9ט׳
1 א

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, פּוֹתְחִין לָאָדָם בִּכְבוֹד אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹסְרִין. אָמַר רַבִּי צָדוֹק, עַד שֶׁפּוֹתְחִין לוֹ בִכְבוֹד אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ, יִפְתְּחוּ לוֹ בִכְבוֹד הַמָּקוֹם, אִם כֵּן אֵין נְדָרִים. וּמוֹדִים חֲכָמִים לְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בְּדָבָר שֶׁבֵּינוֹ לְבֵין אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ, שֶׁפּוֹתְחִין לוֹ בִּכְבוֹד אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ:

Rabbi Eliezer says: They release a vow [by reference] to the honor of his father and mother but the Sages forbid. Rabbi Zadok said: Instead of releasing through the honor of his father and mother, they should release [by reference] to the honor of God. If so, there would be no vows! But the Sages admit to Rabbi Eliezer that in a matter concerning himself and his father and mother one may release a vow [by reference] to the honor of his father and mother.

2 ב

וְעוֹד אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, פּוֹתְחִין בְּנוֹלָד. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹסְרִין. כֵּיצַד. אָמַר, קוֹנָם שֶׁאֵינִי נֶהֱנֶה לְאִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי, וְנַעֲשָׂה סוֹפֵר, אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מַשִּׂיא אֶת בְּנוֹ בְקָרוֹב, וְאָמַר, אִלּוּ הָיִיתִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא נַעֲשֶׂה סוֹפֵר אוֹ שֶׁהוּא מַשִּׂיא אֶת בְּנוֹ בְקָרוֹב, לֹא הָיִיתִי נוֹדֵר. קוֹנָם לְבַיִת זֶה שֶׁאֵינִי נִכְנָס, וְנַעֲשָׂה בֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, וְאָמַר, אִלּוּ הָיִיתִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא נַעֲשֶׂה בֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת לֹא הָיִיתִי נוֹדֵר, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מַתִּיר, וַחֲכָמִים אוֹסְרִין:

Rabbi Eliezer also said: They release a vow by reference to a new fact; but the Sages forbid it. How is this so? If one said, “Konam that I will not benefit from so and so,” and he [the latter] then became a scribe, or was about to give his son in marriage, and he said, “Had I known that he would become a scribe or was about to give his son in marriage, I would not have vowed;” [Or if he said,] “Konam, is this house that I will not enter,” and it became a synagogue, and he declared, “Had I known that it would become a synagogue, I would not have vowed,” Rabbi Eliezer permits [the vow to be released],but the Sages forbid it.

3 ג

רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, יֵשׁ דְּבָרִים שֶׁהֵן כְּנוֹלָד וְאֵינָן כְּנוֹלָד, וְאֵין חֲכָמִים מוֹדִים לוֹ. כֵּיצַד. אָמַר, קוֹנָם שֶׁאֵינִי נוֹשֵׂא אֶת פְּלוֹנִית, שֶׁאָבִיהָ רָע. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מֵת אוֹ שֶׁעָשָׂה תְשׁוּבָה. קוֹנָם לְבַיִת זֶה שֶׁאֵינִי נִכְנָס, שֶׁהַכֶּלֶב רַע בְּתוֹכוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהַנָּחָשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מֵת הַכֶּלֶב אוֹ שֶׁנֶּהֱרַג הַנָּחָשׁ, הֲרֵי הֵן כְּנוֹלָד וְאֵינָן כְּנוֹלָד, וְאֵין חֲכָמִים מוֹדִים לוֹ:

Rabbi Meir says: Some things are similar to a new fact, and yet are not [treated] as new; but the Sages do not agree with him. How so? If one says, “Konam that I do not marry so and so, because her father is wicked,” and [then] they say to him “He is dead,” or, “He has repented,”; “Konam is this house which I will not enter, because it contains a wild dog,” or, “because there is a snake in it,” and [then] they say to him, “The dog is dead,” or, “The serpent has been killed,” behold these are like new facts, yet actually not [treated] as new facts. But the sages do not agree with him.

4 ד

וְעוֹד אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר פּוֹתְחִין לוֹ מִן הַכָּתוּב שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ, אִלּוּ הָיִיתָ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁאַתָּה עוֹבֵר עַל לֹא תִקֹּם וְעַל לֹא תִטֹּר (ויקרא יט), וְעַל לֹא תִשְׂנָא אֶת אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ (שם), וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ (שם), וְחֵי אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ (שם כה), שֶׁמָּא יֵעָנִי וְאֵין אַתָּה יָכוֹל לְפַרְנְסוֹ. אָמַר, אִלּוּ הָיִיתִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא כֵן, לֹא הָיִיתִי נוֹדֵר, הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:

Rabbi Meir also said: They release [the vow] by using what is written in the Torah, and they say to him, “Had you known that you were violating [the prohibitions]:“You shall not avenge” (Leviticus 19:18), “You shall not bear a grudge” (ibid.), “You shall not hate your kinsfolk in your heart (ibid., v., “Love your neighbor as yourself” (ibid., v., “Let him live by your side” (ibid. 25:37), for he might become poor and you would not be able to provide for him, [would you have vowed]?”. And should he reply, “Had I known that this is so, I would not have vowed,” he is permitted [the vow is absolved].

5 ה

פּוֹתְחִין לָאָדָם בִּכְתֻבַּת אִשְׁתּוֹ. וּמַעֲשֶׂה בְאֶחָד שֶׁנָּדַר מֵאִשְׁתּוֹ הֲנָאָה וְהָיְתָה כְתֻבָּתָהּ אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת דִּינָרִין, וּבָא לִפְנֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וְחִיְּבוֹ לִתֵּן לָהּ כְּתֻבָּתָהּ. אָמַר לוֹ, רַבִּי, שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת דִּינָרִין הִנִּיחַ אַבָּא, וְנָטַל אָחִי אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת וַאֲנִי אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת, לֹא דַיָּהּ שֶׁתִּטֹּל הִיא מָאתַיִם, וַאֲנִי מָאתָיִם. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, אֲפִלּוּ אַתָּה מוֹכֵר שְׂעַר רֹאשְׁךָ, אַתָּה נוֹתֵן לָהּ כְּתֻבָּתָהּ. אָמַר לוֹ, אִלּוּ הָיִיתִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא כֵן, לֹא הָיִיתִי נוֹדֵר, וְהִתִּירָהּ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא:

They release a vow by reference to a wife’s kethubah. And it once happened that a man vowed not to benefit from his wife and her ketubah amounted to four hundred denarii. He went before Rabbi Akiva, who ordered him to pay her the ketubah [in full]. He said to him, “Rabbi! My father left eight hundred denarii, of which my brother took four hundred and I took four hundred. Isn’t it enough that she should receive two hundred and I two hundred?” Rabbi Akiva replied: even if you have to sell the hair of your head you must pay her her ketubah. He said to him, “Had I known that it is so, I would not have vowed.” And Rabbi Akiva released his vow.

6 ו

פּוֹתְחִין בְּיָמִים טוֹבִים וּבְשַׁבָּתוֹת. בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים, אוֹתָן הַיָּמִים מֻתָּרִין וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַיָּמִים אֲסוּרִין, עַד שֶׁבָּא רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וְלִמֵּד, שֶׁהַנֶּדֶר שֶׁהֻתַּר מִקְצָתוֹ, הֻתַּר כֻּלּוֹ:

They release vows by reference to the sabbaths and festivals. The earlier ruling was that for these days the vow is cancelled, but for others it is binding, until Rabbi Akiva came and taught: a vow which is partially released is entirely released.

7 ז

כֵּיצַד. אָמַר, קוֹנָם שֶׁאֵינִי נֶהֱנֶה לְכֻלְּכֶם, הֻתַּר אֶחָד מֵהֶן, הֻתְּרוּ כֻלָּן. שֶׁאֵינִי נֶהֱנֶה לָזֶה וְלָזֶה, הֻתַּר הָרִאשׁוֹן, הֻתְּרוּ כֻלָּן. הֻתַּר הָאַחֲרוֹן, הָאַחֲרוֹן מֻתָּר, וְכֻלָּן אֲסוּרִין. הֻתַּר הָאֶמְצָעִי, הֵימֶנּוּ וּלְמַטָּה מֻתָּר, הֵימֶנּוּ וּלְמַעְלָה אָסוּר. שֶׁאֵינִי נֶהֱנֶה לָזֶה קָרְבָּן וְלָזֶה קָרְבָּן, צְרִיכִין פֶּתַח לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד:

How is this so?If one says, “Konam that which I benefit from any of you,” if one [of those subject to the vow] was [subsequently] released, they are all released. [If he said, “Konam] that which I benefit from this one or this one”: if the first was released, all are released; if the last one was released, he is released, but the rest are forbidden. if the middle person was released, those [mentioned] after him are [also] released, but those [mentioned] before him are forbidden. [If one says,] “Korban that which I benefit from this one, and from this one Korban,” they each require a separate release.

8 ח

קוֹנָם יַיִן שֶׁאֵינִי טוֹעֵם, שֶׁהַיַּיִן רַע לַמֵּעָיִם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, וַהֲלֹא הַמְיֻשָּׁן יָפֶה לַמֵּעָיִם, הֻתַּר בַּמְיֻשָּׁן. וְלֹא בַמְיֻשָּׁן בִּלְבַד הֻתַּר, אֶלָּא בְכָל הַיָּיִן. קוֹנָם בָּצָל שֶׁאֵינִי טוֹעֵם, שֶׁהַבָּצָל רַע לַלֵּב. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, הֲלֹא הַכֻּפְרִי יָפֶה לַלֵּב, הֻתַּר בַּכֻּפְרִי. וְלֹא בַכֻּפְרִי בִלְבַד הֻתַּר, אֶלָּא בְכָל הַבְּצָלִים. מַעֲשֶׂה הָיָה, וְהִתִּירוֹ רַבִּי מֵאִיר בְּכָל הַבְּצָלִים:

“Konam is the one that I taste, because wine is damaging to the stomach.” They said to him, “But mature wine is beneficial to the stomach.” He is released in respect of mature wine, and not only in respect of mature wine, but of all wine. “Konam the onions that I taste, because they are damaging to the heart.” They said to him, “But village onions are good for the heart,” He is released in respect of village onions, and not only of village onions, but of all onions. Such a case happened before Rabbi Meir, and he permitted all onions.

9 ט

פּוֹתְחִין לָאָדָם בִּכְבוֹד עַצְמוֹ וּבִכְבוֹד בָּנָיו. אוֹמְרִים לוֹ, אִלּוּ הָיִיתָ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁלְּמָחָר אוֹמְרִין עָלֶיךָ כָּךְ הִיא וִסְתּוֹ שֶׁל פְּלוֹנִי, מְגָרֵשׁ אֶת נָשָׁיו, וְעַל בְּנוֹתֶיךָ יִהְיוּ אוֹמְרִין בְּנוֹת גְּרוּשׁוֹת הֵן, מָה רָאֲתָה אִמָּן שֶׁל אֵלּוּ לְהִתְגָּרֵשׁ, וְאָמַר, אִלּוּ הָיִיתִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁכֵּן, לֹא הָיִיתִי נוֹדֵר, הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:

They release one’s vows [by reference] to his own honor and the honor of his children. They say to him, “Had you known that tomorrow they will say of you, ‘It is the regular habit of so-and-so to divorce his wife’; and concerning your daughters they will say, ‘They are the daughters of a divorced woman. What fault did he find in their mother to divorce her?’ If he replies, “Had I known that it is so, I would not have vowed,” he is released from his vow.

10 י

קוֹנָם שֶׁאֵינִי נוֹשֵׂא אֶת פְּלוֹנִית כְּעוּרָה, וַהֲרֵי הִיא נָאָה. שְׁחוֹרָה, וַהֲרֵי הִיא לְבָנָה. קְצָרָה, וַהֲרֵי הִיא אֲרֻכָּה, מֻתָּר בָּהּ. לֹא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כְעוּרָה וְנַעֲשֵׂית נָאָה, שְׁחוֹרָה וְנַעֲשֵׂית לְבָנָה, קְצָרָה וְנַעֲשֵׂית אֲרֻכָּה, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַנֶּדֶר טָעוּת. וּמַעֲשֶׂה בְאֶחָד שֶׁנָּדַר מִבַּת אֲחוֹתוֹ הֲנָיָה, וְהִכְנִיסוּהָ לְבֵית רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְיִפּוּהָ. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, בְּנִי, לָזוֹ נָדָרְתָּ. אָמַר לוֹ, לָאו. וְהִתִּירוֹ רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה בָּכָה רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְאָמַר, בְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל נָאוֹת הֵן, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָעֲנִיּוּת מְנַוַּלְתָּן. וּכְשֶׁמֵּת רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, הָיוּ בְנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל נוֹשְׂאוֹת קִינָה וְאוֹמְרוֹת, בְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּכֶינָה. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּשָׁאוּל (שמואל ב א) בְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל שָׁאוּל בְּכֶינָה:

“Konam if I marry that ugly woman,” and she turns out to be beautiful; “That black-skinned woman,” and she turns out to be light-skinned; “That short woman,” and she turns out to be tall, he is permitted to marry her, not because she was ugly, and became beautiful, or black and became light-skinned, short and grew tall, but because the vow was made in error. And thus it happened with one who vowed not to benefit from his sister’s daughter, and she was taken into Rabbi Ishmael’s house and they made her beautiful. Rabbi Ishmael said to him, “My son! Did you vow not to benefit from this one!” He said, “No,” and Rabbi Ishmael permitted her [to him]. In that hour Rabbi Ishmael wept and said, “The daughters of Israel are beautiful, but poverty disfigures them.” And when Rabbi Ishmael died, the daughters of Israel raised a lament, saying, “Daughters of Israel weep for Rabbi Ishmael.” And thus it is said too of Saul, “Daughters of Israel, weep for Saul” (II Samuel 1:24).