3ג׳
1 א

דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. זֶה בּוֹרֵר לוֹ אֶחָד וְזֶה בּוֹרֵר לוֹ אֶחָד, וּשְׁנֵיהֶן בּוֹרְרִין לָהֶן עוֹד אֶחָד, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, שְׁנֵי דַיָּנִין בּוֹרְרִין לָהֶן עוֹד אֶחָד. זֶה פּוֹסֵל דַּיָּנוֹ שֶׁל זֶה וְזֶה פּוֹסֵל דַּיָּנוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁמֵּבִיא עֲלֵיהֶן רְאָיָה שֶׁהֵן קְרוֹבִין אוֹ פְסוּלִין, אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ כְשֵׁרִים אוֹ מֻמְחִין, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְפָסְלָן. זֶה פּוֹסֵל עֵדָיו שֶׁל זֶה וְזֶה פּוֹסֵל עֵדָיו שֶׁל זֶה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא מֵבִיא עֲלֵיהֶם רְאָיָה שֶׁהֵן קְרוֹבִים אוֹ פְסוּלִים. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ כְשֵׁרִים, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְפָסְלָן:

Monetary cases [are judged] by three [judges]. One [litigant] selects one and the other selects one, and both select the additional one, these are the words of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say, the two judges choose the additional one. One [litigant] invalidates the judge of the other, and the other invalidates the judge of the one, these are the words of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say, when [may one party invalidate the judge selected by the other]? Only when evidence is brought that they are related [to the litigant] or otherwise invalid [may they be invalidated], but if they are acceptable or expert, they cannot be invalidated. One [litigant] invalidates the witness of the other, and the other invalidates the witness of the one, these are the words of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say, when [may one party invalidate the witness of the other]? Only when evidence is brought that they are related [to the litigant] or otherwise invalid [may they be invalidated], but if they are acceptable, they cannot be invalidated.

2 ב

אָמַר לוֹ נֶאֱמָן עָלַי אַבָּא, נֶאֱמָן עָלַי אָבִיךָ, נֶאֱמָנִין עָלַי שְׁלֹשָׁה רוֹעֵי בָקָר, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר בּוֹ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר בּוֹ. הָיָה חַיָּב לַחֲבֵרוֹ שְׁבוּעָה וְאָמַר לוֹ דּוֹר לִי בְחַיֵּי רֹאשְׁךָ, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר בּוֹ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר בּוֹ:

If one says to another: "My father is trustworthy to me," or, "Your father is trustworthy to me," or, "Three herdsmen are trustworthy to me," Rabbi Meir says he may retract his statement. But the Sages say he may not retract. If one [litigant] were obligated to take an oath to the [other litigant] and said to him, "Vow to me by the life of your head," Rabbi Meir says he may retract his statement. But the Sages say he may not retract.

3 ג

וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַפְּסוּלִין, הַמְשַׂחֵק בְּקֻבְיָא, וְהַמַּלְוֶה בְרִבִּית, וּמַפְרִיחֵי יוֹנִים, וְסוֹחֲרֵי שְׁבִיעִית. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, בִּתְחִלָּה הָיוּ קוֹרִין אוֹתָן אוֹסְפֵי שְׁבִיעִית, מִשֶּׁרַבּוּ הָאַנָּסִין, חָזְרוּ לִקְרוֹתָן סוֹחֲרֵי שְׁבִיעִית. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם אֻמָּנוּת אֶלָּא הִיא, אֲבָל יֵשׁ לָהֶן אֻמָּנוּת שֶׁלֹּא הִיא, כְּשֵׁרִין:

These are invalid: dice-players, usurers, pigeon-flyers, and sellers of Sabbatical goods. Rabbi Shimon says, previously they were called gatherers of Sabbatical goods, but because of tax-collectors, they became known as sellers of Sabbatical goods. Rabbi Yehudah says, when [are these invalid]? When they have no other trade; but when they have another trade, they are acceptable.

4 ד

וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַקְּרוֹבִין, אָבִיו וְאָחִיו וַאֲחִי אָבִיו וַאֲחִי אִמּוֹ וּבַעַל אֲחוֹתוֹ וּבַעַל אֲחוֹת אָבִיו וּבַעַל אֲחוֹת אִמּוֹ וּבַעַל אִמּוֹ וְחָמִיו וְגִיסוֹ, הֵן וּבְנֵיהֶן וְחַתְנֵיהֶן, וְחוֹרְגוֹ לְבַדּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, זוֹ מִשְׁנַת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. אֲבָל מִשְׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, דּוֹדוֹ וּבֶן דּוֹדוֹ. וְכָל הָרָאוּי לְיָרְשׁוֹ, וְכָל הַקָּרוֹב לוֹ בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה. הָיָה קָרוֹב וְנִתְרַחֵק, הֲרֵי זֶה כָּשֵׁר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ מֵתָה בִתּוֹ וְיֶשׁ לוֹ בָנִים מִמֶּנָּה, הֲרֵי זֶה קָרוֹב:

And these are the relatives [disqualified from testifying or judging]: his father, his brother, his father's brother, his mother's brother, his sister's husband, his father's sister's husband, his mother's sister's husband, his step-father, his father-in-law, and his brother-in-law [his wife's sister's husband], these and their sons and sons-in-law; and his step-son alone. Rabbi Yose said, this is the teaching of Rabbi Akiva. But the original teaching [said]: his uncle, and the son of his uncle, all his potential heirs, and anyone related to him at that time. One who used to be related to him but is no longer- behold, he is acceptable. Rabbi Yehudah says, even if his daughter dies, and [his son-in-law] had children with her- behold, [the daughter's widowed husband] is a relation.

5 ה

הָאוֹהֵב וְהַשּׂוֹנֵא. אוֹהֵב, זֶה שׁוּשְׁבִינוֹ. שׂוֹנֵא, כָּל שֶׁלֹּא דִבֶּר עִמּוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים בְּאֵיבָה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא נֶחְשְׁדוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל כָּךְ:

[These are also invalid]: the friend and the enemy. The friend, this is a groomsman. The enemy, this is anyone who has not spoken with [the litigant] for three days from hatred. [The Sages] said to him: Israel is not suspected of this.

6 ו

כֵּיצַד בּוֹדְקִים אֶת הָעֵדִים, הָיוּ מַכְנִיסִין אוֹתָן וּמְאַיְּמִין עֲלֵיהֶן וּמוֹצִיאִין אֶת כָּל הָאָדָם לַחוּץ, וּמְשַׁיְּרִין אֶת הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּהֶן, וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ אֱמֹר הֵיאַךְ אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁזֶּה חַיָּב לָזֶה. אִם אָמַר, הוּא אָמַר לִי שֶׁאֲנִי חַיָּב לוֹ, אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי אָמַר לִי שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לוֹ, לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם, עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר, בְּפָנֵינוּ הוֹדָה לוֹ שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לוֹ מָאתַיִם זוּז. וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַכְנִיסִין אֶת הַשֵּׁנִי וּבוֹדְקִים אוֹתוֹ. אִם נִמְצְאוּ דִבְרֵיהֶם מְכֻוָּנִים, נוֹשְׂאִין וְנוֹתְנִין בַּדָּבָר. שְׁנַיִם אוֹמְרִים זַכַּאי, וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר חַיָּב, זַכַּאי. שְׁנַיִם אוֹמְרִים חַיָּב, וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר זַכַּאי, חַיָּב. אֶחָד אוֹמֵר זַכַּאי, וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר חַיָּב, וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁנַיִם מְזַכִּין אוֹ שְׁנַיִם מְחַיְּבִין וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ, יוֹסִיפוּ הַדַּיָּנִין:

How do they examine the witnesses? They would bring them in and instill fear in them. Then they would send every man outside, but keep the eldest among them and say to him: "Say how you know that the one owes the other." If he says, "He told me, 'I owe him,'" or, "So-and-so told me that he owes him" - this means nothing. Only if he says, "In front of us, he told him that he owes him two hundred zuz" [is his testimony meaningful]. After this, they would bring in the second [witness] and examine him. If they find that their words are aligned, [the judges] deliberate on the matter. [If] two say innocent and one says guilty, [the verdict is] innocent. Two say guilty and one says innocent, [the verdict is] guilty. One says innocent and one says guilty, or even if the two acquit or the two convict and one says he does not know, they add [more] judges.

7 ז

גָּמְרוּ אֶת הַדָּבָר, הָיוּ מַכְנִיסִין אוֹתָן. הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבַּדַּיָּנִים אוֹמֵר, אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי אַתָּה זַכַּאי, אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי אַתָּה חַיָּב. וּמִנַּיִן לִכְשֶׁיֵּצֵא אֶחָד מִן הַדַּיָּנִים לֹא יֹאמַר אֲנִי מְזַכֶּה וַחֲבֵרַי מְחַיְּבִין אֲבָל מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה שֶׁחֲבֵרַי רַבּוּ עָלָי, עַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר לֹא תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּךָ (ויקרא יט), וְאוֹמֵר הוֹלֵךְ רָכִיל מְגַלֶּה סּוֹד (משלי יא):

When the matter is finished, they bring in [the litigants]. The greatest of the judges says, "So-and-so, you are innocent," or, "So-and-so, you are guilty." And from where [do we derive that] when one of the judges leaves he may not say, "I acquitted him and my fellows convicted him, but what was I to do, as my fellows were in the majority." Regarding this it is said, "Do not go about as a talebearer among your people," (Leviticus 19:16) and it says, "He who gossips reveals secrets." (Proverbs 11:13)

8 ח

כָּל זְמַן שֶׁמֵּבִיא רְאָיָה, סוֹתֵר אֶת הַדִּין. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, כָּל רְאָיוֹת שֶׁיֶּשׁ לְךָ הָבֵא מִכָּאן עַד שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. מָצָא בְתוֹךְ שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם, סוֹתֵר. לְאַחַר שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם, אֵינוֹ סוֹתֵר. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, מַה יַּעֲשֶׂה זֶה שֶׁלֹּא מָצָא בְתוֹךְ שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמָצָא לְאַחַר שְׁלֹשִׁים. אָמְרוּ לוֹ הָבֵא עֵדִים וְאָמַר אֵין לִי עֵדִים, אָמְרוּ הָבֵא רְאָיָה וְאָמַר אֵין לִי רְאָיָה, וּלְאַחַר זְמָן הֵבִיא רְאָיָה וּמָצָא עֵדִים, הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ כְלוּם. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, מַה יַּעֲשֶׂה זֶה שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ עֵדִים וּמָצָא עֵדִים, לֹא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ רְאָיָה וּמָצָא רְאָיָה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ הָבֵא עֵדִים, אָמַר אֵין לִי עֵדִים, הָבֵא רְאָיָה וְאָמַר אֵין לִי רְאָיָה, רָאָה שֶׁמִּתְחַיֵּב בַּדִּין וְאָמַר קִרְבוּ פְּלוֹנִי וּפְלוֹנִי וְהַעִידוּנִי, אוֹ שֶׁהוֹצִיא רְאָיָה מִתּוֹךְ אֲפֻנְדָּתוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ כְלוּם:

Each time [a litigant] brings evidence [anew], he overturns the [previous] verdict. [If] they said to him: "All evidence that you have, bring it here within thirty days." If he finds [evidence] within thirty days, it overturns [the previous verdict]. After thirty days, it does not overturn. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said, what could he have done, for he did not find [evidence] within thirty days, but [only] after thirty days! [If] they said to him, "Bring witnesses," and he says, "I have no witnesses"; [or] they say to him, "Bring evidence," and he says, "I have no evidence"; and after a time he brings evidence or finds witnesses, behold this means nothing. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said, what could he have done, for he did not know that he had witnesses and [only later] found witnesses, [or] he did not know that he had evidence and [only later] found evidence! [If] they said to him, "Bring witnesses" and he says, "I have no witnesses"; or [they say,] "Bring evidence," and he says, "I have no evidence"; and he sees that he will be convicted and says, "Come near so-and-so and so-and-so, and testify for me," or he found evidence from his wallet, behold this means nothing.