אֵלּוּ הֵן הַנֶּחֱנָקִין, הַמַּכֶּה אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ, וְגוֹנֵב נֶפֶשׁ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, וְזָקֵן מַמְרֵא עַל פִּי בֵית דִּין, וּנְבִיא הַשֶּׁקֶר, וְהַמִּתְנַבֵּא בְּשֵׁם עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וְהַבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ, וְזוֹמְמֵי בַת כֹּהֵן וּבוֹעֲלָהּ. הַמַּכֶּה אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בָהֶן חַבּוּרָה. זֶה חֹמֶר בַּמְקַלֵּל מִבַּמַּכֶּה, שֶׁהַמְקַלֵּל לְאַחַר מִיתָה חַיָּב, וְהַמַּכֶּה לְאַחַר מִיתָה פָּטוּר. הַגּוֹנֵב נֶפֶשׁ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיַּכְנִיסֶנּוּ לִרְשׁוּתוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁיַּכְנִיסֶנּוּ לִרְשׁוּתוֹ וְיִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד) וְהִתְעַמֶּר בּוֹ וּמְכָרוֹ. הַגּוֹנֵב אֶת בְּנוֹ, רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּנוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָה מְחַיֵּב, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִין. גָּנַב מִי שֶׁחֶצְיוֹ עֶבֶד וְחֶצְיוֹ בֶן חוֹרִין, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מְחַיֵּב, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִין:
These are [executed by] strangulation: one who strikes his father or mother; one who kidnaps a Jew; a zaken mamre [an ordained scholar who instructs people to act against Jewish practice as determined and ratified by the full Sandherin sitting in its chambers in the Temple in Jerusalem] [who rebels] against [a ruling of] the court; a false prophet; one who prophesies in the name of an idol; an adulterer; and [witnesses] who scheme against a priest's daughter and the one who sleeps with her. One who strikes his father or mother—[he] is not liable unless he wounds them. This [law] is more severe with respect to one who curses [his parents] than to one who strikes [his parents]: one who curses after [their] death is liable, while one who strikes after [their] death is exempt. One who kidnaps a Jew—[he] is not liable until [the kidnapper] enters [the kidnapped] into his domain. Rabbi Yehudah says, until [the kidnapper] enters him into his domain and puts him to work [as a slave], as it says, (Deuteronomy 24:7) "and he deal with him as a slave, and sell him." One who kidnaps his [own] son, Rabbi Yishmael, the son of Rabbi Yochanan ben Beroka, maintains that he is liable; and the Sages maintain that he is exempt. One who kidnaps one who is half-slave and half-free, Rabbi Yehudah maintains that he is liable, and the Sages maintain that he is exempt.
זָקֵן מַמְרֵא עַל פִּי בֵית דִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם יז) כִּי יִפָּלֵא מִמְּךָ דָבָר לַמִּשְׁפָּט וְגוֹ'. שְׁלֹשָׁה בָתֵּי דִינִין הָיוּ שָׁם, אֶחָד יוֹשֵׁב עַל פֶּתַח הַר הַבַּיִת, וְאֶחָד יוֹשֵׁב עַל פֶּתַח הָעֲזָרָה, וְאֶחָד יוֹשֵׁב בְּלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית. בָּאִים לָזֶה שֶׁעַל פֶּתַח הַר הַבַּיִת, וְאוֹמֵר, כָּךְ דָּרַשְׁתִּי וְכָךְ דָּרְשׁוּ חֲבֵרָי, כָּךְ לִמַּדְתִּי וְכָךְ לִמְּדוּ חֲבֵרָי. אִם שָׁמְעוּ, אוֹמְרִים לָהֶם. וְאִם לָאו, בָּאִין לָהֶם לְאוֹתָן שֶׁעַל פֶּתַח הָעֲזָרָה, וְאוֹמֵר, כָּךְ דָּרַשְׁתִּי וְכָךְ דָּרְשׁוּ חֲבֵרָי, כָּךְ לִמַּדְתִּי וְכָךְ לִמְּדוּ חֲבֵרָי. אִם שָׁמְעוּ, אוֹמְרִים לָהֶם. וְאִם לָאו, אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ בָּאִים לְבֵית דִּין הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבְּלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית, שֶׁמִּמֶּנּוּ יוֹצֵאת תּוֹרָה לְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) מִן הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר ה'. חָזַר לְעִירוֹ וְשָׁנָה וְלִמֵּד כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לָמֵד, פָּטוּר. וְאִם הוֹרָה לַעֲשׂוֹת, חַיָּב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) וְהָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה בְזָדוֹן, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיּוֹרֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת. תַּלְמִיד שֶׁהוֹרָה לַעֲשׂוֹת, פָּטוּר, נִמְצָא חֻמְרוֹ קֻלּוֹ:
A zaken mamre [who rebels] against [a ruling of] the court—as it is written, (Deuteronomy 17:8) "If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, etc." There were three courts there, one sitting at the entrance of the Temple Mount, one sitting at the entrance of the Temple Courtyard, and one sitting at the Chamber of Hewn Stone. They come to the one at the entrance of the Temple Mount, and say, "Thus I have expounded and thus have my fellows expounded"; "Thus I have taught and thus have my fellows taught." If they heard [the teaching], they tell them. If not, they come to those at the entrance of the Temple Courtyard, and say, "Thus I have expounded and thus have my fellows expounded"; "Thus I have taught and thus have my fellows taught." If they heard [the teaching], they tell them. If not, they all come to The Great Court in the Chamber of Hewn Stone, from which Torah goes out to all of Israel, as it is says, (Deuteronomy 17:10) "from that place which the Lord shall choose." [If] he returned to his city and taught again the way he taught [previously], he is exempt. [But if] he ruled [for others] to act [in accordance with his deviant teaching], he is liable, as it says, (Deuteronomy 17:12) "and the man that doeth presumptuously": he is not liable until he rules [for others] to act [in accordance with his deviant teaching]. A student [of his] who rules [for others] to act [in accordance with his teacher's deviant teaching] is exempt; it results that his stringency [that his is not qualified to offer practical instruction] is his leniency [that he is exempt from punishment].
חֹמֶר בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מִבְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה, הָאוֹמֵר אֵין תְּפִלִּין, כְּדֵי לַעֲבֹר עַל דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, פָּטוּר. חֲמִשָּׁה טוֹטָפוֹת, לְהוֹסִיף עַל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, חַיָּב:
This [law] is more severe with respect to the words of the Sages than to the words of the Torah: One who says, there is no such thing as tefillin, in order to transgress the words of the Torah, is exempt. [But one who says] there are five compartments, [in tefillin] in order to add to the words of the Sages, is liable.
אֵין מְמִיתִין אוֹתוֹ לֹא בְבֵית דִּין שֶׁבְּעִירוֹ וְלֹא בְבֵית דִּין שֶׁבְּיַבְנֶה, אֶלָּא מַעֲלִין אוֹתוֹ לְבֵית דִּין הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, וּמְשַׁמְּרִין אוֹתוֹ עַד הָרֶגֶל וּמְמִיתִין אוֹתוֹ בָרֶגֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יז) וְכָל הָעָם יִשְׁמְעוּ וְיִרָאוּ וְלֹא יְזִידוּן עוֹד, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵין מְעַנִּין אֶת דִּינוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, אֶלָּא מְמִיתִין אוֹתוֹ מִיָּד, וְכוֹתְבִין וְשׁוֹלְחִין שְׁלוּחִים בְּכָל הַמְּקוֹמוֹת, אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי נִתְחַיֵּב מִיתָה בְּבֵית דִּין:
They do not execute him in his city's court or in the court at Yavneh; rather, they bring him up to the Great Court in Jerusalem, and they guard him until the festival, and they execute him on the festival, as it says, (Deuteronomy 17:13) "And all the people shall hear, and fear, and do no more presumptuously," according to Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yehudah says, they do not delay the judgment of this one; rather, they execute him immediately, and they write and send messengers to every place [with the following message]: "This man so-and-so son of that man so-and-so was liable to execution by the court.
נְבִיא הַשֶּׁקֶר הַמִּתְנַבֵּא עַל מַה שֶּׁלֹּא שָׁמַע וּמַה שֶּׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר לוֹ, מִיתָתוֹ בִידֵי אָדָם. אֲבָל הַכּוֹבֵשׁ אֶת נְבוּאָתוֹ, וְהַמְוַתֵּר עַל דִּבְרֵי נָבִיא, וְנָבִיא שֶׁעָבַר עַל דִּבְרֵי עַצְמוֹ, מִיתָתוֹ בִידֵי שָׁמַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם יח) אָנֹכִי אֶדְרשׁ מֵעִמּוֹ:
A false prophet— [one who] prophesies regarding that which he did not hear and that which was not said to him, his death is by man [i.e. the court is empowered to execute him]. But one who suppresses his prophecy, and one who disregards the words of a prophet, and a prophet who transgressed his own words, his death is by Heaven [i.e. the court is not empowered to execute him], as it says, (Deuteronomy 18:19) "I will require it of him."
הַמִּתְנַבֵּא בְשֵׁם עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְאוֹמֵר, כָּךְ אָמְרָה עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, אֲפִלּוּ כִוֵּן אֶת הַהֲלָכָה, לְטַמֵּא אֶת הַטָּמֵא וּלְטַהֵר אֶת הַטָּהוֹר. הַבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לִרְשׁוּת הַבַּעַל לַנִּשּׂוּאִין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִבְעֲלָה, הַבָּא עָלֶיהָ הֲרֵי זֶה בְחֶנֶק. וְזוֹמְמֵי בַת כֹּהֵן וּבוֹעֲלָהּ, שֶׁכָּל הַזּוֹמְמִין מַקְדִּימִין לְאוֹתָהּ מִיתָה, חוּץ מִזּוֹמְמֵי בַת כֹּהֵן וּבוֹעֲלָהּ:
One who prophesies in the name of an idol— [this is] one who says "thus said the idol," even if he directed his instruction to render the impure impure and the pure pure. An adulterer—once she has entered the domain of her husband through the full marriage ceremony, even though she has not had relations [with her husband], [another] who has relations with her is [executed] by strangulation. [Witnesses] who scheme against a priest's daughter and the one who has relations with her—since all scheming [witnesses] receive the same form of execution [as that incurred by the prohibition which they have schemed to falsely accuse another of transgressing], except for [witnesses] who scheme against a priest's daughter and the one who has relations with her.