7ז׳
1 א

יֵשׁ מַעֲלִין אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה וְלֹא פוֹסְלִין, פּוֹסְלִין וְלֹא מַעֲלִין, לֹא מַעֲלִין וְלֹא פוֹסְלִין. אֵלּוּ מַעֲלִין וְלֹא פוֹסְלִין, הַשֶּׁלֶג, וְהַבָּרָד, וְהַכְּפוֹר, וְהַגְּלִיד, וְהַמֶּלַח, וְהַטִּיט הַנָּרוֹק. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, הָיָה רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל דָּן כְּנֶגְדִּי לוֹמַר, הַשֶּׁלֶג אֵינוֹ מַעֲלֶה אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה. וְהֵעִידוּ אַנְשֵׁי מֵידְבָא מִשְּׁמוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לָהֶם, צְאוּ וְהָבִיאוּ שֶׁלֶג וַעֲשׂוּ מִקְוֶה בַּתְּחִלָּה. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי אוֹמֵר, אֶבֶן הַבָּרָד, כַּמָּיִם. כֵּיצַד מַעֲלִין וְלֹא פוֹסְלִין. מִקְוֶה שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה חָסֵר אַחַת, נָפַל מֵהֶם סְאָה לְתוֹכוֹ וְהֶעֱלָהוּ, נִמְצְאוּ מַעֲלִין וְלֹא פוֹסְלִין:

Some materials raise the mikveh up [to the required quantity] and do not make it invalid. Some make it invalid and do not raise it up [to the required quantity]; And some neither raise it up [to the required quantity] nor make it invalid. These raise it up to the required quantity and do not make the mikveh invalid. Snow, hail, frosted dew, ice, salt, and thin mud. Rabbi Akiva said: Rabbi Ishmael once argued against me saying; snow does not raise up the mikveh [to its required quantity]. But the men of Madeba testified in his name that he had once told them: go and bring snow and with it prepare a mikveh from the outset. Rabbi Yohanan ben Nuri says: hailstones are like drawn water. How do they raise it up [to the required quantity] and not render it invalid? If the mikveh contained forty seahs less one, and a se'ah of them fell in and made up [the required quantity], they thus make up [the required quantity] but do not render it invalid.

2 ב

אֵלּוּ פוֹסְלִין וְלֹא מַעֲלִין, הַמַּיִם, בֵּין טְמֵאִים בֵּין טְהוֹרִים, וּמֵי כְבָשִׁים וּמֵי שְׁלָקוֹת, וְהַתֶּמֶד עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֶחֱמִיץ. כֵּיצַד פּוֹסְלִין וְלֹא מַעֲלִין. מִקְוֶה שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה חָסֵר קֹרְטוֹב, וְנָפַל מֵהֶן קֹרְטוֹב לְתוֹכוֹ, לֹא הֶעֱלָהוּ, פּוֹסְלוֹ בִשְׁלשָׁה לֻגִּין. אֲבָל שְׁאָר הַמַּשְׁקִין, וּמֵי פֵרוֹת, וְהַצִּיר, וְהַמֻּרְיָס, וְהַתֶּמֶד מִשֶּׁהֶחֱמִיץ, פְּעָמִים מַעֲלִין וּפְעָמִים שֶׁאֵינָן מַעֲלִין. כֵּיצַד. מִקְוֶה שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה חָסֵר אַחַת, נָפַל לְתוֹכוֹ סְאָה מֵהֶם, לֹא הֶעֱלָהוּ. הָיוּ בוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה, נָתַן סְאָה וְנָטַל סְאָה, הֲרֵי זֶה כָשֵׁר:

These invalidate the mikveh and do not raise it up to [the required quantity]: Drawn water, whether clean or unclean, water that has been used for pickling or for boiling, and grape-skin wine before it becomes vinegar. How do they make the mikveh invalid and do not raise it up [the required quantity]? If a mikveh contained forty seahs less a kortov, and a kortov of these fell into it, it does not raise it up [the required quantity]; And if there were three logs of any of these, they would invalidate the mikveh. But other liquids, and the juice of fruits, brine, and liquid in which fish has been pickled, and grape-skin wine that has fermented sometimes raise it up to [the required quantity] and sometimes do not raise it up. How so? If a mikveh contained forty seahs less one, and a seah of any of these fell in it, it does not raise it up to [the required quantity]. But if the mikveh contained forty seahs and a se'ah of any of these was put in and one seah was removed, the mikveh is still valid.

3 ג

הֵדִיחַ בּוֹ סַלֵּי זֵיתִים וְסַלֵּי עֲנָבִים, וְשִׁנּוּ אֶת מַרְאָיו, כָּשֵׁר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, מֵי הַצֶּבַע פּוֹסְלִין אוֹתוֹ בִשְׁלשָׁה לֻגִּין, וְאֵינָן פּוֹסְלִין אוֹתוֹ בְשִׁנּוּי מַרְאֶה. נָפַל לְתוֹכוֹ יַיִן, וּמֹחַל, וְשִׁנּוּ אֶת מַרְאָיו, פָּסוּל. כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה. יַמְתִּין לוֹ עַד שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ גְשָׁמִים וְיַחְזְרוּ מַרְאֵיהֶן לְמַרְאֵה הַמָּיִם. הָיוּ בוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה, מְמַלֵּא בַכָּתֵף וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹכוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּחְזְרוּ מַרְאֵיהֶן לְמַרְאֵה הַמָּיִם:

If he rinsed in the mikveh baskets of olives or baskets of grapes and they changed its color, it remains valid. Rabbi Yose says: dye-water renders it invalid by a quantity of three logs, but not merely by changing its color. If wine or the sap of olives fell into it and changed its color, it becomes invalid. What should one do [to make it valid again]? One should wait until the rain falls and the color reverts to the color of water. If it contained forty seahs, water may be drawn and carried on the shoulder and put into it until the color reverts to that of water.

4 ד

נָפַל לְתוֹכוֹ יַיִן אוֹ מֹחַל וְשִׁנּוּ מִקְצָת מַרְאָיו, אִם אֵין בּוֹ מַרְאֵה מַיִם אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִטְבֹּל בּוֹ:

If wine or the sap of olives fell into the mikveh and changed the color of a portion of the water, if there is not a portion [of the mikveh] that has forty seahs with the color of water, one may not immerse in there.

5 ה

שְׁלשָׁה לֻגִּין מַיִם, וְנָפַל לְתוֹכָן קֹרְטוֹב יַיִן, וַהֲרֵי מַרְאֵיהֶן כְּמַרְאֵה הַיַּיִן, וְנָפְלוּ לְמִקְוֶה, לֹא פְסָלוּהוּ. שְׁלשָׁה לֻגִּין מַיִם חָסֵר קֹרְטוֹב, וְנָפַל לְתוֹכָן קֹרְטוֹב חָלָב, וַהֲרֵי מַרְאֵיהֶן כְּמַרְאֵה הַמַּיִם, וְנָפְלוּ לְמִקְוֶה, לֹא פְסָלוּהוּ. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי אוֹמֵר, הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַמַּרְאֶה:

If a kortov of wine fell into three logs of water and its color became like that of wine, and the water then fell into a mikveh, it does not render it invalid. If there were three logs of water less a kortov into which a kortov of milk fell, and their color remained like the color of water, and then they fell into a mikveh, they do not render it invalid. Rabbi Yohanan ben Nuri says: everything goes by the color.

6 ו

מִקְוֶה שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה מְכֻוָּנוֹת, יָרְדוּ שְׁנַיִם וְטָבְלוּ זֶה אַחַר זֶה, הָרִאשׁוֹן טָהוֹר, וְהַשֵּׁנִי טָמֵא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם הָיוּ רַגְלָיו שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן נוֹגְעוֹת בַּמַּיִם, אַף הַשֵּׁנִי טָהוֹר. הִטְבִּיל בּוֹ אֶת הַסָּגוֹס וְהֶעֱלָהוּ, מִקְצָתוֹ נוֹגֵעַ בַּמַּיִם, טָהוֹר. הַכַּר וְהַכֶּסֶת שֶׁל עוֹר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגְבִּיהַּ שִׂפְתוֹתֵיהֶם מִן הַמַּיִם, הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹכָן שְׁאוּבִין. כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה, מַטְבִּילָן וּמַעֲלֶה אוֹתָם דֶּרֶךְ שׁוּלֵיהֶם:

If a mikveh contained forty seahs exactly and two persons went down and immersed themselves one after the other, the first becomes clean but the second remains unclean. Rabbi Judah says: if the feet of the first were still touching the water, the second also becomes clean. If one immersed a thick cloak and when he drew it out a part was still in contact with the water [and then another person immersed himself in the mikveh], he becomes clean. A pillow case or a cushion of leather, as soon as it is taken out of the water by its open ends the water which still remains in it is drawn water. How should one do it? One should immerse them and draw them up by their lower edges.

7 ז

הִטְבִּיל בּוֹ אֶת הַמִּטָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרַגְלֶיהָ שׁוֹקְעוֹת בַּטִּיט הֶעָבֶה, טְהוֹרָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּיִם מְקַדְּמִין. מִקְוֶה שֶׁמֵּימָיו מְרֻדָּדִין, כּוֹבֵשׁ אֲפִלּוּ חֲבִילֵי עֵצִים, אֲפִלּוּ חֲבִילֵי קָנִים, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְפְּחוּ הַמַּיִם, וְיוֹרֵד וְטוֹבֵל. מַחַט שֶׁהִיא נְתוּנָה עַל מַעֲלוֹת הַמְּעָרָה, הָיָה מוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא בַמַּיִם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָבַר עָלֶיהָ הַגַּל, טְהוֹרָה:

If he immersed a bed in it, even though its legs sink into the thick mud, it still becomes clean because the water touched them before [the mud]. The water of a mikveh which is shallow, one may press down even bundles of sticks, even bundles of reeds, so that the level of the water may rise, and then go down and immerse oneself. If an [unclean] needle is placed on the step [leading down to a mikveh] in a cavern, and the water is put in motion, once a wave has passed over it, [the needle] becomes clean.