8ח׳
1 א

כָּל קָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר וְהַיָּחִיד בָּאִים מִן הָאָרֶץ וּמִחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, מִן הֶחָדָשׁ וּמִן הַיָּשָׁן, חוּץ מִן הָעֹמֶר וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, שֶׁאֵינָן בָּאִים אֶלָּא מִן הֶחָדָשׁ וּמִן הָאָרֶץ. וְכֻלָּן אֵינָן בָּאִים אֶלָּא מִן הַמֻּבְחָר. וְאֵיזֶהוּ מֻבְחָר. מִכְמָס וּמְזוֹנִיחָה, אַלְפָא לַסֹּלֶת. שְׁנִיָּה לָהֶם, חֲפָרַיִם בַּבִּקְעָה. כָּל הָאֲרָצוֹת הָיוּ כְשֵׁרוֹת, אֶלָּא מִכָּאן הָיוּ מְבִיאִים:

All public and private offerings can be brought from the Land [of Israel] or outside the Land, from the new or the old [grain] except for the omer and the two breads [of Shavuot] which can only be brought from the new [grain] and from the Land of [Israel]. And all of them should only be brought from the best. What is the best? Michmas and Mizoniacha are the best [areas] for fine flour. Second best for fine flour are Chafaraim in the valley. The [grain of the] whole land was valid, but they used to bring it only from these places.

2 ב

אֵין מְבִיאִין לֹא מִבֵּית הַזְּבָלִים, וְלֹא מִבֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִים, וְלֹא מִבֵּית הָאִילָן. וְאִם הֵבִיא, כָּשֵׁר. כֵּיצַד הוּא עוֹשֶׂה, נָרָהּ שָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, וּבַשְּׁנִיָּה זוֹרְעָהּ קֹדֶם לַפֶּסַח שִׁבְעִים יוֹם, וְהִיא עוֹשָׂה סֹלֶת מְרֻבָּה. כֵּיצַד הוּא בוֹדֵק. הַגִּזְבָּר מַכְנִיס אֶת יָדוֹ לְתוֹכָהּ. עָלָה בָהּ אָבָק, פְּסוּלָה, עַד שֶׁיְּנִיפֶנָּה. וְאִם הִתְלִיעָה, פְּסוּלָה:

One may not bring [grain for grain offerings] from a fertilized field nor from an irrigated field nor from a field [also planted with] trees. But if one did bring it [from these] it was valid. How does one do it [i.e., work the field to produce grain for grain offerings]? He plows it in the first year and in the second year he sows it seventy days before Pesach, and it would produce [grain fit to make from it] fine flour. How would he test it? The temple-treasurer would put his hand into it; if [flour] powder came up in [his hand], it was invalid until he sifted it [to remove the fine powder]. If it had become full of maggots, it is invalid.

3 ג

תְּקוֹעָה, אַלְפָא לַשָּׁמֶן. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר, שְׁנִיָּה לָהּ רֶגֶב בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן. כָּל הָאֲרָצוֹת הָיוּ כְשֵׁרוֹת, אֶלָּא מִכָּאן הָיוּ מְבִיאִין. אֵין מְבִיאִין לֹא מִבֵּית הַזְּבָלִים, וְלֹא מִבֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִים, וְלֹא מִמַּה שֶּׁנִּזְרַע בֵּינֵיהֶם. וְאִם הֵבִיא, כָּשֵׁר. אֵין מְבִיאִין אַנְפִּיקְנוֹן. וְאִם הֵבִיא, פָּסוּל. אֵין מְבִיאִין מִן הַגַּרְגְּרִים שֶׁנִּשְׁרוּ בַמַּיִם, וְלֹא מִן הַכְּבוּשִׁים, וְלֹא מִן הַשְּׁלוּקִין. וְאִם הֵבִיא, פָּסוּל:

Tekoa is best for its oil. Abba Shaul says: Second to it is Regev, on the other side of the Jordan. The [oil of the] whole land was valid, but they used to bring it only from these places. One may not bring it from a fertilized field nor from an irrigated field nor from [from olive-trees planted in a field] with seeds sown in between them, but if one did bring it [from these] it was valid. One may not bring anpikanon [oil from immature olives, used for medicinal and cosmetic purposes], and if one did bring it, it is invalid. One may not bring it from olive-berries which had been soaked in water or preserved or stewed; and if one did bring it, it is invalid.

4 ד

שְׁלשָׁה זֵיתִים, וּבָהֶן שְׁלשָׁה שְׁלשָׁה שְׁמָנִים. הַזַּיִת הָרִאשׁוֹן, מְגַרְגְּרוֹ בְרֹאשׁ הַזַּיִת וְכוֹתֵשׁ וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ הַסַּל. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, סְבִיבוֹת הַסַּל. זֶה רִאשׁוֹן. טָעַן בְּקוֹרָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בַּאֲבָנִים. זֶה שֵׁנִי. חָזַר וְטָחַן וְטָעַן, זֶה שְׁלִישִׁי. הָרִאשׁוֹן לַמְּנוֹרָה, וְהַשְּׁאָר לַמְּנָחוֹת. הַזַּיִת הַשֵּׁנִי מְגַרְגְּרוֹ בְרֹאשׁ הַגַּג, וְכוֹתֵשׁ וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ הַסַּל. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, סְבִיבוֹת הַסַּל, זֶה רִאשׁוֹן. טָעַן בְּקוֹרָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בַּאֲבָנִים, זֶה שֵׁנִי. חָזַר וְטָחַן וְטָעַן, זֶה שְׁלִישִׁי. הָרִאשׁוֹן לַמְּנוֹרָה, וְהַשְּׁאָר לַמְּנָחוֹת. הַזַּיִת הַשְּׁלִישִׁי, עוֹטְנוֹ בְתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת עַד שֶׁיִּלְקֶה, וּמַעֲלֵהוּ וּמְנַגְּבוֹ בְרֹאשׁ הַגַּג, וְכוֹתֵשׁ וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ הַסַּל. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, סְבִיבוֹת הַסַּל, זֶה רִאשׁוֹן. טָעַן בְּקוֹרָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בַּאֲבָנִים, זֶה שֵׁנִי. חָזַר וְטָחַן וְטָעַן, זֶה שְׁלִישִׁי. הָרִאשׁוֹן לַמְּנוֹרָה, וְהַשְּׁאָר לַמְּנָחוֹת:

There are three [crops of] olives and each gives three kinds of oil. The first crop of olives he picks the olives from the top of the tree; and he pounds them and puts them into the basket; Rabbi Judah says: around the [sides of the] basket. This is the first. He then presses them with the beam; Rabbi Judah says: with stones. This is the second. He goes back and grinds them and presses them again. This is the third . The first [oil] is fit for the menorah [Temple candelabrum] and the others for grain offerings. The second olive crop is when he picks them at roof-level and he pounds them and puts them into the basket; Rabbi Judah says: around the [sides of the] basket. This is the first. He then presses them with the beam; Rabbi Judah says: with stones. This is the second. He goes back and grinds them and presses them again. This is the third . The first [oil] is fit for the menorah and the others for grain offerings. The third olive crop is when he packs the last olives of the tree inside the storehouse [of the oil pressing facility] until they become overripe; he takes them up and dries them on the roof and he pounds them and puts them into the basket; Rabbi Judah says: around the basket. This is the first. He then presses them with the beam; Rabbi Judah says: with stones. This is the second. He goes back and grinds them and presses them again. This is the third . The first [oil] is fit for the menorah and the others for grain offerings.

5 ה

הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁבָּרִאשׁוֹן, אֵין לְמַעְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ. הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁבָּרִאשׁוֹן וְהָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁבַּשֵּׁנִי, שָׁוִין. הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבָּרִאשׁוֹן וְהַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁבַּשֵּׁנִי וְהָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁבַּשְּׁלִישִׁי, שָׁוִין. הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבַּשֵּׁנִי וְהַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁבַּשְּׁלִישִׁי, שָׁוִין. הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבַּשְּׁלִישִׁי, אֵין לְמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ. אַף הַמְּנָחוֹת הָיוּ בַדִּין שֶׁיִּטָּעֲנוּ שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זַךְ. מָה אִם הַמְּנוֹרָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ לַאֲכִילָה, טְעוּנָה שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זַךְ, הַמְּנָחוֹת, שֶׁהֵן לַאֲכִילָה, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁיִּטָּעֲנוּ שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זַךְ. תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (שמות כז), זָךְ כָּתִית לַמָּאוֹר, וְלֹא זַךְ כָּתִית לַמְּנָחוֹת:

The first of the first, there is none better than it. The second of the first and the first of the second are equal. The third of the first, the second of the second and the first oil of the third are equal. The third of the second and the second of the third are equal. The third of the third, there is none worse than it. It would have been logical that grain offerings should also require the purest olive oil: for if the menorah, whose [oil] is not for eating, requires pure olive oil, then should not grain offerings, whose oil is for eating, also require pure olive oil? But Scripture says, “Pure olive oil of beaten olives for lighting” (Exodus 27:20), and not pure olive oil of beaten olives for grain offerings.

6 ו

וּמִנַּיִן הָיוּ מְבִיאִין אֶת הַיַּיִן. קְרוּתִים וְהַטּוּלִים, אַלְפָא לַיָּיִן. שְׁנִיָּה לָהֶן, בֵּית רִמָּה וּבֵית לָבָן בָּהָר, וּכְפַר סִגְנָה בַבִּקְעָה. כָּל הָאֲרָצוֹת הָיוּ כְשֵׁרוֹת, אֶלָּא מִכָּאן הָיוּ מְבִיאִין. אֵין מְבִיאִין, לֹא מִבֵּית הַזְּבָלִים, וְלֹא מִבֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִין, וְלֹא מִמַּה שֶּׁנִּזְרַע בֵּינֵיהֶן. וְאִם הֵבִיא, כָּשֵׁר. אֵין מְבִיאִין אִלְיוּסְטָן. וְאִם הֵבִיא, כָּשֵׁר. אֵין מְבִיאִין יָשָׁן, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי. וַחֲכָמִים מַכְשִׁירִין. אֵין מְבִיאִין, לֹא מָתוֹק, וְלֹא מְעֻשָּׁן, וְלֹא מְבֻשָּׁל. וְאִם הֵבִיא, פָּסוּל. אֵין מְבִיאִין מִן הַדָּלִיּוֹת, אֶלָּא מִן הָרוֹגְלִיּוֹת וּמִן הַכְּרָמִים הָעֲבוּדִים:

From where did they bring the wine [for the libations]? Keruhim and Attulim are best for wine. Second to them are Bet Rimmah and Bet Lavan on the mountain and Kefar Signa in the valley. [Wine of the] whole land was valid but they used to bring it only from these places. One may not bring it from a fertilized field nor from an irrigated field nor from [vines planted in a field] sown with seeds; but if one did bring it [from these] it was valid. One may not bring wine from sun-sweetened grapes, but if one did bring it, it was valid. One may not bring old wine, the words of Rabbi. But the sages validate it. One may not bring sweet wine or smoked wine or boiled wine, and if one did bring it, it was invalid. One may not bring wine from grapes [raised and] hung [on reeds], but only from the vines growing close to the ground and from cultivated vineyards.

7 ז

לֹא הָיוּ כוֹנְסִים אוֹתוֹ בַחֲצָבִים גְּדוֹלִים, אֶלָּא בְחָבִיּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת. וְאֵינוֹ מְמַלֵּא אֶת הֶחָבִיּוֹת עַד פִּיהֶם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא רֵיחוֹ נוֹדֵף. אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא, לֹא מִפִּיהָ, מִפְּנֵי הַקְּמָחִין. וְלֹא מִשּׁוּלֶיהָ, מִפְּנֵי הַשְּׁמָרִים. אֶלָּא מֵבִיא מִשְּׁלִישָׁהּ וּמֵאֶמְצָעָהּ. כֵּיצַד הוּא בוֹדֵק, הַגִּזְבָּר יוֹשֵׁב וְהַקָּנֶה בְיָדוֹ, זָרַק אֶת הַגִּיד וְהִקִּישׁ בַּקָּנֶה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, יַיִן שֶׁעָלָה בוֹ קְמָחִין, פָּסוּל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, תְּמִימִים יִהְיוּ לָכֶם וּמִנְחָתָם (במדבר כח), תְּמִימִים יִהְיוּ לָכֶם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם (שם):

They would not put [the wine] in large casks but in small barrels. And one did not fill the barrels to the brim, so that its scent might waft. One may not take the wine at the edge of the barrel because of the scum, nor that at the bottom because of the lees. Rather, one should take it only from the middle third of the barrel. How did he test it? The temple-treasurer used to sit with a [measuring] reed in his hand; when it shot out [during pouring] lees, he would knock with his reed [as a sign to stop pouring]. Rabbi Yose bar Judah says: wine on which there is a scum is invalid, as it is said, “They shall be for you without blemish, and their grain offering,” and "They shall be for you without blemish, and their libations” (Numbers 28:19-20, 31).