Mishnah Oholot
1א׳
1 א

שְׁנַיִם טְמֵאִים בְּמֵת, אֶחָד טָמֵא טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה וְאֶחָד טָמֵא טֻמְאַת עָרֶב. שְׁלשָׁה טְמֵאִין בְּמֵת, שְׁנַיִם טְמֵאִין טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה וְאֶחָד טָמֵא טֻמְאַת עָרֶב. אַרְבָּעָה טְמֵאִין בְּמֵת, שְׁלשָׁה טְמֵאִין טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה וְאֶחָד טָמֵא טֻמְאַת עָרֶב. כֵּיצַד שְׁנַיִם. אָדָם הַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּמֵת, טָמֵא טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה. וְאָדָם הַנּוֹגֵע בּוֹ, טָמֵא טֻמְאַת עָרֶב:

Two are defiled through a corpse, one being defiled with seven days' defilement and one being defiled with a defilement lasting until the evening. Three are defiled through a corpse, two being defiled with seven days’ defilement and one with a defilement lasting until the evening. Four are defiled through a corpse, three being defiled with seven days’ defilement and one with a defilement lasting until the evening. What [is the case of] two? A person who touches a corpse is defiled with seven days’ defilement and a person who touches him is defiled with a defilement lasting until the evening.

2 ב

כֵּיצַד שְׁלשָׁה. כֵּלִים הַנּוֹגְעִים בְּמֵת, וְכֵלִים בַּכֵּלִים, טְמֵאִין טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה. הַשְּׁלִישִׁי, בֵּין אָדָם וּבֵין כֵּלִים, טְמֵאִין טֻמְאַת עָרֶב:

What [is the case of] three? Vessels touching a corpse and [other] vessels [touching these] vessels are defiled with seven days’ defilement. The third: whether a person or vessels, is defiled with a defilement lasting until the evening.

3 ג

כֵּיצַד אַרְבָּעָה. כֵּלִים נוֹגְעִין בְּמֵת, וְאָדָם בַּכֵּלִים, וְכֵלִים בָּאָדָם, טְמֵאִין טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה. הָרְבִיעִי, בֵּין אָדָם בֵּין כֵּלִים, טָמֵא טֻמְאַת עָרֶב. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, יֶשׁ לִי חֲמִישִׁי, הַשַּׁפּוּד הַתָּחוּב בָּאֹהֶל, הָאֹהֶל וְהַשַּׁפּוּד וְאָדָם הַנּוֹגֵעַ בַּשַּׁפּוּד וְכֵלִים בָּאָדָם, טְמֵאִין טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה. הַחֲמִישִׁי, בֵּין אָדָם בֵּין כֵּלִים, טָמֵא טֻמְאַת עָרֶב. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֵין הָאֹהֶל מִתְחַשֵּׁב:

What is the case of four? Vessels touching a corpse, a person [touching these] vessels, and [other] vessels [touching this] person, are defiled with seven days' defilement. The fourth, whether a person or vessels, is defiled with a defilement [lasting until the] evening. Rabbi Akiva said: I have a fifth, [if] a peg was fixed in a tent, the tent, the peg, a person touching the peg and vessels [touching] the person are defiled with seven days' defilement. The fifth, whether a person or vessels, is defiled with a defilement [lasting until the] evening. They said to him: the tent does not count.

4 ד

אָדָם וְכֵלִים מִטַּמְּאִין בְּמֵת. חֹמֶר בָּאָדָם מִבַּכֵּלִים וְכֵלִים מִבָּאָדָם. שֶׁהַכֵּלִים שְׁלשָׁה וְהָאָדָם שְׁנָיִם. חֹמֶר בָּאָדָם, שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא בָאֶמְצַע, הֵן אַרְבָּעָה. וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ בָאֶמְצַע, הֵן שְׁלשָׁה:

[Both] persons and vessels can be defiled through a corpse. A greater stringency applies to persons than to vessels and to vessels than to persons. For with vessels [there can be] three [series of defilements], whereas with persons [there can be only] two. A greater stringency applies to persons, for whenever they are in the middle of a [series] there can be four [in the series], whereas when they are not in the middle of a [series] there can be [only] three.

5 ה

אָדָם וּבְגָדִים מִטַּמְּאִים בְּזָב. חֹמֶר בָּאָדָם מִבַּבְּגָדִים, וּבַבְּגָדִים מִבָּאָדָם. שֶׁהָאָדָם הַנּוֹגֵעַ בְּזָב מְטַמֵּא בְגָדִים, וְאֵין בְּגָדִים הַנּוֹגְעִין בְּזָב מְטַמְּאִין בְּגָדִים. חֹמֶר בַּבְּגָדִים, שֶׁהַבְּגָדִים הַנּוֹשְׂאִין אֶת הַזָּב מְטַמְּאִין אָדָם, וְאֵין אָדָם הַנּוֹשֵׂא אֶת הַזָּב מְטַמֵּא אָדָם:

Persons and garments can be defiled by a zav. A greater stringency applies to persons than to garments and a greater stringency applies to garments than to persons. For a person who touches a zav can defile garments, whereas garments that touch a zav cannot defile [other] garments. A greater stringency applies to garments, for garments which form the support of a zav can defile persons, whereas a person who forms the support of a zav cannot defile [other] persons.

6 ו

אָדָם אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא, עַד שֶׁתֵּצֵא נַפְשׁוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ מְגֻיָּד, וַאֲפִלּוּ גוֹסֵס. זוֹקֵק לַיִּבּוּם וּפוֹטֵר מִן הַיִּבּוּם, מַאֲכִיל בַּתְּרוּמָה וּפוֹסֵל בַּתְּרוּמָה. וְכֵן בְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין, עַד שֶׁתֵּצֵא נַפְשָׁם. הֻתְּזוּ רָאשֵׁיהֶם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּפַרְכְּסִים, טְמֵאִים, כְּגוֹן זָנָב שֶׁל לְטָאָה שֶׁהִיא מְפַרְכָּסֶת:

A person does not defile [as a corpse] until he dies. Even he is cut up or even if he is about to die, he [still] makes levirate marriage obligatory and exempts from levirate marriage, he feeds [his mother] terumah and disqualifies [his mother] from eating terumah. Similarly in the case of cattle or wild animals, they do not defile until they die. If their heads have been cut off, even though they are moving convulsively, they are unclean, like a lizard's tail, which moves convulsively.

7 ז

הָאֵבָרִין אֵין לָהֶן שִׁעוּר, אֲפִלּוּ פָּחוֹת מִכַּזַּיִת מִן הַמֵּת, וּפָחוֹת מִכַּזַּיִת מִן הַנְּבֵלָה, וּפָחוֹת מִכָּעֲדָשָׁה מִן הַשֶּׁרֶץ, מְטַמְּאִין טֻמְאָתָן:

Whole limbs [of the body] have no [restriction as to] size: even less than an olive-sized portion of a corpse or less than an olive-sized portion of nevelah (carrion), or less than a lentil-sized portion of a sheretz can defile, [each in the manner of] their respective defilements.

8 ח

מָאתַיִם וְאַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמֹנָה אֵבָרִים בָּאָדָם, שְׁלשִׁים בְּפִסַּת הָרֶגֶל, שִׁשָּׁה בְכָל אֶצְבַּע, עֲשָׂרָה בַקֻּרְסָל, שְׁנַיִם בַּשּׁוֹק, חֲמִשָּׁה בָאַרְכֻּבָּה, אֶחָד בַּיָּרֵךְ, שְׁלשָׁה בַקַּטְלִית, אַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה צְלָעוֹת, שְׁלשִׁים בְּפִסַּת הַיָּד, שִׁשָּׁה בְכָל אֶצְבַּע, שְׁנַיִם בַּקָּנֶה, וּשְׁנַיִם בַּמַּרְפֵּק, אֶחָד בַּזְּרוֹעַ, וְאַרְבָּעָה בַכָּתֵף. מֵאָה וְאֶחָד מִזֶּה וּמֵאָה וְאֶחָד מִזֶּה. וּשְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה חֻלְיוֹת בַּשִּׁדְרָה, תִּשְׁעָה בָרֹאשׁ, שְׁמֹנָה בַצַּוָּאר, שִׁשָּׁה בַמַּפְתֵּחַ שֶׁל לֵב, וַחֲמִשָּׁה בִנְקָבָיו. כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מְטַמֵּא בְמַגָּע וּבְמַשָּׂא וּבְאֹהֶל. אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁיֵּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן בָּשָׂר כָּרָאוּי. אֲבָל אִם אֵין עֲלֵיהֶן בָּשָׂר כָּרָאוּי, מְטַמְּאִין בְּמַגָּע וּבְמַשָּׂא, וְאֵין מְטַמְּאִין בְּאֹהֶל:

There are two hundred and forty-eight limbs in a human body: Thirty in the foot, six for every toe, Ten in the ankle, Two in the shin, Five in the knee, One in the thigh, Three in the hip, Eleven ribs, Thirty in the hand, [that is] six to every finger, Two in the fore-arm, Two in the elbow, One in the upper arm and Four in the shoulder, [For a total of] one hundred and one on the one side [of the body] and one hundred and one on the other. Eighteen vertebrae in the spine, Nine in the head, Eight in the neck, Six in the key of the heart, And five around the genitals. Each one [of these] can defile by contact, carriage or overshadowing. When is this so? When they have upon them the appropriate amount of flesh, But if they do not have the appropriate amount flesh upon them, they can defile by contact and carriage but cannot defile by overshadowing.