Mishnah Orlah
1א׳
1 א

הַנּוֹטֵעַ לִסְיָג וּלְקוֹרוֹת, פָּטוּר מִן הָעָרְלָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ אָמַר הַפְּנִימִי לְמַאֲכָל וְהַחִיצוֹן לִסְיָג, הַפְּנִימִי חַיָּב, וְהַחִיצוֹן פָּטוּר:

One who plants [a fruit tree] as a fence or to provide wood beams, it is exempt from [the law of] orlah. Rabbi Yose says: even if he said “The inward [facing part of the tree] is for food, and the outward [facing part] is for a fence,” the inward [facing part] is subject [to orlah], and the outward [facing part] is exempt.

2 ב

עֵת שֶׁבָּאוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ לָאָרֶץ, מָצְאוּ נָטוּעַ, פָּטוּר. נָטְעוּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא כִבְּשׁוּ, חַיָּב. הַנּוֹטֵעַ לָרַבִּים, חַיָּב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה פּוֹטֵר. הַנּוֹטֵעַ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְהַנָּכְרִי שֶׁנָּטַע, וְהַגַּזְלָן שֶׁנָּטַע, וְהַנּוֹטֵעַ בִּסְפִינָה, וְהָעוֹלֶה מֵאֵלָיו, חַיָּב בָּעָרְלָה:

If at the time when our ancestors came into the land and they found [a tree already] planted it was exempt [from the laws of orlah]. If they planted [a tree], even though they had not yet conquered [the land], it was subject [to orlah]. If one planted a tree for [the use of] the many, it is subject. But Rabbi Judah makes it exempt. If one has planted [a tree] in the public domain, or if a non-Jew has planted, or if a robber has planted, or one who plants on a boat, or [a tree] that has grown of itself, it is subject to orlah.

3 ג

אִילָן שֶׁנֶּעֱקַר וְהַסֶּלַע עִמּוֹ, שְׁטָפוֹ נָהָר וְהַסֶּלַע עִמּוֹ, אִם יָכוֹל לִחְיוֹת, פָּטוּר, וְאִם לָאו, חַיָּב. נֶעֱקַר הַסֶּלַע מִצִּדּוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁזִּעְזְעַתּוּ הַמַּחֲרֵשָׁה, אוֹ שֶׁזִּעְזְעוֹ וַעֲשָׂאוֹ כְעָפָר, אִם יָכוֹל לִחְיוֹת, פָּטוּר, וְאִם לָאו, חַיָּב:

If a tree was uprooted and the hard soil together with it, or if a stream swept it away and the hard soil together with it, [then] if it could have lived it is exempt, But if [it could] not, it is subject. If the hard soil has been detached from its side, or if a ploughshare shook it, or if someone shook it, and one reset it with earth, [then] if it could have lived, it is exempt, But if not, it is subject.

4 ד

אִילָן שֶׁנֶּעֱקַר וְנִשְׁתַּיֵּר בּוֹ שֹׁרֶשׁ, פָּטוּר. וְכַמָּה יְהֵא הַשֹּׁרֶשׁ, רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן יְהוּדָה אִישׁ בַּרְתּוֹתָא, כְּמַחַט שֶׁל מִתּוּן:

If a tree was uprooted and one root was left [in the ground], it is exempt. How much must the [thickness of the] root be? Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel said in the name of Rabb Eliezer ben Judah a man of Bartota: as [thick as] a pin [used for] stretching.

5 ה

אִילָן שֶׁנֶּעֱקַר וּבוֹ בְרֵכָה, וְהוּא חָיֶּה מִמֶּנָּה, חָזְרָה הַזְּקֵנָה לִהְיוֹת כַּבְּרֵכָה. הִבְרִיכָהּ שָׁנָה אַחַר שָׁנָה, וְנִפְסְקָה, מוֹנֶה מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּפְסְקָה. סִפּוּק הַגְּפָנִים, וְסִפּוּק עַל גַּבֵּי סִפּוּק, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִבְרִיכָן בָּאָרֶץ, מֻתָּר. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, מָקוֹם שֶׁכֹּחָהּ יָפֶה, מֻתָּר, וְמָקוֹם שֶׁכֹּחָהּ רָע, אָסוּר. וְכֵן בְּרֵכָה שֶׁנִּפְסְקָה וְהִיא מְלֵאָה פֵרוֹת, אִם הוֹסִיף בְּמָאתַיִם, אָסוּר:

A tree which was uprooted and it has a bent-down [and rooted] shoot, and it [the tree] derives sustenance from it [the shoot], the old [tree] is [considered] like the shoot. If one bends [and roots] from it year after year, and it became detached, one counts from the time it became detached. A grafted shoot of vines, and a grafted shoot [growing] on another grafted shoot, even if he rooted them in the soil, they are permitted. Rabbi Meir said: in an instance where it is strongly [grafted], it is permitted, but in an instance where it is poorly [grafted], it is prohibited. A bent-down [and rooted] shoot that has become detached and is full of fruit, [then] if it increased one two hundredth, it is prohibited.

6 ו

נְטִיעָה שֶׁל עָרְלָה וְשֶׁל כִּלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ בִנְטִיעוֹת, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִלְקֹט. וְאִם לָקַט, יַעֲלֶה בְאֶחָד וּמָאתַיִם, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִתְכַּוֵּן לִלְקֹט. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אַף יִתְכַּוֵּן לִלְקֹט וְיַעֲלֶה בְאֶחָד וּמָאתָיִם:

If a shoot of orlah or a vineyard in which seeds had been planted (kilayim), became mixed up with [other] shoots, behold one may not gather [the fruit]. But if one has gathered [it], it is neutralized in two hundred-and-one, provided that he did not act deliberately. Rabbi Yose says: even if he acted deliberately, it becomes neutralized in two hundred-and-one.

7 ז

הֶעָלִים, וְהַלּוּלָבִים, וּמֵי גְּפָנִים, וּסְמָדַר, מֻתָּרִים בָּעָרְלָה וּבָרְבָעִי וּבַנָּזִיר, וַאֲסוּרִים בָּאֲשֵׁרָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, הַסְּמָדַר אָסוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא פְּרִי. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, הַמַּעֲמִיד בִּשְׂרָף הָעָרְלָה, אָסוּר. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, שָׁמַעְתִּי בְּפֵרוּשׁ, שֶׁהַמַּעֲמִיד בִּשְׂרָף הֶעָלִים וּבִשְׂרָף הָעִקָּרִים, מֻתָּר, בִּשְׂרָף הַפַּגִּים, אָסוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם פְּרִי:

Leaves, sprouts, sap of vines, and vine-buds are permitted in respect of orlah and the laws of the fourth year, and to a nazirite, but are prohibited if they come from an Asherah [tree]. Rabbi Yose says: vine-buds are prohibited because they are fruit. Rabbi Eliezer said: if one curdles [milk] with the resinous substances of [a tree liable to] orlah, it is prohibited. Rabbi Joshua said: I have received an explicit tradition that if one curdles [milk] with the resinous substance of the leaves, or with the resinous substance of the roots, it is permitted, but with the resinous substance of the unripe berries, it is prohibited, because these are fruit.

8 ח

עַנְקוֹקְלוֹת, וְהַחַרְצַנִּים, וְהַזַּגִּים, וְהַתֶּמֶד שֶׁלָּהֶם, קְלִפֵּי רִמּוֹן וְהַנֵּץ שֶׁלּוֹ, קְלִפֵּי אֱגוֹזִים, וְהַגַּרְעִינִים, אֲסוּרִים בָּעָרְלָה, וּבָאֲשֵׁרָה, וּבַנָּזִיר, וּמֻתָּרִין בָּרְבָעִי. וְהַנּוֹבְלוֹת, כֻּלָּן אֲסוּרוֹת:

Defective grapes, grape kernels, grape husks, and the temed drink made from them, the peel of a pomegranate and its sprout, nutshells, and fruit-seeds, are all subject to the laws of orlah, asherah and a nazirite, but permitted in respect of a fourth year vineyard. Fallen unripe fruit is subject to all of them.

9 ט

רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, נוֹטְעִין יִחוּר שֶׁל עָרְלָה, וְאֵין נוֹטְעִין אֱגוֹז שֶׁל עָרְלָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא פְּרִי. וְאֵין מַרְכִּיבִין בְּכַפְנִיּוֹת שֶׁל עָרְלָה:

Rabbi Yose says: one may plant a shoot of orlah; But one may not plant a nut of orlah, because it is fruit. And one may not graft early date berries of orlah.