נַעֲרָה הַמְאֹרָסָה, אָבִיהָ וּבַעְלָהּ מְפֵרִין נְדָרֶיהָ. הֵפֵר הָאָב וְלֹא הֵפֵר הַבַּעַל, הֵפֵר הַבַּעַל וְלֹא הֵפֵר הָאָב, אֵינוֹ מוּפָר, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁקִּיֵּם אֶחָד מֵהֶן: With regard to a betrothed young woman, her father and her husband together nullify her vows. If the father nullified her vow and the husband did not nullify it, or if the husband nullified it and the father did not nullify it, then the vow is not nullified. And needless to say, it is not nullified if one of them ratified the vow.
מֵת הָאָב, לֹא נִתְרוֹקְנָה רְשׁוּת לַבָּעַל. מֵת הַבַּעַל, נִתְרוֹקְנָה רְשׁוּת לָאָב. בָּזֶה יָפֶה כֹחַ הָאָב מִכֹּחַ הַבָּעַל. בְּדָבָר אַחֵר יָפֶה כֹחַ הַבַּעַל מִכֹּחַ הָאָב, שֶׁהַבַּעַל מֵפֵר בְּבֶגֶר, וְהָאָב אֵינוֹ מֵפֵר בְּבָגֶר: If the father of a betrothed young woman dies, his authority does not revert to the husband, and the husband cannot nullify the young woman’s vows by himself. However, if the husband dies, his authority reverts to the father, who can now nullify her vows on his own. In this matter, the power of the father is enhanced relative to the power of the husband. In another matter, the power of the husband is enhanced relative to the power of the father, as the husband nullifies vows during the woman’s adulthood, once they are fully married, whereas the father does not nullify her vows during her adulthood.
נָדְרָה וְהִיא אֲרוּסָה, נִתְגָּרְשָׁה בוֹ בַיּוֹם, נִתְאָרְסָה בוֹ בַיּוֹם, אֲפִלּוּ לְמֵאָה, אָבִיהָ וּבַעְלָהּ הָאַחֲרוֹן מְפֵרִין נְדָרֶיהָ. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁלֹּא יָצָאת לִרְשׁוּת עַצְמָהּ שָׁעָה אֶחָת, אָבִיהָ וּבַעְלָהּ הָאַחֲרוֹן מְפֵרִין נְדָרֶיהָ: If she took a vow as a betrothed woman and then was divorced on the same day, and she was again betrothed on the same day to another man, or even to one hundred men, one after the other, on a single day, her father and her last husband nullify her vows. This is the principle: With regard to any young woman who has not left her father’s jurisdiction and entered into her own jurisdiction for at least one moment, through full marriage or reaching majority, her father and her final husband nullify her vows.
דֶּרֶךְ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים, עַד שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה בִתּוֹ יוֹצְאָה מֵאֶצְלוֹ, אוֹמֵר לָהּ, כָּל נְדָרִים שֶׁנָּדַרְתְּ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתִי, הֲרֵי הֵן מוּפָרִין. וְכֵן הַבַּעַל עַד שֶׁלֹּא תִכָּנֵס לִרְשׁוּתוֹ, אוֹמֵר לָהּ, כָּל נְדָרִים שֶׁנָּדַרְתְּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא תִכָּנְסִי לִרְשׁוּתִי, הֲרֵי הֵן מוּפָרִין, שֶׁמִּשֶּׁתִּכָּנֵס לִרְשׁוּתוֹ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר: The practice of Torah scholars is to ensure that a woman about to be married should not be encumbered by any vows. A father, before his daughter would leave him through marriage, would say to her: All vows that you vowed in my house are hereby nullified. And similarly, the husband, before she would enter his jurisdiction, i.e., while they were still betrothed, would say to her: All vows that you vowed before you entered my jurisdiction are hereby nullified. This was necessary because once she enters his jurisdiction he cannot nullify the vows she made before that.
בּוֹגֶרֶת שֶׁשָּׁהֲתָה שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ, וְאַלְמָנָה שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, הוֹאִיל וּבַעְלָהּ חַיָּב בִּמְזוֹנוֹתֶיהָ, יָפֵר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין הַבַּעַל מֵפֵר, עַד שֶׁתִּכָּנֵס לִרְשׁוּתוֹ: With regard to a grown woman who waited twelve months after her betrothal and the time arrived for her betrothed to marry her, or a widow who waited thirty days and the time arrived for her betrothed to marry her, Rabbi Eliezer says: Since her husband is already obligated to provide for her sustenance, as he is obligated to have married her by then, he can nullify her vows by himself, as if he were fully married to her. But the Rabbis say: The husband does not nullify her vows on his own until she enters his jurisdiction.
שׁוֹמֶרֶת יָבָם, בֵּין לְיָבָם אֶחָד בֵּין לִשְׁנֵי יְבָמִין, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, יָפֵר. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, לְאֶחָד אֲבָל לֹא לִשְׁנָיִם. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לֹא לְאֶחָד וְלֹא לִשְׁנָיִם. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, מָה אִם אִשָּׁה, שֶׁקָּנָה הוּא לְעַצְמוֹ, הֲרֵי הוּא מֵפֵר נְדָרֶיהָ, אִשָּׁה שֶׁהִקְנוּ לוֹ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁיָּפֵר נְדָרֶיהָ. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, לֹא, אִם אָמַרְתָּ בְאִשָּׁה שֶׁקָּנָה הוּא לְעַצְמוֹ, שֶׁאֵין לַאֲחֵרִים בָּהּ רְשׁוּת, תֹּאמַר בְּאִשָּׁה שֶׁהִקְנוּ לוֹ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לַאֲחֵרִים בָּהּ רְשׁוּת. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, עֲקִיבָא, דְּבָרֶיךָ בִשְׁנֵי יְבָמִין. מָה אַתָּה מֵשִׁיב עַל יָבָם אֶחָד. אָמַר לוֹ, אֵין הַיְבָמָה גְמוּרָה לַיָּבָם כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהָאֲרוּסָה גְמוּרָה לְאִישָׁהּ: With regard to a widow waiting for her yavam to perform levirate marriage, whether she is waiting for one yavam, if her late husband had only one brother, or whether she is waiting for two or more yevamin, if he had several brothers, Rabbi Eliezer says: A yavam can nullify her vows. Rabbi Yehoshua says: If she is waiting for one yavam, he can nullify her vows, but not if she is waiting for two. Rabbi Akiva says: A yavam cannot nullify her vows, regardless of whether she is waiting for one yavam or for two or more. The mishna then elaborates: Rabbi Eliezer said: Just as with regard to a woman he acquired for himself through betrothal, he nullifies her vows, so too with regard to a woman acquired for him from Heaven, i.e., the yevama, isn’t it logical that he should be able to nullify her vows? Rabbi Akiva said to him: No, if you say that a husband can nullify the vows of a woman he acquired for himself, over whom others have no authority, shall you also say that this is the case with regard to a woman acquired for him from Heaven, over whom others have authority? If there are two yevamin, each yavam has equal authority with regard to her vows. Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: Akiva, your statement applies in a situation with two yevamin, but how do you reply to Rabbi Eliezer in the case of one yavam? Rabbi Akiva said to him: A yevama is not the full-fledged wife of the yavam in the in the way that a betrothed woman is her husband’s full-fledged wife, and the yavam is not empowered to nullify vows at all.
הָאוֹמֵר לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, כָּל הַנְּדָרִים שֶׁתִּדְּרִי מִכָּאן עַד שֶׁאָבֹא מִמָּקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי, הֲרֵי הֵן קַיָּמִין, לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם. הֲרֵי הֵן מוּפָרִין, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, מוּפָר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ מוּפָר. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, אִם הֵפֵר נְּדָרִים שֶׁבָּאוּ לִכְלָל אִסּוּר, לֹא יָפֵר נְדָרִים שֶׁלֹּא בָאוּ לִכְלָל אִסּוּר. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר, אִישָׁהּ יְקִימֶנּוּ וְאִישָׁהּ יְפֵרֶנּוּ (במדבר ל), אֶת שֶׁבָּא לִכְלָל הָקֵם, בָּא לִכְלָל הָפֵר. לֹא בָא לִכְלָל הָקֵם, לֹא בָא לִכְלָל הָפֵר: One who says to his wife: All vows that you will vow from now until I arrive from such and such a place are hereby ratified, has not said anything, i.e., the vows are not ratified. However, if he states that all vows that she will take until then are hereby nullified, Rabbi Eliezer said: They are nullified, while the Rabbis say: They are not nullified. Rabbi Eliezer said in explanation: If one can nullify vows that have reached the status of a prohibition, i.e., that have already taken effect, shall he not be able to nullify vows that have not reached the status of a prohibition? The Rabbis said to him in response: The verse states: “Every vow, and every binding oath to afflict the soul, her husband may ratify it, or her husband may nullify it” (Numbers 30:14). This teaches: That which has reached the status of eligibility for ratification, i.e., a vow that she has already taken, has reached the status of eligibility for nullification. However, a vow that has not reached the status of eligibility for ratification has not reached the status of eligibility for nullification either, and it cannot be nullified.
הֲפָרַת נְדָרִים, כָּל הַיּוֹם. יֵשׁ בַּדָּבָר לְהָקֵל וּלְהַחֲמִיר. כֵּיצַד. נָדְרָה בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבָּת, יָפֵר בְּלֵילֵי שַׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשָׁךְ. נָדְרָה עִם חֲשֵׁכָה, מֵפֵר עַד שֶׁלֹּא תֶחְשַׁךְ. שֶׁאִם חָשְׁכָה וְלֹא הֵפֵר, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר: The nullification of vows can be performed all day on the day on which the vow was heard. There is in this matter both a leniency, extending the nullification period, and a stricture, curtailing that period. How so? If a woman took a vow on Shabbat evening, her father or husband can nullify the vow on Shabbat evening, and on Shabbat day until dark. This is an example of extending the nullification period. However, if she took a vow with nightfall approaching, her father or husband can nullify the vow only until nightfall, since, if it became dark and he had not yet nullified her vow, he cannot nullify it anymore. This is an example of a curtailed nullification period.