3ג׳
1 א

רָאוּהוּ בֵית דִּין וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל, נֶחְקְרוּ הָעֵדִים, וְלֹא הִסְפִּיקוּ לוֹמַר מְקֻדָּשׁ, עַד שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה, הֲרֵי זֶה מְעֻבָּר. רָאוּהוּ בֵית דִּין בִּלְבַד, יַעַמְדוּ שְׁנַיִם וְיָעִידוּ בִפְנֵיהֶם, וְיֹאמְרוּ מְקֻדָּשׁ מְקֻדָּשׁ. רָאוּהוּ שְׁלשָׁה וְהֵן בֵּית דִּין, יַעַמְדוּ הַשְּׁנַיִם וְיוֹשִׁיבוּ מֵחַבְרֵיהֶם אֵצֶל הַיָּחִיד וְיָעִידוּ בִפְנֵיהֶם, וְיֹאמְרוּ מְקֻדָּשׁ מְקֻדָּשׁ, שֶׁאֵין הַיָּחִיד נֶאֱמָן עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ:

[Even in the case that] the court and all of Israel saw [the new moon], if [after] they examined the witnesses, they didn't have time to [declare it] 'dedicated' before it became dark; behold the month will be intercalary. If only the court saw it, two [of its members] must stand up and testify before [the others], and [the latter] will say, "Dedicated, dedicated." If [only] three, forming a court, saw it, two of them must stand up, and conjoin [two] of their fellow [scholars] with the single one, and testify before them, and [the latter] will say, "Dedicated, dedicated;" since an individual is not [qualified to wield the authority of the court] by himself.

2 ב

כָּל הַשּׁוֹפָרוֹת כְּשֵׁרִין חוּץ מִשֶּׁל פָּרָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא קֶרֶן. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, וַהֲלֹא כָל הַשּׁוֹפָרוֹת נִקְרְאוּ קֶרֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע ו), בִּמְשֹׁךְ בְּקֶרֶן הַיּוֹבֵל:

All shofars are fit [to be blown on Rosh Hashanah], except for that of a cow because it is [called] a horn [and not a shofar]. Rabbi Yose said, "But are not all shofars [also] called a horn, as it is stated (Joshua 6:5), 'upon a long blast from the ram’s horn'?”

3 ג

שׁוֹפָר שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁל יָעֵל, פָּשׁוּט, וּפִיו מְצֻפֶּה זָהָב, וּשְׁתֵּי חֲצוֹצְרוֹת מִן הַצְּדָדִין. שׁוֹפָר מַאֲרִיךְ וַחֲצוֹצְרוֹת מְקַצְּרוֹת, שֶׁמִּצְוַת הַיּוֹם בַּשּׁוֹפָר:

The shofar of Rosh Hashanah – is to be from an ibex, [and] straight. Its mouth is to be coated in gold, and there are to be two trumpets, [one] on each side [of it]. The shofar [blast] is to be long and the trumpet [blast] is to be short, since the commandment of the day is with a shofar.

4 ד

בַּתַּעֲנִיּוֹת, בְּשֶׁל זְכָרִים, כְּפוּפִין, וּפִיהֶן מְצֻפֶּה כֶסֶף, וּשְׁתֵּי חֲצוֹצְרוֹת בָּאֶמְצַע. שׁוֹפָר מְקַצֵּר וַחֲצוֹצְרוֹת מַאֲרִיכוֹת, שֶׁמִּצְוַת הַיּוֹם בַּחֲצוֹצְרוֹת:

On fast days, [the shofars used] are to be from male [rams, and] bent. Their mouths are to be coated in silver, and two trumpets are to be in the middle [of the shofars]. The shofar [blast] is to be short and the trumpet [blast] is to be long, since the commandment of the day is with trumpets.

5 ה

שָׁוֶה הַיּוֹבֵל לְרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לַתְּקִיעָה וְלַבְּרָכוֹת. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה תּוֹקְעִין בְּשֶׁל זְכָרִים, וּבַיּוֹבְלוֹת בְּשֶׁל יְעֵלִים:

The [proceedings on Yom Kippur of the] Jubilee year [are] equivalent to Rosh Hashanah with regard to blowings and blessings. Rabbi Yehuda says, "On Rosh Hashanah – we must blow with those of male [rams], and on the Jubilee – with those of ibexes."

6 ו

שׁוֹפָר שֶׁנִּסְדַּק וְדִבְּקוֹ, פָּסוּל. דִּבֵּק שִׁבְרֵי שׁוֹפָרוֹת, פָּסוּל. נִקַּב וּסְתָמוֹ, אִם מְעַכֵּב אֶת הַתְּקִיעָה, פָּסוּל. וְאִם לָאו, כָּשֵׁר:

If a shofar was cracked and one glued it, it is unfit. If one glued fragments of shofars, it is [also] unfit. If it was pierced and he sealed [the hole]; if [the hole] impedes the blast, it is unfit, but if not, it is fit.

7 ז

הַתּוֹקֵעַ לְתוֹךְ הַבּוֹר אוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַדּוּת אוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַפִּטָּס, אִם קוֹל שׁוֹפָר שָׁמַע, יָצָא. וְאִם קוֹל הֲבָרָה שָׁמַע, לֹא יָצָא. וְכֵן מִי שֶׁהָיָה עוֹבֵר אֲחוֹרֵי בֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה בֵיתוֹ סָמוּךְ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, וְשָׁמַע קוֹל שׁוֹפָר אוֹ קוֹל מְגִלָּה, אִם כִּוֵּן לִבּוֹ, יָצָא, וְאִם לָאו, לֹא יָצָא. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּה שָׁמַע וְזֶה שָׁמַע, זֶה כִּוֵּן לִבּוֹ וְזֶה לֹא כִוֵּן לִבּוֹ:

One who blows into a cistern, or into a cellar or into a barrel; if he heard the sound of the shofar, he has fulfilled [his obligation]; if he heard the sound of an echo, he has not fulfilled [his obligation]. And so [too], he who was passing behind a synagogue, or whose house was adjacent to a synagogue, and heard the sound of a shofar or the sound of [someone reading the] scroll [of Esther, on Purim]; if he [had intention for the commandment], he has fulfilled [his obligation], but if not, he has not fulfilled [his obligation]. Even though this one heard and that one heard, this one [had intention], and that one did not [have intention].

8 ח

וְהָיָה כַּאֲשֶׁר יָרִים משֶׁה יָדוֹ וְגָבַר יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגוֹ' (שמות יז), וְכִי יָדָיו שֶׁל משֶׁה עוֹשׂוֹת מִלְחָמָה אוֹ שׁוֹבְרוֹת מִלְחָמָה. אֶלָּא לוֹמַר לְךָ, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִסְתַּכְּלִים כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה וּמְשַׁעְבְּדִין אֶת לִבָּם לַאֲבִיהֶם שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם הָיוּ מִתְגַּבְּרִים. וְאִם לָאו, הָיוּ נוֹפְלִין. כַּיּוֹצֵא בַדָּבָר אַתָּה אוֹמֵר (במדבר כא), עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל נֵס, וְהָיָה כָּל הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי. וְכִי נָחָשׁ מֵמִית, אוֹ נָחָשׁ מְחַיֶּה. אֶלָּא, בִּזְמַן שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִסְתַּכְּלִין כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה וּמְשַׁעְבְּדִין אֶת לִבָּם לַאֲבִיהֶן שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם, הָיוּ מִתְרַפְּאִים, וְאִם לָאו, הָיוּ נִמּוֹקִים. חֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה, וְקָטָן, אֵין מוֹצִיאִין אֶת הָרַבִּים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב בַּדָּבָר, אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא אֶת הָרַבִּים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן:

“And so it was, when Moshe raised his hand, Israel prevailed…” (Exodus 17:11). And is it Moshe’s hands that make [success in] war or break [success in] war? Rather, [this comes to] tell you, [that] whenever Israel would look upward and subjugate their hearts to their Father in heaven, they would prevail; and if not, they would fall. Similar to this matter, you [can] say concerning the verse; “Make a [graven] snake and place it on a pole, and everyone bitten who sees it will live” (Numbers 21:8): And is it the snake that kills or [is it] the snake that [revives]? Rather, whenever Israel would look upward and subjugate their hearts to their Father in heaven, they would be healed; and if not, they would be harmed. A deaf-mute person, or a shoteh, or a minor, cannot relieve others from their obligation [for hearing the shofar they blew the shofar for them]. This is the general rule: all those who are not obligated to carry out a particular action, cannot release [others] from their obligation.