3ג׳
1 א

רָאוּהוּ בֵית דִּין וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל, נֶחְקְרוּ הָעֵדִים, וְלֹא הִסְפִּיקוּ לוֹמַר מְקֻדָּשׁ, עַד שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה, הֲרֵי זֶה מְעֻבָּר. רָאוּהוּ בֵית דִּין בִּלְבַד, יַעַמְדוּ שְׁנַיִם וְיָעִידוּ בִפְנֵיהֶם, וְיֹאמְרוּ מְקֻדָּשׁ מְקֻדָּשׁ. רָאוּהוּ שְׁלשָׁה וְהֵן בֵּית דִּין, יַעַמְדוּ הַשְּׁנַיִם וְיוֹשִׁיבוּ מֵחַבְרֵיהֶם אֵצֶל הַיָּחִיד וְיָעִידוּ בִפְנֵיהֶם, וְיֹאמְרוּ מְקֻדָּשׁ מְקֻדָּשׁ, שֶׁאֵין הַיָּחִיד נֶאֱמָן עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ:

If the court and all of Israel saw it, if the witnesses were examined and there was no time left to say “Sanctified” before it grew dark, then the month is impregnated (it has thirty days). If the court alone saw it, two of them should stand up and testify before them, and then they can say, “Sanctified, sanctified.” If three people saw it, and they [themselves] are the court, two [of them] should stand up and they should seat some of their colleagues with the one [remaining judge], and they [the two] should testify before them and they can then say, “Sanctified, sanctified.” For an individual is not trusted [to sanctify the new month] by himself.

2 ב

כָּל הַשּׁוֹפָרוֹת כְּשֵׁרִין חוּץ מִשֶּׁל פָּרָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא קֶרֶן. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, וַהֲלֹא כָל הַשּׁוֹפָרוֹת נִקְרְאוּ קֶרֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע ו), בִּמְשֹׁךְ בְּקֶרֶן הַיּוֹבֵל:

All shofars may be used except for that of a cow, because it is a keren. Rabbi Yose said: Are not all shofars called keren as it says, “When they make a long blast with the ram’s keren [horn]?” (Joshua 6:5).

3 ג

שׁוֹפָר שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁל יָעֵל, פָּשׁוּט, וּפִיו מְצֻפֶּה זָהָב, וּשְׁתֵּי חֲצוֹצְרוֹת מִן הַצְּדָדִין. שׁוֹפָר מַאֲרִיךְ וַחֲצוֹצְרוֹת מְקַצְּרוֹת, שֶׁמִּצְוַת הַיּוֹם בַּשּׁוֹפָר:

The shofar used on Rosh Hashanah was that of an ibex, straight, and its mouth was overlaid with gold. There were two trumpets, one on each side of it. The shofar gave a long blast and the trumpets a short one, since the commandment of the day was with the shofar.

4 ד

בַּתַּעֲנִיּוֹת, בְּשֶׁל זְכָרִים, כְּפוּפִין, וּפִיהֶן מְצֻפֶּה כֶסֶף, וּשְׁתֵּי חֲצוֹצְרוֹת בָּאֶמְצַע. שׁוֹפָר מְקַצֵּר וַחֲצוֹצְרוֹת מַאֲרִיכוֹת, שֶׁמִּצְוַת הַיּוֹם בַּחֲצוֹצְרוֹת:

On [public] fast days they used shofars of rams, curved, the mouths of which were covered with silver, and there were two trumpets in between them. A short blast was made with the shofars and a long one with the trumpets, because the mitzvah of the day is with trumpets.

5 ה

שָׁוֶה הַיּוֹבֵל לְרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה לַתְּקִיעָה וְלַבְּרָכוֹת. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה תּוֹקְעִין בְּשֶׁל זְכָרִים, וּבַיּוֹבְלוֹת בְּשֶׁל יְעֵלִים:

The Jubilee is the same as Rosh Hashanah when it comes to blowing [the shofar] and blessings. Rabbi Judah says: on Rosh Hashanah they blow with [a shofar of] rams and on Jubilees with [a shofar] of ibex.

6 ו

שׁוֹפָר שֶׁנִּסְדַּק וְדִבְּקוֹ, פָּסוּל. דִּבֵּק שִׁבְרֵי שׁוֹפָרוֹת, פָּסוּל. נִקַּב וּסְתָמוֹ, אִם מְעַכֵּב אֶת הַתְּקִיעָה, פָּסוּל. וְאִם לָאו, כָּשֵׁר:

A shofar which has split and then he stuck it together is not valid. If he stuck together fragments of shofars, it is not valid. If there was a hole in a shofar and he closed it up, if it interferes with the blowing it is not valid, but if it does not it is valid.

7 ז

הַתּוֹקֵעַ לְתוֹךְ הַבּוֹר אוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַדּוּת אוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַפִּטָּס, אִם קוֹל שׁוֹפָר שָׁמַע, יָצָא. וְאִם קוֹל הֲבָרָה שָׁמַע, לֹא יָצָא. וְכֵן מִי שֶׁהָיָה עוֹבֵר אֲחוֹרֵי בֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה בֵיתוֹ סָמוּךְ לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, וְשָׁמַע קוֹל שׁוֹפָר אוֹ קוֹל מְגִלָּה, אִם כִּוֵּן לִבּוֹ, יָצָא, וְאִם לָאו, לֹא יָצָא. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּה שָׁמַע וְזֶה שָׁמַע, זֶה כִּוֵּן לִבּוֹ וְזֶה לֹא כִוֵּן לִבּוֹ:

One who blows into a pit or a cistern or a jug, if he heard the sound of the shofar, he has fulfilled his obligation, but if he hears the echo [also], he has not fulfilled his obligation. And also one who was passing behind a synagogue or if his house was next to the synagogue and he heard the sound of the shofar or of the megillah [being read], if he directed his heart (had intention), then he has fulfilled his obligation, but if not he has not fulfilled his obligation. Even though this one heard and this one heard, this one directed his heart and this one did not.

8 ח

וְהָיָה כַּאֲשֶׁר יָרִים משֶׁה יָדוֹ וְגָבַר יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגוֹ' (שמות יז), וְכִי יָדָיו שֶׁל משֶׁה עוֹשׂוֹת מִלְחָמָה אוֹ שׁוֹבְרוֹת מִלְחָמָה. אֶלָּא לוֹמַר לְךָ, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִסְתַּכְּלִים כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה וּמְשַׁעְבְּדִין אֶת לִבָּם לַאֲבִיהֶם שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם הָיוּ מִתְגַּבְּרִים. וְאִם לָאו, הָיוּ נוֹפְלִין. כַּיּוֹצֵא בַדָּבָר אַתָּה אוֹמֵר (במדבר כא), עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל נֵס, וְהָיָה כָּל הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי. וְכִי נָחָשׁ מֵמִית, אוֹ נָחָשׁ מְחַיֶּה. אֶלָּא, בִּזְמַן שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִסְתַּכְּלִין כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה וּמְשַׁעְבְּדִין אֶת לִבָּם לַאֲבִיהֶן שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם, הָיוּ מִתְרַפְּאִים, וְאִם לָאו, הָיוּ נִמּוֹקִים. חֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה, וְקָטָן, אֵין מוֹצִיאִין אֶת הָרַבִּים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב בַּדָּבָר, אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא אֶת הָרַבִּים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן:

“And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand Israel prevailed” etc. (Exodus 17:1. Did the hands of Moses wage war or break [Israel’s ability] to wage war? Rather this teaches that as long as Israel would look upwards and subject their hearts to their Father in heaven they prevailed, and if not they fell. Similarly, “Make for yourself a fiery serpent and mount it on a pole. And if anyone who is bitten shall look at it, he shall live” (Numbers 21:8). Did the serpent kill or did the serpent keep alive? Rather, when Israel would look upwards and subject their hearts to their Father in heaven, they were healed, and if not their [flesh] would melt away. A deaf-mute, a lunatic and a minor cannot cause others to fulfill their religious obligation. This is the general principle: one who is not himself obligated in the matter cannot perform it on behalf of others.