הַמַּצְנִיעַ לְזֶרַע וּלְדֻגְמָא וְלִרְפוּאָה, וְהוֹצִיאוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, חַיָּב בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. וְכָל אָדָם אֵין חַיָּב עָלָיו אֶלָּא כְשִׁעוּרוֹ. חָזַר וְהִכְנִיסוֹ, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עָלָיו אֶלָּא כְשִׁעוּרוֹ: One who stores a seed for sowing, or as a sample, or for medicinal purposes and carried it out on Shabbat is liable for carrying out any amount. By storing that measure, he indicates that it is significant to him. Therefore, he is liable for carrying it, despite the fact that what he carried out is less than the halakhic measure that determines liability for that item. And any other person is only liable for carrying it out on Shabbat if he carries out its measure for liability. If one stored the seed, carried it out, and then brought it back in, with no intention to utilize it for the specific purpose for which he stored it, he is only liable if he brought in its measure for liability (Rav Shmuel Strashun).
הַמּוֹצִיא אֳכָלִין וּנְתָנָן עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה, בֵּין שֶׁחָזַר וְהוֹצִיאָן בֵּין שֶׁהוֹצִיאָן אַחֵר, פָּטוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא עָשָׂה מְלַאכְתּוֹ בְּבַת אֶחָת. קֻפָּה שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה פֵרוֹת וּנְתָנָהּ עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה הַחִיצוֹנָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרֹב הַפֵּרוֹת מִבַּחוּץ, פָּטוּר, עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא אֶת כָּל הַקֻּפָּה: One who carries out food from his house on Shabbat and placed it on the threshold of the door, whether he then carried it out from the threshold into the public domain or another person carried it out, he is exempt because he did not perform his prohibited labor of carrying from domain to domain all at once. Similarly, if one placed a basket that is full of fruit on the outer threshold, which is in the public domain, and part of the basket remained inside, even though most of the fruit is outside in the public domain, he is exempt until he carries out the entire basket.
הַמּוֹצִיא בֵּין בִּימִינוֹ בֵּין בִּשְׂמֹאלוֹ, בְּתוֹךְ חֵיקוֹ אוֹ עַל כְּתֵפוֹ, חַיָּב, שֶׁכֵּן מַשָּׂא בְנֵי קְהָת. כִּלְאַחַר יָדוֹ, בְּרַגְלוֹ, בְּפִיו וּבְמַרְפְּקוֹ, בְּאָזְנוֹ וּבִשְׂעָרוֹ, וּבְפֻנְדָּתוֹ וּפִיהָ לְמַטָּה, בֵּין פֻּנְדָּתוֹ לַחֲלוּקוֹ, וּבִשְׂפַת חֲלוּקוֹ, בְּמִנְעָלוֹ, בְּסַנְדָּלוֹ, פָּטוּר, שֶׁלֹּא הוֹצִיא כְּדֶרֶךְ הַמּוֹצִיאִין: One who carries out an object into the public domain on Shabbat, whether he carried it out in his right hand or in his left hand, whether he carried it in his lap or on his shoulders, he is liable. All of these are typical methods of carrying out an object, as this was the method of carrying the sacred vessels of the Tabernacle employed by the sons of Kehat in the desert. All labors prohibited on Shabbat are derived from the Tabernacle, including the prohibited labor of carrying out from domain to domain. But one who carries an object out in an unusual, backhanded manner, or with his foot, or with his mouth, or with his elbow, with his ear, or with his hair, or with his belt [punda] whose opening faced downward, or between his belt and his cloak, or with the hem of his cloak, or with his shoe, or with his sandal, he is exempt because he did not carry it out in a manner typical of those who carry.
הַמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְהוֹצִיא לְפָנָיו וּבָא לוֹ לְאַחֲרָיו, פָּטוּר, לְאַחֲרָיו וּבָא לוֹ לְפָנָיו, חַיָּב. בֶּאֱמֶת אָמְרוּ, הָאִשָּׁה הַחוֹגֶרֶת בְּסִינָר בֵּין מִלְּפָנֶיהָ וּבֵין מִלְּאַחֲרֶיהָ חַיֶּבֶת, שֶׁכֵּן רָאוּי לִהְיוֹת חוֹזֵר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף מְקַבְּלֵי פִתְקִין: One who intends to carry out an object with the object before him, and as he was walking the object came to be carried behind him, is exempt. However, if he intended to carry it out behind him and it came to be carried before him, he is liable. In truth they said: A woman who girded herself in a pants-like sinar worn beneath the outer garments, whether she placed an object before her or behind her, and it came to be carried on the other side, she is liable, as it is common for the sinar to be reversed. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even those royal couriers, who receive notes [pittakin], carry those notes in their belts, and are not particular where on their belt they carry the notes (Rav Hai Gaon), are liable for carrying out the notes whether they carried them before them or behind them.
הַמּוֹצִיא כִכָּר לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, חַיָּב. הוֹצִיאוּהוּ שְׁנַיִם, פְּטוּרִין. לֹא יָכֹל אֶחָד לְהוֹצִיאוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוּהוּ שְׁנַיִם, חַיָּבִים. וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן פּוֹטֵר. הַמּוֹצִיא אֳכָלִין פָּחוֹת מִכַּשִּׁעוּר בִּכְלִי, פָּטוּר אַף עַל הַכְּלִי, שֶׁהַכְּלִי טְפֵלָה לוֹ. אֶת הַחַי בַּמִּטָּה, פָּטוּר אַף עַל הַמִּטָּה, שֶׁהַמִּטָּה טְפֵלָה לוֹ. אֶת הַמֵּת בַּמִּטָּה, חַיָּב. וְכֵן כַּזַּיִת מִן הַמֵּת וְכַזַּיִת מִן הַנְּבֵלָה וְכָעֲדָשָׁה מִן הַשֶּׁרֶץ, חַיָּב. וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן פּוֹטֵר: One who carries a large mass out to the public domain on Shabbat is liable. If two carried it out together, they are exempt because neither performed a complete prohibited labor. However, if one person is unable to carry it out alone, and therefore two people carried it out, they are liable. And Rabbi Shimon deems them exempt even in that case. One who carries out foods less than the measure that determines liability for carrying out food in a vessel on Shabbat is exempt, even for carrying out the vessel, because the vessel is secondary to the food inside it. Since one is not liable for carrying out the food, he is not liable for carrying out the vessel either. Similarly, one who carries out a living person on a bed is exempt, even for carrying out the bed, because the bed is secondary to the person. One who carries out a corpse on a bed is liable. And similarly, one who carries out an olive-bulk of a corpse, or an olive-bulk of an animal carcass, or a lentil-bulk of a creeping animal, which are the minimal measures of these items that transmit ritual impurity, is liable. And Rabbi Shimon deems him exempt. He holds that one is only liable for performing a prohibited labor for its own sake. One who carries out an object in order to bring it to its destination is liable. However, people carry out a corpse or an animal carcass only to be rid of them.
הַנּוֹטֵל צִפָּרְנָיו זוֹ בָזוֹ, אוֹ בְשִׁנָּיו, וְכֵן שְׂעָרוֹ, וְכֵן שְׂפָמוֹ, וְכֵן זְקָנוֹ, וְכֵן הַגּוֹדֶלֶת, וְכֵן הַכּוֹחֶלֶת, וְכֵן הַפּוֹקֶסֶת, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְחַיֵּב, וַחֲכָמִים אוֹסְרִין מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת. הַתּוֹלֵשׁ מֵעָצִיץ נָקוּב, חַיָּב, וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ נָקוּב, פָּטוּר. וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן פּוֹטֵר בָּזֶה וּבָזֶה: With regard to one who removes his fingernails with one another on Shabbat without scissors, or with his teeth, and the same is true with regard to one who removes his hair with his hands, and the same is true with regard to his mustache, and the same is true with regard to his beard, and the same is true with regard to a woman who braids her hair, and the same is true with regard to one who applies blue eye shadow, and the same is true with regard to one who applies blush, Rabbi Eliezer deems them all liable, as they each performed a labor prohibited by Torah law. And the Rabbis prohibited performing all of these actions due to rabbinic decree. None of the actions constitute prohibited labors. One who severs a leaf or a fruit from a plant growing in a perforated flowerpot on Shabbat is liable, as a plant in a flowerpot with holes in it has the legal status of a plant connected to the ground. Picking from it is prohibited due to reaping. And one who picks from an imperforated pot is exempt, but it is prohibited to do so ab initio. And Rabbi Shimon deems one who does so exempt in both this, the case of the perforated flowerpot, and that, the case of the imperforated flowerpot.