely performed at the appointed time overrides Shabbat. Rather, he is circumcised on Sunday, and the result is that he is circumcised at ten days. If there was a Festival after that Shabbat, he is not circumcised on the Festival either, and he is circumcised at eleven days. And if that Shabbat was followed by two days of Rosh HaShana, the result is that he is circumcised at twelve days. The mishna states another halakha: With regard to a sick child, one does not circumcise him until he becomes healthy.

6 ו

אֵלּוּ הֵן צִיצִין הַמְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַמִּילָה, בָּשָׂר הַחוֹפֶה אֶת רֹב הָעֲטָרָה. וְאֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל בַּתְּרוּמָה. וְאִם הָיָה בַעַל בָּשָׂר, מְתַקְּנוֹ מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעָיִן. מָל וְלֹא פָרַע אֶת הַמִּילָה, כְּאִלּוּ לֹא מָל:

These are the shreds of flesh that invalidate the circumcision if they are not cut. The essential element of circumcision is the removal of the flesh that covers most of the corona, and a child that was not circumcised in this manner is considered uncircumcised, and he does not eat teruma. And if he was properly circumcised but he was fleshy, and it appears as though he has not been properly circumcised, the circumcisor should correct it by circumcising more than necessary, to avoid the appearance of transgression, so he will not appear uncircumcised. If one circumcised but did not uncover the flesh at the area of the circumcision by folding back the thin membrane beneath the foreskin, it is as if he had not circumcised.