אֵלּוּ עוֹבְרִין בְּפֶסַח, כֻּתָּח הַבַּבְלִי, וְשֵׁכָר הַמָּדִי, וְחֹמֶץ הָאֲדוֹמִי, וְזֵתוֹם הַמִּצְרִי, וְזוֹמָן שֶׁל צַבָּעִים, וַעֲמִילָן שֶׁל טַבָּחִים, וְקוֹלָן שֶׁל סוֹפְרִים. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אַף תַּכְשִׁיטֵי נָשִׁים. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל שֶׁהוּא מִמִּין דָּגָן, הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹבֵר בְּפֶסַח. הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בְאַזְהָרָה, וְאֵין בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם כָּרֵת:
And for possessing these one transgresses [overin] the prohibitions of: It shall not be seen, and: It shall not be found, on Passover, although not all of them are considered food: Babylonian kutaḥ, a dip with a sharp flavor that contains flour; Median beer; Edomite vinegar; Egyptian zitom, a type of beer; dyers’ broth [zoman]; bakers’ well-worked dough; and kolan of soferim. Rabbi Eliezer says: The same prohibition also applies to women’s adornments, i.e., cosmetics, that contain leaven. This is the principle: If one possesses any substance that is derived from a type of grain that became leavened, although it is not actually bread, one transgresses the prohibitions of: It shall not be seen, and: It shall not be found, on Passover. These substances are included in the warning, i.e., the biblical prohibition of possessing leaven, but there is no element of karet if one eats them.
בָּצֵק שֶׁבְּסִדְקֵי עֲרֵבָה, אִם יֵשׁ כַּזַּיִת בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד, חַיָּב לְבַעֵר. וְאִם לֹא, בָּטֵל בְּמִעוּטוֹ. וְכֵן לְעִנְיַן הַטֻּמְאָה, אִם מַקְפִּיד עָלָיו, חוֹצֵץ. וְאִם רוֹצֶה בְקִיּוּמוֹ, הֲרֵי הוּא כָעֲרֵבָה. בָּצֵק הַחֵרֵשׁ, אִם יֵשׁ כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ שֶׁהֶחֱמִיץ, הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר:
With regard to dough that is in the cracks of a kneading bowl, if there is an olive-bulk of dough in one place, one is obligated to remove it. And if the dough does not add up to this amount, it is nullified due to its insignificance. And similarly, with regard to the halakhot of immersion to purify the bowl from ritual impurity, if one is particular about the dough that is stuck in the cracks and he plans to remove it and use it, it is a foreign substance that interposes between the kneading bowl and the water of the ritual bath, and invalidates the immersion of the bowl, leaving it ritually impure. And if he wants the dough to remain in place, its status is like that of the kneading bowl itself and is not an interposition. Deaf dough is dough for which it is difficult to determine if it has been leavened. It is comparable to a deaf-mute, who cannot communicate. If there is dough similar to it in that water was added to both at the same time, which became leavened, the deaf dough is prohibited. Although it has not shown external signs of becoming leavened, it can be presumed that the deaf dough has also become leavened.
כֵּיצַד מַפְרִישִׁין חַלָּה בְטֻמְאָה בְיוֹם טוֹב, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, לֹא תִקְרָא לָהּ שֵׁם עַד שֶׁתֵּאָפֶה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן בְּתֵירָא אוֹמֵר, תַּטִּיל בְּצוֹנֵן. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, לֹא זֶה הוּא חָמֵץ שֶׁמֻּזְהָרִים עָלָיו בְּבַל יֵרָאֶה וּבְבַל יִמָּצֵא, אֶלָּא מַפְרַשְׁתָּהּ וּמַנַּחְתָּה עַד הָעֶרֶב, וְאִם הֶחֱמִיצָה, הֶחֱמִיצָה:
How does one separate ḥalla in ritual impurity during the Festival day of Passover? Ordinarily, one may separate ritually pure ḥalla from dough and give it to a priest immediately so that he may eat it. Ritually impure ḥalla is unfit for a priest and must be burned, yet it is prohibited to bake or burn anything that is not fit to be eaten during the Festival day. However, it is also prohibited to wait and burn it after the Festival day, since it will become leavened in the meantime. Rabbi Eliezer says: A woman should not designate it as ḥalla prior to baking; rather, she should refrain from doing so until it is baked. In other words, she should wait until she has baked all of the dough, and there is no risk of it becoming leavened. Only then should she separate ḥalla from it. The portion of ḥalla may then be kept until after the Festival day, when it may be burned. Ben Beteira says: She should separate the ḥalla before it is baked, and place the dough in cold water so that it will not become leavened. Rabbi Yehoshua said: This is not the leavened bread about which we are warned with the prohibitions: It shall not be seen, and: It shall not be found. These prohibitions do not apply because the ḥalla does not actually belong to the owner of the dough; it is instead considered to be consecrated property. Rather, she should separate the ḥalla and leave it until the evening; and if it becomes leavened, then it will become leavened, but this is of no concern.
רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, שָׁלֹשׁ נָשִׁים לָשׁוֹת כְּאַחַת וְאוֹפוֹת בְּתַנּוּר אֶחָד, זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, שָׁלֹשׁ נָשִׁים עוֹסְקוֹת בַּבָּצֵק, אַחַת לָשָׁה וְאַחַת עוֹרֶכֶת וְאַחַת אוֹפָה. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לֹא כָל הַנָּשִׁים וְלֹא כָל הָעֵצִים וְלֹא כָל הַתַּנּוּרִים שָׁוִין. זֶה הַכְּלָל, תָּפַח, תִּלְטֹשׁ בְּצוֹנֵן:
Rabban Gamliel says: Three women may knead their dough as one, meaning at one time, and bake the batches of dough in one oven, one after the other, and they need not be concerned that their dough will become leavened while they are waiting to use the oven. And the Rabbis say: Three women may be engaged in preparing dough as one, in the following manner: One kneads her dough as another one arranges her own dough so it takes the form of matza, while another one bakes her dough. Rabbi Akiva says: Not all women, not all wood, and not all ovens are the same, and therefore no set rules should be established. Rather, this is the principle: If the dough begins to rise, she should spread cold water in which she immersed her hands, onto the dough, in order to stop the leavening process.
שִׂאוּר, יִשָּׂרֵף, וְהָאוֹכְלוֹ פָטוּר. סָדוּק, יִשָּׂרֵף, וְהָאוֹכְלוֹ חַיָּב כָּרֵת. אֵיזֶהוּ שִׂאוּר, כְּקַרְנֵי חֲגָבִים. סָדוּק, שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ סְדָקָיו זֶה בָזֶה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, זֶה וָזֶה, הָאוֹכְלוֹ חַיָּב כָּרֵת. וְאֵיזֶהוּ שְׂאֹר, כָּל שֶׁהִכְסִיפוּ פָנָיו כְּאָדָם שֶׁעָמְדוּ שַׂעֲרוֹתָיו:
Dough at the beginning of the leavening process [siur], must be burned, but one who eats it is exempt from the punishment of karet because the dough had not become fully leavened. Dough that has reached the stage of cracking must be burned, and one who eats it intentionally is liable to receive karet, as he has intentionally eaten leavened bread during Passover. What is considered siur? Dough that has been leavened to the point that it has cracks that look like the antennae of locusts. The stage of cracking occurs later in the leavening process, when the cracks intermingle. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: One who intentionally eats either this or that, dough with cracks like locust antennae or with cracks that have become intermingled, is liable to receive karet, as once dough begins to crack it has certainly become leavened. And what is siur? It is any dough whose surface has becomes pale like the face of a person whose hair stands on end due to fear.
אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, מְבַעֲרִים אֶת הַכֹּל מִלִּפְנֵי הַשַּׁבָּת, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בִּזְמַנָּן. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר צָדוֹק אוֹמֵר, תְּרוּמָה מִלִּפְנֵי הַשַּׁבָּת, וְחֻלִּין בִּזְמַנָּן:
With regard to the fourteenth of Nisan that occurs on Shabbat, one removes all leaven from his possession, whether it is teruma or non-sacred food, before Shabbat, except for that which will be eaten during the first part of Shabbat. In that case, one cannot remove leaven from his possession on the fourteenth of Nisan itself as he does in other years. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: One may remove the leaven at its usual time on the fourteenth of Nisan by throwing it away or declaring it ownerless. Rabbi Eliezer bar Tzadok says: Teruma should be removed before Shabbat, as only a few people are permitted to eat it and therefore one can presume that it will remain uneaten during Shabbat. However, non-sacred foods should be removed at their usual time, on the fourteenth of Nisan itself.
הַהוֹלֵךְ לִשְׁחֹט אֶת פִּסְחוֹ, וְלָמוּל אֶת בְּנוֹ, וְלֶאֱכֹל סְעֻדַּת אֵרוּסִין בְּבֵית חָמִיו, וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ חָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ, אִם יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר וּלְבַעֵר וְלַחֲזֹר לְמִצְוָתוֹ, יַחֲזֹר וִיבַעֵר. וְאִם לָאו, מְבַטְּלוֹ בְלִבּוֹ. לְהַצִּיל מִן הַנָּכְרִים, וּמִן הַנָּהָר, וּמִן הַלִּסְטִים, וּמִן הַדְּלֵקָה, וּמִן הַמַּפֹּלֶת, יְבַטֵּל בְּלִבּוֹ. וְלִשְׁבֹּת שְׁבִיתַת הָרְשׁוּת, יַחֲזֹר מִיָּד:
One who is traveling on the eve of Passover to slaughter his Paschal lamb, to circumcise his son, or to eat a betrothal feast in his father-in-law’s house, and he remembers that he has leavened bread in his house, if he is able to return to his house and remove the leaven and afterward return to the mitzva toward which he was traveling, he should return home and remove his leaven. But if there is not enough time for him to go home and remove the leaven, and still complete the mitzva that he already began, he should nullify it in his heart, as by Torah law this is sufficient. If one was traveling to save Jews from an attack by gentiles, from a flooding river, from bandits, from a fire, or from a collapsed building, he should not even attempt to return, and instead he should nullify the leaven in his heart. This applies even if he could remove his leaven and still return to his previous activity. If he went to establish his Shabbat residence in order to adjust his Shabbat limit for an optional purpose, rather than in order to fulfill a commandment, he should return immediately to remove his leaven.
וְכֵן מִי שֶׁיָּצָא מִירוּשָׁלַיִם וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בְּיָדוֹ בְּשַׂר קֹדֶשׁ, אִם עָבַר צוֹפִים, שׂוֹרְפוֹ בִמְקוֹמוֹ. וְאִם לָאו, חוֹזֵר וְשׂוֹרְפוֹ לִפְנֵי הַבִּירָה מֵעֲצֵי הַמַּעֲרָכָה. וְעַד כַּמָּה הֵן חוֹזְרִין, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, זֶה וָזֶה בְכַבֵּיצָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, זֶה וָזֶה בְכַזָּיִת. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בְּשַׂר קֹדֶשׁ בְּכַזַּיִת, וְחָמֵץ בְּכַבֵּיצָה:
And so too, the same halakha applies to one who left Jerusalem and remembered that there was consecrated meat in his hand. Meat that is taken out of Jerusalem becomes disqualified, and one is required to burn it in proximity to the Temple. If he passed the area of Mount Scopus [Tzofim], beyond which one cannot see Jerusalem, he burns the meat at the site where he is located; and if he has not traveled that far, he must return and burn it before the Temple with wood from the arrangement on the altar, which was designated for burning consecrated items that were disqualified. The mishna asks: For how much leaven or consecrated meat is one required to return? Rabbi Meir says: In both this case and that case, one must return for an egg-bulk. Rabbi Yehuda says: In both this case and that case, one must return for an olive-bulk. And the Rabbis say that the amount depends on the case: With regard to consecrated meat, he is required to return if he has an olive-bulk, but in a case where he remembers that he has leavened bread, he required to return only for an egg-bulk.