12י״ב
1 א

הַמְּנָחוֹת וְהַנְּסָכִים שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא קִדְּשָׁן בַּכְּלִי, יֶשׁ לָהֶן פִּדְיוֹן. מִשֶּׁקָּדְשׁוּ בַכְּלִי, אֵין לָהֶם פִּדְיוֹן. הָעוֹפוֹת וְהָעֵצִים וְהַלְּבוֹנָה וּכְלֵי שָׁרֵת, אֵין לָהֶם פִּדְיוֹן, שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא בְּהֵמָה:

The grain offerings and libations that became impure before they became sanctified in a vessel, they can be redeemed. Once they have become sanctified in a vessel, they can no longer be redeemed. Birds, wood, frankincense and temple vessels cannot be redeemed because redemption was only stated regarding beasts [cattle, sheep and goats].

2 ב

הָאוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי עָלַי בְּמַחֲבַת, וְהֵבִיא בְמַרְחֶשֶׁת, בְּמַרְחֶשֶׁת וְהֵבִיא בְמַחֲבַת, מַה שֶּׁהֵבִיא הֵבִיא, וִידֵי חוֹבָתוֹ לֹא יָצָא. זוֹ לְהָבִיא בְמַחֲבַת, וְהֵבִיא בְמַרְחֶשֶׁת, בְּמַרְחֶשֶׁת, וְהֵבִיא בְמַחֲבַת, הֲרֵי זוֹ פְסוּלָה. הֲרֵי עָלַי שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרוֹנִים לְהָבִיא בִכְלִי אֶחָד, וְהֵבִיא בִשְׁנֵי כֵלִים, בִּשְׁנֵי כֵלִים, וְהֵבִיא בִכְלִי אֶחָד, מַה שֶּׁהֵבִיא הֵבִיא, וִידֵי חוֹבָתוֹ לֹא יָצָא. אֵלּוּ לְהָבִיא בִכְלִי אֶחָד, וְהֵבִיא בִשְׁנֵי כֵלִים, בִּשְׁנֵי כֵלִים וְהֵבִיא בִכְלִי אֶחָד, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְסוּלִין. הֲרֵי עָלַי שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרוֹנִים לְהָבִיא בִכְלִי אֶחָד וְהֵבִיא בִשְׁנֵי כֵלִים, אָמְרוּ לוֹ בִּכְלִי אֶחָד נָדָרְתָּ, הִקְרִיבָן בִּכְלִי אֶחָד, כְּשֵׁרִים, וּבִשְׁנֵי כֵלִים, פְּסוּלִין. הֲרֵי עָלַי שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרוֹנִים לְהָבִיא בִשְׁנֵי כֵלִים, וְהֵבִיא בִכְלִי אֶחָד, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, בִּשְׁנֵי כֵלִים נָדָרְתָּ, הִקְרִיבָן בִּשְׁנֵי כֵלִים, כְּשֵׁרִים. נְתָנוֹ בִכְלִי אֶחָד, כִּשְׁתֵּי מְנָחוֹת שֶׁנִּתְעָרָבוּ:

One who says I will bring [a grain offering prepared] in a frying pan, but he brought [one prepared] in a deep-frying pan, or, one who said I will bring [a grain offering prepared] in a deep-frying pan, but he brought [one prepared] in a frying pan, what he brought, he brought, but he did not fulfill his obligation. [If he committed] to bring this [grain offering prepared] in a frying pan but he brought [one prepared] in a deep-frying pan or to bring this [grain offering prepared] in a deep-frying pan but he brought [one prepared] in a frying pan, it is invalid. If he said I will bring two esronim [specific dry volume measure] [of flour] in one vessel, but he brought it in two vessels or he said in two vessels but he brought in one, what he brought, he brought, but he did not fulfill his obligation. [If he committed] to bring these [two esronim] in one vessel and he brought them in two, or these [two esronim] in two vessels and he brought them in one vessel, these are invalid. If he said I will bring two esronim in one vessel and he brought them in two vessels, and they said [to him] "you vowed regarding one vessel", if he [subsequently]brought it in one vessel, it is valid; in two vessels it is invalid. If he said I will bring two esronim in two vessels and he brought them in one vessel and they they said [to him] "you vowed regarding two vessels", if he [subsequently]brought it in two vessels, it is valid; in one vessel it is as if two grain offerings became mixed.

3 ג

הֲרֵי עָלַי מִנְחָה מִן הַשְּׂעֹרִין, יָבִיא מִן הַחִטִּים. קֶמַח, יָבִיא סֹלֶת. בְּלֹא שֶׁמֶן וּלְבוֹנָה, יָבִיא עִמָּהּ שֶׁמֶן וּלְבוֹנָה. חֲצִי עִשָּׂרוֹן, יָבִיא עִשָּׂרוֹן שָׁלֵם. עִשָּׂרוֹן וּמֶחֱצָה, יָבִיא שְׁנָיִם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן פּוֹטֵר, שֶׁלֹּא הִתְנַדֵּב כְּדֶרֶךְ הַמִּתְנַדְּבִים:

If he said, "I accept upon myself a grain offering from barley", he may bring it from wheat. "From flour", he may bring it from fine flour. "Without oil or frankincense", he may bring it with oil and frankincense. "Only half an issaron", he may bring a full issaron. "One and a half esronim", he must bring two. Rabbi Shimon exempts him since he did vow [the offering] in the way people [usually] vow.

4 ד

מִתְנַדֵּב אָדָם מִנְחָה שֶׁל שִׁשִּׁים עִשָּׂרוֹן, וּמֵבִיא בִכְלִי אֶחָד. אִם אָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי שִׁשִּׁים וְאֶחָד, מֵבִיא שִׁשִּׁים בִּכְלִי אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בִּכְלִי אֶחָד, שֶׁכֵּן צִבּוּר מֵבִיא בְיוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת שִׁשִּׁים וְאֶחָד. דַּיּוֹ לַיָּחִיד שֶׁיְּהֵא פָחוֹת מִן הַצִּבּוּר אֶחָד. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, וַהֲלֹא אֵלּוּ לַפָּרִים, וְאֵלּוּ לַכְּבָשִׂים, וְאֵינָם נִבְלָלִים זֶה עִם זֶה. אֶלָּא, עַד שִׁשִּׁים יְכוֹלִים לְהִבָּלֵל. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, שִׁשִּׁים נִבְלָלִים, שִׁשִּׁים וְאֶחָד אֵין נִבְלָלִים. אָמַר לָהֶן, כָּל מִדּוֹת חֲכָמִים כֵּן. בְּאַרְבָּעִים סְאָה הוּא טוֹבֵל, בְּאַרְבָּעִים סְאָה חָסֵר קֻרְטוֹב אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִטְבֹּל בָּהֶן. אֵין מִתְנַדְּבִים לֹג, שְׁנַיִם, וַחֲמִשָּׁה, אֲבָל מִתְנַדְּבִים שְׁלשָׁה וְאַרְבָּעָה וְשִׁשָּׁה, וּמִשִּׁשָּׁה וּלְמָעְלָה:

One may vow a grain offering of up to 60 issaron and bring it in one vessel. If he said, "I will bring one of 61 issaron", he may bring 60 in one vessel and one in another vessel: since the community brings 61 issaron on the first day of Sukkot that falls on Shabbat , it is enough that the individual should be less than then congregation by one. Rabbi Shimon says: but some of these [Sukkot grain offerings] are for the bulls and others for the sheep and they cannot be mixed with one another! Rather, [the reason for the limitation is that] until 60, they can be mixed well. They said to him: 60 can be mixed but 61 cannot? He said to them: all of the measurements of the Sages are this way: In forty se'ah [a specific liquid volume measure] one immerses; in 40 se'ah minus a kortov [a minute volume measure] one may not immerse. One may not vow one, two or five log [of wine for libations], but one may vow three, four, six, or more than six.

5 ה

מִתְנַדְּבִים יַיִן, וְאֵין מִתְנַדְּבִים שֶׁמֶן, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר, מִתְנַדְּבִים שָׁמֶן. אָמַר רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן, מַה מָּצִינוּ בַיַּיִן שֶׁבָּא חוֹבָה וּבָא נְדָבָה, אַף הַשֶּׁמֶן בָּא חוֹבָה וּבָא נְדָבָה. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, לֹא, אִם אָמַרְתָּ בַיַּיִן שֶׁכֵּן הוּא קָרֵב חוֹבָתוֹ בִפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, תֹּאמַר בַּשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָרֵב חוֹבָתוֹ בִפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ. אֵין שְׁנַיִם מִתְנַדְּבִים עִשָּׂרוֹן אֶחָד, אֲבָל מִתְנַדְּבִים עוֹלָה וּשְׁלָמִים. וּבָעוֹף, אֲפִלּוּ פְרִידָה אֶחָת:

One may vow wine [alone], but not oil [alone], [these are] the words of Rabbi Akiva; Rabbi Tarfon says: one may vow oil. Rabbi Tarfon said: just as we see regarding wine that it comes both as an obligation and as a free-will vow, so too oil comes as an obligation and as a free-will vow. Rabbi Akiva said to him, not so! If you say regarding wine, which is brought as an obligation on its own, can you say the same thing regarding oil which is not brought as an obligation on its own? Two people may not vow one issaron but they may vow an olah [an offering burnt entirely upon the altar] or a shelamim [an offering whose various parts are consumed by its owners, the Kohanim and the fire on the altar], and regarding birds - even one bird.