הַזּוֹרֵק מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, מֵרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, חַיָּב. מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בָּאֶמְצַע, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא מְחַיֵּב, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִין:
One who throws an object on Shabbat from the private domain to the public domain or from the public domain to the private domain is liable. However, one who throws an object from the private domain to the other private domain, and the object passes through the public domain between the two, Rabbi Akiva deems him liable for carrying into the public domain, and the Rabbis deem him exempt.
כֵּיצַד. שְׁתֵּי גְזֻזְטְרָאוֹת זוֹ כְנֶגֶד זוֹ בִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, הַמּוֹשִׁיט וְהַזּוֹרֵק מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ, פָּטוּר. הָיוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן בִּדְיוֹטָא אַחַת, הַמּוֹשִׁיט חַיָּב, וְהַזּוֹרֵק פָּטוּר, שֶׁכָּךְ הָיְתָה עֲבוֹדַת הַלְוִיִּם, שְׁתֵּי עֲגָלוֹת זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, מוֹשִׁיטִין הַקְּרָשִׁים מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ, אֲבָל לֹא זוֹרְקִין. חֻלְיַת הַבּוֹר וְהַסֶּלַע שֶׁהֵן גְּבוֹהִין עֲשָׂרָה וְרָחְבָּן אַרְבָּעָה, הַנּוֹטֵל מֵהֶן וְהַנּוֹתֵן עַל גַּבָּן, חַיָּב, פָּחוֹת מִכֵּן, פָּטוּר:
How so? If there are two balconies [gezuztra’ot] that are private domains opposite each other on either side of the public domain, one who passes or throws an object from the one on this side to the one on that side is exempt. However, if the balconies were on the same level on the same side of the public thoroughfare, and the public domain separated the two, one who passes from one to the other is liable, and one who throws is exempt, as that method, passing, was the service of the Levites who carried the beams of the Tabernacle. In the Tabernacle, two wagons along the same level stood behind one another in the public domain, and the Levites passed the beams from one wagon to the other through the public domain on the same side of a thoroughfare. But they did not throw from one wagon to another because the beams were heavy. Passing, which was performed in the Tabernacle, is prohibited. Throwing, which was not performed in the Tabernacle, is not prohibited. With regard to the bank surrounding a pit and the boulder that are ten handbreadths high and four handbreadths wide, one who takes an object from them to the public domain and similarly one who places an object from the public domain atop them is liable for carrying from one domain to another. If the height or width of the pit or the boulder is less than that height, ten handbreadths, one is exempt because the legal status of those protrusions is not distinct from that of the surrounding public domain.
הַזּוֹרֵק אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת בַּכֹּתֶל, לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, כְּזוֹרֵק בָּאֲוִיר, לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, כְּזוֹרֵק בָּאָרֶץ. הַזּוֹרֵק בָּאָרֶץ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, חַיָּב. זָרַק לְתוֹךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְנִתְגַּלְגֵּל חוּץ לְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, פָּטוּר. חוּץ לְאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, וְנִתְגַּלְגֵּל לְתוֹךְ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, חַיָּב:
With regard to one who throws an object four cubits in the public domain, if the object hits the wall above ten handbreadths from the ground, which is an exempt domain, it is as if one threw it in the air, and he is exempt. If it hits the wall below ten handbreadths from the ground, it is as if he threw it and it landed on the ground, and one who throws an object four cubits and it lands on the ground is liable. If one threw an object in the public domain, intending for it to land within four cubits, meaning that he had no intention of violating the Torah prohibition of carrying, and the object rolled and went beyond four cubits, he is exempt. However, if one threw an object with the intention of it landing beyond four cubits, and the object rolled back within four cubits, he is liable from when he originally threw the object.
הַזּוֹרֵק בַּיָּם אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, פָּטוּר. אִם הָיָה רְקָק מַיִם וּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מְהַלֶּכֶת בּוֹ, הַזּוֹרֵק לְתוֹכוֹ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, חַיָּב. וְכַמָּה הוּא רְקָק מַיִם, פָּחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים. רְקָק מַיִם וּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים מְהַלֶּכֶת בּוֹ, הַזּוֹרֵק בְּתוֹכוֹ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, חַיָּב:
One who throws an object four cubits into the sea is exempt. If there was a swamp and the public domain passes through it, one who throws an object four cubits into it is liable like one who carried four cubits in the public domain. And how deep is this swamp? It is less than ten handbreadths deep. In the case of a swamp that the public domain passes through, one who throws an object four cubits into the swamp is liable.
הַזּוֹרֵק מִן הַיָּם לַיַּבָּשָׁה וּמִן הַיַּבָּשָׁה לַיָּם, וּמִן הַיָּם לַסְּפִינָה וּמִן הַסְּפִינָה לַיָּם, וּמִן הַסְּפִינָה לַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ, פָּטוּר. סְפִינוֹת קְשׁוּרוֹת זוֹ בָזוֹ, מְטַלְטְלִין מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ. אִם אֵינָן קְשׁוּרוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּקָּפוֹת, אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ:
One who throws an object from the sea to dry land, or from dry land to the sea, or from the sea onto a boat, or from a boat into the sea, or from one boat to another is exempt because the sea has the legal status of a karmelit. If boats are tied together, one may carry an object from one to the other on Shabbat. However, if they are not tied, even though they are adjacent, one may not carry from one to the other.
הַזּוֹרֵק וְנִזְכַּר לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּצְתָה מִיָּדוֹ, קְלָטָהּ אַחֵר, קְלָטָהּ כֶּלֶב, אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׂרְפָה, פָּטוּר. זָרַק לַעֲשׂוֹת חַבּוּרָה, בֵּין בְּאָדָם בֵּין בִּבְהֵמָה, וְנִזְכַּר עַד שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה חַבּוּרָה, פָּטוּר. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל חַיָּבֵי חַטָּאוֹת אֵינָן חַיָּבִין עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא תְחִלָּתָן וְסוֹפָן שְׁגָגָה. תְּחִלָּתָן שְׁגָגָה וְסוֹפָן זָדוֹן, תְּחִלָּתָן זָדוֹן וְסוֹפָן שְׁגָגָה, פְּטוּרִין, עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא תְחִלָּתָן וְסוֹפָן שְׁגָגָה:
One who unwittingly throws an object from one domain to another or one who throws an object four cubits within the public domain, and after the object left his hand he remembered that he is in violation of a prohibition, if another caught it, or if a dog caught it, or if it was burned, he is exempt. Similarly, if one threw a rock on Shabbat to inflict a wound on a person or on an animal, for which one is liable to bring a sin-offering, and he remembered that he was in violation of a prohibition before the wound was inflicted, he is exempt. This is the principle: All who are liable to bring sin-offerings are only liable if the beginning of their action and the conclusion of their action are unwitting. However, if the beginning of one’s action was unwitting and the conclusion was intentional, as he became aware that he was in violation of a prohibition, or if the beginning of one’s action was intentional and the conclusion was unwitting, the individuals in both of these cases are exempt until both the beginning and the conclusion are unwitting.