3ג׳
1 א

אַרְבָּעָה נְדָרִים הִתִּירוּ חֲכָמִים, נִדְרֵי זֵרוּזִין, וְנִדְרֵי הֲבַאי, וְנִדְרֵי שְׁגָגוֹת, וְנִדְרֵי אֳנָסִים. נִדְרֵי זֵרוּזִין, כֵּיצַד. הָיָה מוֹכֵר חֵפֶץ וְאָמַר, קוֹנָם שֶׁאֵינִי פוֹחֵת לְךָ מִן הַסֶּלַע, וְהַלָּה אוֹמֵר, קוֹנָם שֶׁאֵינִי מוֹסִיף לְךָ עַל הַשֶּׁקֶל, שְׁנֵיהֶן רוֹצִין בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה דִינָרִין. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, אַף הָרוֹצֶה לְהַדִּיר אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁיֹּאכַל אֶצְלוֹ, אוֹמֵר, כָּל נֶדֶר שֶׁאֲנִי עָתִיד לִדֹּר הוּא בָטֵל, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיְּהֵא זָכוּר בִּשְׁעַת הַנֶּדֶר:

There are four [types of] vows that the sages invalidated, [and these four types are]: vows of encouragement, vows of exaggeration, vows made in error, and vows made against one's will. A vow of incitement: how [does this manifest itself]? If a merchant said, "konam that I will not sell to you for less than a sela" and the buyer says, "konam that I will not pay more than a shekel." [These vows are invalid since] both agree on three dinars. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov says: Even a vow made by one who wants to compel his friend to eat with him [by making a vow], and says [beforehand], "All vows that I will make in the future - they are nullified," this statement is effective [and his future vow is null], as long as he remembers [the statement] at the time he vows.

2 ב

נִדְרֵי הֲבַאי, אָמַר, קוֹנָם אִם לֹא רָאִיתִי בַדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה כְיוֹצְאֵי מִצְרָיִם, אִם לֹא רָאִיתִי נָחָשׁ כְּקוֹרַת בֵּית הַבָּד. נִדְרֵי שְׁגָגוֹת, אִם אָכָלְתִּי וְאִם שָׁתִיתִי, וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁאָכַל וְשָׁתָה. שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹכֵל וְשֶׁאֲנִי שׁוֹתֶה, וְשָׁכַח וְאָכַל וְשָׁתָה. אָמַר, קוֹנָם אִשְׁתִּי נֶהֱנֵית לִי, שֶׁגָּנְבָה אֶת כִּיסִי וְשֶׁהִכְּתָה אֶת בְּנִי, וְנוֹדַע שֶׁלֹּא הִכַּתּוּ וְנוֹדַע שֶׁלֹּא גְנָבָתּוּ. רָאָה אוֹתָן אוֹכְלִים תְּאֵנִים וְאָמַר, הֲרֵי עֲלֵיכֶם קָרְבָּן, וְנִמְצְאוּ אָבִיו וְאֶחָיו, וְהָיוּ עִמָּהֶן אֲחֵרִים, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, הֵן מֻתָּרִין וּמַה שֶּׁעִמָּהֶן אֲסוּרִין. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין:

Vows of exaggeration: [for example,] if someone said: "konam if I did not see on this path [a quantity of people similar to] those who left Egypt!” [six hundred thousand males], [or “konam] if I didn’t see a snake [as large] as the beam of an olive press!" Vows made in error: [an example might be if someone said: "konam] if I ate and drank", but then remembered that he did [in fact] eat or drink. [Or if one said: "konam] if I will eat or if I will drink," (thereby obligating himself to fast), [but then he] forgot, and ate or drank. [Similarly, if one said:] "konam if my wife benefits from me, because she stole my purse or because she hit my son," [but then] it becomes known that she did not [really] beat him, [or] it becomes known that she did not [really] steal [her husband's purse] , [it is a vow made in error]. If someone saw [in the distance, some people] eating [his] figs, and says: "[let those figs] be to you like a korban," but [he finds out that the men in the distance were] his father and his brothers. [If] others were with them, Beit Shammai says: [the father and brothers are] permitted [to eat the figs], but [the people] with them are forbidden. But Beit Hillel says: both [his relatives and the others] are permitted [to eat the figs].

3 ג

נִדְרֵי אֳנָסִים, הִדִּירוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁיֹּאכַל אֶצְלוֹ, וְחָלָה הוּא אוֹ שֶׁחָלָה בְנוֹ אוֹ שֶׁעִכְּבוֹ נָהָר, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ נִדְרֵי אֳנָסִין:

Vows made against one's will: [An example of this might be] if someone subjected his friend to a vow that [the friend] will eat with him, but [the friend] became sick or [the friend's] son became sick, or a river [rose and] prevented him [from traveling safely] - these are vows made against one's will.

4 ד

נוֹדְרִין לָהֳרָגִין וְלָחֳרָמִין וְלַמּוֹכְסִין שֶׁהִיא תְרוּמָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ תְּרוּמָה, שֶׁהֵן שֶׁל בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָן שֶׁל בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, בַּכֹּל נוֹדְרִין, חוּץ מִבִּשְׁבוּעָה. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אַף בִּשְׁבוּעָה. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, לֹא יִפְתַּח לוֹ בְנֶדֶר. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אַף יִפְתַּח לוֹ. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, בְּמַה שֶּׁהוּא מַדִּירוֹ. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אַף בְּמַה שֶּׁאֵינוֹ מַדִּירוֹ. כֵּיצַד, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֱמוֹר קוֹנָם אִשְׁתִּי נֶהֱנֵית לִי, וְאָמַר קוֹנָם אִשְׁתִּי וּבָנַי נֶהֱנִין לִי, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אִשְׁתּוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת וּבָנָיו אֲסוּרִין. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין:

One may vow [in front of] murderers and thieves and [royal] tax collectors that [something] is terumah, even if it isn't terumah; [or] that they are property of the king, even if they aren't property of the king. Beit Shammai says: [this is true] regarding all vows except for oaths, and Beit Hillel says: even regarding oaths. Beit Shammai says: he [the victim] may not offer to make the vow. And Beit Hillel says: he may even offer [to make the vow]. Beit Shammai says: [he may only vow] regarding what he is asked to vow, and Beit Hillel says: even regarding that which he wasn't asked to vow. How so? If they [the murderers, thieves or tax collectors] order him to say: "konam that my wife may not benefit from me [if this is not terumah, etc.],"' but he says "konam that neither my wife nor my children may benefit from me" - Beit Shammai says: his wife is permitted to him but his children are forbidden, and Beit Hillel says: both are permitted.

5 ה

הֲרֵי נְטִיעוֹת הָאֵלּוּ קָרְבָּן אִם אֵינָן נִקְצָצוֹת, טַלִּית זוֹ קָרְבָּן אִם אֵינָהּ נִשְׂרֶפֶת, יֵשׁ לָהֶן פִּדְיוֹן. הֲרֵי נְטִיעוֹת הָאֵלּוּ קָרְבָּן עַד שֶׁיִּקָּצְצוּ, טַלִּית זוֹ קָרְבָּן עַד שֶׁתִּשָּׂרֵף, אֵין לָהֶם פִּדְיוֹן:

[If someone took a vow, saying:] "these saplings are [forbidden to me like a] korban, if they are not uprooted," [or] "this garment is [forbidden to me like a] korban, if it isn't burned," - [these items] can be redeemed (and their monetary worth treated as korban, rather than the saplings or garments themselves). [But if one vows:] "these saplings are [forbidden to me like a] korban, until they are uprooted," [or] "this garment is [forbidden to me like a] korban, until it is burned," - there is no redemption for [these items].

6 ו

הַנּוֹדֵר מִיּוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם, מֻתָּר בְּיוֹשְׁבֵי הַיַּבָּשָׁה. מִיּוֹשְׁבֵי הַיַּבָּשָׁה, אָסוּר בְּיוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם, שֶׁיּוֹרְדֵי הַיָּם בִּכְלָל יוֹשְׁבֵי הַיַּבָּשָׁה. לֹא כָאֵלּוּ שֶׁהוֹלְכִין מֵעַכּוֹ לְיָפוֹ, אֶלָּא בְמִי שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְפָרֵשׁ:

Someone who vows [to not benefit from] 'those who go down to the sea' [sailors] is permitted to [benefit from] those who live on land; [but if he vowed not to benefit from] those who live on land, he is forbidden [from benefiting from] those who go down to the sea, because 'those who go down to the sea' are included in [the category of] 'those who live on land'. [This law not only applies] to those [sailors] that travel [the short distance] from Acre to Jaffa, but even to those who normally separate [for longer periods of time].

7 ז

הַנּוֹדֵר מֵרוֹאֵי הַחַמָּה, אָסוּר אַף בַּסּוּמִין, שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן זֶה אֶלָּא לְמִי שֶׁהַחַמָּה רוֹאָה אוֹתוֹ:

Someone who vows [not to benefit from] 'those who see the sun', is forbidden [to benefit] even from blind people - because what he really meant is 'those that the sun sees.'

8 ח

הַנּוֹדֵר מִשְּׁחוֹרֵי הָרֹאשׁ, אָסוּר בַּקֵּרְחִין וּבְבַעֲלֵי שֵׂיבוֹת, וּמֻתָּר בַּנָּשִׁים וּבַקְּטַנִּים, שֶׁאֵין נִקְרָאִין שְׁחוֹרֵי הָרֹאשׁ אֶלָּא אֲנָשִׁים:

Someone who vows [not to benefit from] 'black-haired people' is forbidden [to benefit] from bald people and white-haired people, but is permitted to [benefit from] women and children, because only men are called 'black-haired'.

9 ט

הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַיִּלּוֹדִים, מֻתָּר בַּנּוֹלָדִים. מִן הַנּוֹלָדִים, אָסוּר בַּיִּלּוֹדִים. רַבִּי מֵאִיר מַתִּיר אַף בַּיִּלּוֹדִים. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן זֶה אֶלָּא בְמִי שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהוֹלִיד:

Someone who vows [not to benefit] from 'those [creatures] that have been born' is permitted to [benefit from] those that will be born [in the future]. [And one who vows not to benefit from] 'those [creatures] that will be born' is prohibited [to benefit] from those who have been born. Rabbi Meir permits [benefit from] those who have been born, while the Sages say, he [really] meant 'those [creatures] that are viviparous'.

10 י

הַנּוֹדֵר מִשּׁוֹבְתֵי שַׁבָּת, אָסוּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָסוּר בַּכּוּתִים. מֵאוֹכְלֵי שׁוּם, אָסוּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָסוּר בַּכּוּתִים. מֵעוֹלֵי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, אָסוּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וּמֻתָּר בַּכּוּתִים:

Someone who vows [not to benefit] from those who keep Shabbat is forbidden [to benefit from] Jews and Kutim [Samaritans, an ancient schismatic Jewish group] . [One who vows not to benefit] from those who eat garlic is forbidden [to benefit from] Jews and forbidden [to benefit from] Kutim. [However, one who vows not to benefit] from those who go up to Jerusalem (for the pilgrimage festivals) is forbidden [to benefit from] Jews and permitted [to benefit from] Kutim.

11 יא

קוֹנָם שֶׁאֵינִי נֶהֱנֶה לִבְנֵי נֹחַ, מֻתָּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָסוּר בְּאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם. שֶׁאֵינִי נֶהֱנֶה לְזֶרַע אַבְרָהָם, אָסוּר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וּמֻתָּר בְּאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם. שֶׁאֵינִי נֶהֱנֶה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, לוֹקֵחַ בְּיוֹתֵר וּמוֹכֵר בְּפָחוֹת. שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל נֶהֱנִין לִי, לוֹקֵחַ בְּפָחוֹת וּמוֹכֵר בְּיוֹתֵר, אִם שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ. שֶׁאֵינִי נֶהֱנֶה לָהֶן וְהֵן לִי, יְהַנֶּה לַנָּכְרִים. קוֹנָם שֶׁאֵינִי נֶהֱנֶה לָעֲרֵלִים, מֻתָּר בְּעַרְלֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָסוּר בְּמוּלֵי הַגּוֹיִם. קוֹנָם שֶׁאֵינִי נֶהֱנֶה לַמּוּלִים, אָסוּר בְּעַרְלֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמֻתָּר בְּמוּלֵי הַגּוֹיִם, שֶׁאֵין הָעָרְלָה קְרוּיָה אֶלָּא לְשֵׁם הַגּוֹיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ט) כִּי כָל הַגּוֹיִם עֲרֵלִים וְכָל בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל עַרְלֵי לֵב, וְאוֹמֵר (שמואל א יז) וְהָיָה הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הֶעָרֵל הַזֶּה, וְאוֹמֵר (שמואל ב א) פֶּן תִּשְׂמַחְנָה בְּנוֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּים, פֶּן תַּעֲלֹזְנָה בְּנוֹת הָעֲרֵלִים. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה אוֹמֵר, מְאוּסָה עָרְלָה שֶׁנִּתְגַּנּוּ בָהּ הָרְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, כִּי כָל הַגּוֹיִם עֲרֵלִים. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, גְּדוֹלָה מִילָה שֶׁנִּכְרְתוּ עָלֶיהָ שְׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה בְרִיתוֹת. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, גְּדוֹלָה מִילָה, שֶׁדּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת הַחֲמוּרָה. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה אוֹמֵר, גְּדוֹלָה מִילָה, שֶׁלֹּא נִתְלָה לוֹ לְמֹשֶׁה הַצַדִּיק עָלֶיהָ מְלֹא שָׁעָה. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר, גְּדוֹלָה מִילָה, שֶׁדּוֹחָה אֶת הַנְּגָעִים. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, גְּדוֹלָה מִילָה, שֶׁכָּל הַמִּצְוֹת שֶׁעָשָׂה אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ לֹא נִקְרָא שָׁלֵם, עַד שֶׁמָּל, שֶׁנֱּאֶמַר (בראשית יז), הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, גְּדוֹלָה מִילָה, שֶׁאִלְמָלֵא הִיא, לֹא בָרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה לג), כֹּה אָמַר ה' אִם לֹא בְרִיתִי יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה, חֻקּוֹת שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ לֹא שָׂמְתִּי:

[Someone who vows:] "konam that I won't benefit from 'the sons of Noah'" is permitted to [benefit from] Jews and forbidden [to benefit] from Gentiles. [One who vows: "konam] that I won't benefit from the offspring of Abraham," is forbidden [to benefit] from Jews and permitted [to benefit] from Gentiles. [One who vows: "konam] that I won't benefit from Jews," must buy [from Jews] at a higher price [than usual] and sell [to them] at a lower price. [One who vows: "konam] that Jews won't benefit from me," must buy at a lower price and sell at a higher price [than usual], as long as there are any Jews who would heed him [in his offer]. [One who vows: "konam] that they won't benefit from me, nor I from them," may benefit from Gentiles. [One who vows:]"konam that I won't benefit from the uncircumcised," is permitted [to benefit from] uncircumcised Jews but forbidden to [benefit from] circumcised Gentiles. [One who vows:] "konam that I won't benefit from the circumcised" is prohibited [to benefit] from uncircumcised Jews and permitted [to benefit] from circumcised Gentiles. [This is] because [the term] 'orla' [foreskin] is only used in reference to Gentiles, as it is written: (Jeremiah 9:25) "Because all the nations are arelim [uncircumcised], but all the house of Israel are of uncircumcised heart," and it says: (I Samuel 17:36) "and this arel Philistine," and it says: (II Samuel 1:20) "Lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice, Lest the daughters of the arelim triumph". Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah says: "Disgusting is the foreskin, [since] the wicked are insulted through it, as it says: 'because all the nations are uncircumcised'". Rabbi Yishmael says: "Great is circumcision, for thirteen covenants were sealed concerning it". Rabbi Yose says: "Great is circumcision, that it overrules the strict [prohibitions of] Shabbat." Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korcha says: "Great is circumcision, for Moses the righteous wasn't given a moment [to allow his son to remain uncircumcised]. Rabbi Nechemiah says: "Great is circumcision, for it overrules [the prohibitions of] nega'im [impure afflictions]." Rabbi says: "Great is circumcision, for [despite] all the commandments that Abraham did, he was not called 'complete' until he was circumcised, as it says: (Genesis 17:1) 'Walk before Me and be complete'". Another saying [of his]: "Great is circumcision, for but for it, the Holy One would not have have created His world, as it says: (Jeremiah 33:25) "Thus says the Lord, 'If my covenant is not established day and night, the laws of the heavens and earth I will not set.'"