Mishnah Parah
1א׳
1 א

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, עֶגְלָה, בַּת שְׁנָתָהּ. וּפָרָה, בַּת שְׁתַּיִם. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, עֶגְלָה, בַּת שְׁתַּיִם. וּפָרָה, בַּת שָׁלשׁ אוֹ בַת אַרְבַּע. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אַף בַּת חָמֵשׁ. כְּשֵׁרָה הַזְּקֵנָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין מַמְתִּינִין לָהּ, שֶׁמָּא תַשְׁחִיר, שֶׁלֹּא תִפָּסֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, לֹא שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶלָּא שְׁלָשִׁית. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מַה הַלָּשׁוֹן שְׁלָשִׁית. אָמַר לָהֶם, כָּךְ שָׁמַעְתִּי סְתָם. אָמַר בֶּן עַזַּאי, אֲנִי אֲפָרֵשׁ. אִם אוֹמֵר אַתָּה, שְׁלִישִׁית, לַאֲחֵרוֹת בְּמִנְיָן. וּכְשֶׁאַתָּה אוֹמֵר, שְׁלָשִׁית, בַּת שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים. כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ אָמְרוּ, כֶּרֶם רְבָעִי. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מַה הַלָּשׁוֹן רְבָעִי. אָמַר לָהֶם, כָּךְ שָׁמַעְתִּי סְתָם. אָמַר בֶּן עַזַּאי, אֲנִי אֲפָרֵשׁ. אִם אוֹמֵר אַתָּה, רְבִיעִי, לַאֲחֵרִים בְּמִנְיָן. וּכְשֶׁאַתָּה אוֹמֵר, רְבָעִי, בֶּן אַרְבַּע שָׁנִים. כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ אָמְרוּ, הָאוֹכֵל בְּבַיִת הַמְנֻגָּע פְּרָס, מִשָּׁלשׁ לְקָב. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֱמֹר מִשְּׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה לִסְאָה. אָמַר לָהֶם, כָּךְ שָׁמַעְתִּי סְתָם. אָמַר בֶּן עַזַּאי, אֲנִי אֲפָרֵשׁ. אִם אוֹמֵר אַתָּה מִשָּׁלשׁ לְקָב, אֵין בּוֹ חַלָּה. וּכְשֶׁאַתָּה אוֹמֵר, מִשְּׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה לִסְאָה, מִעֲטַתּוּ חַלָּתוֹ:

Rabbi Eliezer says: the heifer is no more than one year old and the cow no more than two years old. But the sages ruled: the heifer may be even two years old and the red cow even three or four years old. Rabbi Meir says: even five years old, though she is old. But they did not wait with it so long since it might in the meantime grow some black hairs and [thus] become invalid. Rabbi Joshua said: I only heard of [a cow] that was three years old [shelashit]. They said to him: What does "shelashit" mean? He replied: thus have I heard it without any explanation. Ben Azzai said: I will explain: if you say "shelishit" the meaning is ‘the third’ in number to others, but when you say "shelashit" the meaning is one that is three years old. Similarly they said a vineyard that is "revai." They said to him: what does "revai" mean? He replied: thus have I heard it without any explanation. Ben Azzai said: I will explain: if you say "revii" the meaning is the fourth in number to others, but when you say "revai" the meaning is one that is four years old. Similarly it was ruled: if a man ate in an afflicted house half a loaf, three of which can be made from a kav, he becomes unclean. They said to him: say rather "eighteen of which are made of a se'ah." He replied: thus have I heard it without any explanation. Ben Azzai said: I will explain: when you say, three of which are made of a kav it would not contain hallah, but if you say, eighteen of which are made of a se'ah, it has been reduced by its hallah.

2 ב

רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, פָּרִים, בְּנֵי שְׁתַּיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ח), וּפַר שֵׁנִי בֶן בָּקָר תִּקַּח לְחַטָּאת. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אַף בְּנֵי שָׁלשׁ. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אַף בְּנֵי אַרְבַּע וּבְנֵי חָמֵשׁ כְּשֵׁרִים, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין מְבִיאִים זְקֵנִים, מִפְּנֵי הַכָּבוֹד:

Rabbi Yose the Galilean said: bulls must be no more than two years old, for it is said, "And the second bull you shall take for a sin-offering" (Numbers 8:8). But the sages say: they may be even three years old. Rabbi Meir says: even those that are four or five years old are valid, but old animals are not brought out of respect.

3 ג

כְּבָשִׂים, בְּנֵי שָׁנָה. וְאֵילִים, בְּנֵי שְׁתַּיִם. וְכֻלָּם מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם. בֶּן שְׁלשָׁה עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ אֵינוֹ כָשֵׁר לֹא לְאַיִל וְלֹא לְכֶבֶשׂ. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן קוֹרֵהוּ פַּלְגָּס. בֶּן עַזַּאי קוֹרֵהוּ נוֹקֵד. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל קוֹרֵהוּ פַּרְכָדִיגְמָא. הִקְרִיבוֹ, מֵבִיא עָלָיו נִסְכֵּי אַיִל, וְלֹא עָלָה לוֹ מִזִּבְחוֹ. בֶּן שְׁלשָׁה עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ וְיוֹם אֶחָד, הֲרֵי זֶה אָיִל:

Lambs no more than one year old, And rams no more than two years old. And all these years are reckoned from day to day. One that is thirteen months old is not valid, neither as a ram nor as a lamb. Rabbi Tarfon called it palges. Ben Azzai called it noked. Rabbi Ishmael called it parakhrigma. If a man offered it he must bring for it the libation of a ram, but it is not counted as his offering. One that is thirteen months old behold it is a ram.

4 ד

חַטֹּאת הַצִּבּוּר וְעוֹלוֹתֵיהֶן, חַטַּאת הַיָּחִיד וַאֲשַׁם נָזִיר וַאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע, כְּשֵׁרִין מִיּוֹם שְׁלשִׁים וָהָלְאָה, וְאַף בְּיוֹם שְׁלשִׁים. וְאִם הִקְרִיבוּם בְּיוֹם שְׁמִינִי, כְּשֵׁרִים. נְדָרִים וּנְדָבוֹת, הַבְּכוֹר וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְהַפֶּסַח, כְּשֵׁרִים מִיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי וָהָלְאָה, וְאַף בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי:

The sin-offerings of the congregation and their burnt-offerings, the sin-offering of an individual, the guilt-offering of a nazirite and the guilt-offering of a metzora are valid from the thirtieth day onwards, and also on the thirtieth day. If they were offered on the eighth day they are valid. Vow-offerings and freewill-offerings, firstlings and the tithe of cattle and the pesach are valid from the eighth day onwards, and also on the eighth day.