Mishnah Parah
1א׳
1 א

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, עֶגְלָה, בַּת שְׁנָתָהּ. וּפָרָה, בַּת שְׁתַּיִם. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, עֶגְלָה, בַּת שְׁתַּיִם. וּפָרָה, בַּת שָׁלשׁ אוֹ בַת אַרְבַּע. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אַף בַּת חָמֵשׁ. כְּשֵׁרָה הַזְּקֵנָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין מַמְתִּינִין לָהּ, שֶׁמָּא תַשְׁחִיר, שֶׁלֹּא תִפָּסֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, לֹא שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶלָּא שְׁלָשִׁית. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מַה הַלָּשׁוֹן שְׁלָשִׁית. אָמַר לָהֶם, כָּךְ שָׁמַעְתִּי סְתָם. אָמַר בֶּן עַזַּאי, אֲנִי אֲפָרֵשׁ. אִם אוֹמֵר אַתָּה, שְׁלִישִׁית, לַאֲחֵרוֹת בְּמִנְיָן. וּכְשֶׁאַתָּה אוֹמֵר, שְׁלָשִׁית, בַּת שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים. כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ אָמְרוּ, כֶּרֶם רְבָעִי. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מַה הַלָּשׁוֹן רְבָעִי. אָמַר לָהֶם, כָּךְ שָׁמַעְתִּי סְתָם. אָמַר בֶּן עַזַּאי, אֲנִי אֲפָרֵשׁ. אִם אוֹמֵר אַתָּה, רְבִיעִי, לַאֲחֵרִים בְּמִנְיָן. וּכְשֶׁאַתָּה אוֹמֵר, רְבָעִי, בֶּן אַרְבַּע שָׁנִים. כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ אָמְרוּ, הָאוֹכֵל בְּבַיִת הַמְנֻגָּע פְּרָס, מִשָּׁלשׁ לְקָב. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֱמֹר מִשְּׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה לִסְאָה. אָמַר לָהֶם, כָּךְ שָׁמַעְתִּי סְתָם. אָמַר בֶּן עַזַּאי, אֲנִי אֲפָרֵשׁ. אִם אוֹמֵר אַתָּה מִשָּׁלשׁ לְקָב, אֵין בּוֹ חַלָּה. וּכְשֶׁאַתָּה אוֹמֵר, מִשְּׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה לִסְאָה, מִעֲטַתּוּ חַלָּתוֹ:

Rabbi Eliezer says: A calf [as referred to in the Torah] is a year old, and a cow is two years old. And the Sages say: a calf is two year old, and a cow is three or four. Rabbi Meir says: Even a five year old, an elderly one, is valid [for use in the purification ritual of the red heifer] but we don't wait for it [to age] lest it develop black hairs, so it does not become invalid. Rabbi Yehoshua says: I have only heard about a shelashit [i.e. three years old]. They said to him: What is the meaning of the language shelashit? He said to them: So I heard it, unelaborated. Ben Azzai said: I shall explain. If the language was shelishit [literally: third], then [it means] the third in number [i.e. the third calf born]; but since the language was shelashit, then [it means] three years old. They spoke similarly regarding a revai vineyard [the fruit of vines and trees in the fourth year after their planting. This produce, or its redemption value, must be taken up to Jerusalem and consumed there in ritual purity.]. They said to him: What is the language of revai? He said to them: So I heard it, unelaborated. Ben Azzai said: I shall explain. If the language was revi'i [literally: fourth], then [it means] the fourth relative to others in number [i.e. the fourth vineyard which a man owns]; but since the language is revai, then [it means] four years old. Similarly they said: One [becomes impure] if he eats in a blighted house half a loaf, when there are three [loaves] to a kav [volume measure, equals 4 log, ⅙ se’ah]. They said to him: [Instead] say 'when there are eighteen [loaves] to a se'ah' [measure of volume, equals 6 kav]! He said to them: So I heard it, unelaborated. Ben Azzai said: I shall explain. If you say 'when there are three [loaves] to a kav,' that is without its challah [a portion of a batch of bread dough given to a Kohen which becomes holy upon separation, and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their household] removed. But when you say 'when there are eighteen [loaves] to a se'ah', that is with its challah removed.

2 ב

רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, פָּרִים, בְּנֵי שְׁתַּיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ח), וּפַר שֵׁנִי בֶן בָּקָר תִּקַּח לְחַטָּאת. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אַף בְּנֵי שָׁלשׁ. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אַף בְּנֵי אַרְבַּע וּבְנֵי חָמֵשׁ כְּשֵׁרִים, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין מְבִיאִים זְקֵנִים, מִפְּנֵי הַכָּבוֹד:

Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: Bulls [as referred to in the Torah], are two years old, as it says (Numbers 8): And a second bull the son of a bovine you will take for a sin offering. And the Sages say: Even three years old. Rabbi Meir says: Even four years old and five years old are acceptable, but older ones are not brought, as a matter of respect.

3 ג

כְּבָשִׂים, בְּנֵי שָׁנָה. וְאֵילִים, בְּנֵי שְׁתַּיִם. וְכֻלָּם מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם. בֶּן שְׁלשָׁה עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ אֵינוֹ כָשֵׁר לֹא לְאַיִל וְלֹא לְכֶבֶשׂ. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן קוֹרֵהוּ פַּלְגָּס. בֶּן עַזַּאי קוֹרֵהוּ נוֹקֵד. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל קוֹרֵהוּ פַּרְכָדִיגְמָא. הִקְרִיבוֹ, מֵבִיא עָלָיו נִסְכֵּי אַיִל, וְלֹא עָלָה לוֹ מִזִּבְחוֹ. בֶּן שְׁלשָׁה עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ וְיוֹם אֶחָד, הֲרֵי זֶה אָיִל:

Sheep [as referred to in the Torah] are one year old. And Rams [refers to ones who] are two years old. And all of them [are counted] from day to day [i.e. their years are counted from the day of their birth]. At thirteen months old niether a ram nor a sheep is valid [as a sacrifice]. R' Tarfon called it a "pleg'es." Ben Azzai called it a "nokad." R' Yishmael called it a "parchadigma." If it was offered, they bring with it wine libations of a ram and it doesn't count to the alter [i.e. to fulfill any obligations]. At thirteen months and one day it is considered a ram.

4 ד

חַטֹּאת הַצִּבּוּר וְעוֹלוֹתֵיהֶן, חַטַּאת הַיָּחִיד וַאֲשַׁם נָזִיר וַאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע, כְּשֵׁרִין מִיּוֹם שְׁלשִׁים וָהָלְאָה, וְאַף בְּיוֹם שְׁלשִׁים. וְאִם הִקְרִיבוּם בְּיוֹם שְׁמִינִי, כְּשֵׁרִים. נְדָרִים וּנְדָבוֹת, הַבְּכוֹר וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְהַפֶּסַח, כְּשֵׁרִים מִיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי וָהָלְאָה, וְאַף בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי:

Communal sin offerings and elevation offerings, individual sin offerings, the guilt offering of a nazirite and the guilt offering of a metzorah [one afflicted with a skin illness], these are valid from thirty days [since the animal's birth] and onward, and even on the thirtieth day. If they one brought them on the eighth day, they are valid. Vowed and voluntary offerings, the first born animal, the tithe, and the Passover sacrifice are valid from the eighth day and onward, and even on the eighth day.