7ז׳
1 א

כָּל זַיִת שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ שֵׁם בַּשָּׂדֶה, אֲפִלּוּ כְּזֵית הַנְּטוֹפָה בִּשְׁעָתוֹ, וּשְׁכָחוֹ, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בִּשְׁמוֹ וּבְמַעֲשָׂיו וּבִמְקוֹמוֹ. בִּשְׁמוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה שִׁפְכוֹנִי אוֹ בֵישָׁנִי. בְּמַעֲשָׂיו, שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה הַרְבֵּה. בִּמְקוֹמוֹ, שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בְּצַד הַגַּת אוֹ בְצַד הַפִּרְצָה. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַזֵּיתִים, שְׁנַיִם שִׁכְחָה, וּשְׁלשָׁה אֵינָן שִׁכְחָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אֵין שִׁכְחָה לַזֵּיתִים:

An olive tree that has a name in the field, even the olive tree of Netufah in its time, and he forgets it, it is not [subject to] Shikhechah [forgotten sheaves given to the poor]. Regarding what did they say this? Regarding [an olive tree] which is known for its name or for its produce or for its place. [What does]“For its name” [mean?]– that it was [called] Shifchuni ['The one which pours forth'] or Bayshuni ['The one which puts to shame']. "For its produce" --that it produces a great amount. “For its place” – that it stands near a wine press or near a hole [in a fence]. And for the rest of all the olive trees, if one forgets two, they are [subject to] Shikhechah, but if three, they are not [subject to] Shikhechah; Rabbi Yosi says: Olives are not [subject to] Shikhechah.

2 ב

זַיִת שֶׁנִּמְצָא עוֹמֵד בֵּין שָׁלשׁ שׁוּרוֹת שֶׁל שְׁנֵי מַלְבְּנִים וּשְׁכָחוֹ, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. זַיִת שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ סָאתַיִם, וּשְׁכָחוֹ, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בִּזְמַן שֶׁלֹּא הִתְחִיל בּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הִתְחִיל בּוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ כְּזֵית הַנְּטוֹפָה בִּשְׁעָתוֹ, וּשְׁכָחוֹ, יֶשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ תַחְתָּיו, יֶשׁ לוֹ בְרֹאשׁוֹ. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁתֵּלֵךְ הַמַּחֲבֵא:

An olive tree that stands between three rows of two rectangles [of grain], and one forgets it, it is not [subject to] Shikhechah. An olive tree that has two Seah [a specific unit of volume] [of olives remaining] in it, and he forgets it, it is not [subject to] Shikhechah. Regarding when did they say this? When he did not start [picking] it, but if he started, even the olive tree of Netufah in its time, and he forgets it, it is [subject to] Shikhechah. Any time that [the law of Shikhechah] applies under it [the tree], it applies at the top of it; Rabbi Meir says: This is only when the olive-beater has moved on.

3 ג

אֵיזֶהוּ פֶרֶט, הַנּוֹשֵׁר בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּצִירָה. הָיָה בוֹצֵר, עָקַץ אֶת הָאֶשְׁכּוֹל, הֻסְבַּךְ בֶּעָלִים, נָפַל מִיָּדוֹ לָאָרֶץ וְנִפְרַט, הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבָּיִת. הַמַּנִּיחַ אֶת הַכַּלְכָּלָה תַּחַת הַגֶּפֶן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא בוֹצֵר, הֲרֵי זֶה גּוֹזֵל אֶת הָעֲנִיִּים, עַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (משלי כב) אַל תַּסֵּג גְּבוּל עוֹלִים:

Which is Peret? That which falls at the time of the grape harvest. If one was harvesting grapes, and he was pricked by the cluster or was entangled in leaves, and [grapes] fell from his hand to the earth and were separated into single grapes, this belongs to the property owner. If one leaves a basket under the vine, at the time that he harvests grapes, he is stealing from the poor. Regarding this it is said, “Do not withdraw the border of those who go up [to glean].” (Proverbs 22:28)

4 ד

אֵיזוֹהִי עוֹלֶלֶת. כָּל שֶׁאֵין לָהּ לֹא כָתֵף וְלֹא נָטֵף. אִם יֶשׁ לָהּ כָּתֵף אוֹ נָטֵף, שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, אִם סָפֵק, לָעֲנִיִּים. עוֹלֶלֶת שֶׁבָּאַרְכֻּבָּה, אִם נִקְרֶצֶת עִם הָאֶשְׁכּוֹל, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, וְאִם לָאו, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁל עֲנִיִּים. גַּרְגֵּר יְחִידִי, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֶשְׁכּוֹל. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, עוֹלֶלֶת:

Which is Olelet? Any [cluster] that has neither a shoulder nor a dangling portion [but rather is entirely attached to the main stem]. If there is a shoulder or a dangling portion, it belongs to the property owner; if there is a doubt, it belongs to the poor. An Olelet that is attached to the knee [the joint between branches or the stem and the trunk] - if it is plucked with the grape cluster, indeed it belongs to the property owner; if not, indeed it belongs to the poor. A single grape - Rabbi Yehudah says: It is a cluster; the Sages say: It is an Olelet.

5 ה

הַמֵּדֵל בַּגְּפָנִים, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהוּא מֵדֵל בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ, כֵּן הוּא מֵדֵל בְּשֶׁל עֲנִיִּים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, בְּשֶׁלּוֹ הוּא רַשַּׁאי, וְאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי בְּשֶׁל עֲנִיִּים:

One who prunes the vines may prune the ones for the poor just as he prunes his own - [these are] the words of Rabbi Yehudah; Rabbi Meir says: He is permitted regarding his own, but he is not permitted regarding those of the poor.

6 ו

כֶּרֶם רְבָעִי, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אֵין לוֹ חֹמֶשׁ, וְאֵין לוֹ בִעוּר. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, יֶשׁ לוֹ. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, יֶשׁ לוֹ פֶרֶט וְיֶשׁ לוֹ עוֹלְלוֹת, וְהָעֲנִיִּים פּוֹדִין לְעַצְמָן. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, כֻּלּוֹ לַגַּת:

Kerem Revai [the fruit of a tree in the fourth year after its planting, which must be taken to Jerusalem and consumed there] - Beit Shammai says: It does not have a [penalty of a] fifth, and it does not have Bi'ur [requirement to remove from one’s premises, on the eve of Pesach in the fourth and seventh years of a Sabbatical cycle, those agricultural gifts which were not given to their intended recipients]; Beit Hillel says: It has [both]. Beit Shammai says: It has [the obligations of] Peret and Olelet, and the poor redeem it themselves; Beit Hillel says: It is all for the wine press.

7 ז

כֶּרֶם שֶׁכֻּלּוֹ עוֹלְלוֹת, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, לְבַעַל הַבָּיִת. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לָעֲנִיִּים. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, כִּי תִבְצֹר לֹא תְעוֹלֵל (דברים כד), אִם אֵין בָּצִיר, מִנַּיִן עוֹלְלוֹת. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תְעוֹלֵל (ויקרא יט), אֲפִלּוּ כֻלּוֹ עוֹלְלוֹת, אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר כִּי תִבְצֹר לֹא תְעוֹלֵל, אֵין לָעֲנִיִּים בָּעוֹלְלוֹת קֹדֶם הַבָּצִיר:

If a vineyard consists entirely of Olelot, Rabbi Eliezer says: It is for the property owner; Rabbi Akiva says: It is for the poor. Rabbi Eliezer said: "When you harvest, do not take the Olelot" (Deuteronomy 24:21) - If you do not harvest, where do the Olelet come from? Rabbi Akiva said to him: “[from] your vineyard do not take Olelot (Leviticus 19:10)", [do not take it] even if it is entirely Olelot. If so, why does it say "When you harvest, do not take the Olelot"? [to teach that] the poor have no [rights] in the Olelot before the harvest.”

8 ח

הַמַּקְדִּישׁ כַּרְמוֹ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נוֹדְעוּ בוֹ הָעוֹלְלוֹת, אֵין הָעוֹלְלוֹת לָעֲנִיִּים. מִשֶּׁנּוֹדְעוּ בוֹ הָעוֹלְלוֹת, הָעוֹלְלוֹת לָעֲנִיִּים. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, יִתְּנוּ שְׂכַר גִּדּוּלָיו לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ. אֵיזֶה הִיא שִׁכְחָה בֶּעָרִיס, כָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדוֹ וְלִטְּלָהּ, וּבְרֹגְלִיּוֹת, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲבֹר הֵימֶנָּה:

One who dedicates his vineyard before the Olelot were discernible, the Olelot are not for the poor; after the Olelot were discernible, the Olelot are for the poor. Rabbi Yosi says: They give the value of the [added] growth [after dedication] to the Temple treasury. What is considered Shikcha on a trellis? Anything that he [i.e. the harvester] is unable to take by stretching back his arm. And on runners? When he moves on from it.