שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם נִלּוֹשׁוֹת אַחַת אַחַת, וְנֶאֱפוֹת אַחַת אַחַת. לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים נִלּוֹשׁ אֶחָד אֶחָד, וְנֶאֱפֶה שְׁנַיִם שְׁנָיִם. וּבִטְפוּס הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן. וּכְשֶׁהוּא רָדָן, נוֹתְנָן בִּטְפוּס, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְקַלְקְלוּ: The two loaves that are brought on the festival of Shavuot from the new wheat are each made from a tenth of an ephah of fine flour. They are kneaded one by one and they are baked one by one, i.e., each loaf is placed separately in the oven. The loaves of the shewbread are kneaded one by one and baked two by two, i.e., two loaves are placed in the oven at the same time. And the baker would prepare the shewbread in a mold [defus] when he made the dough. When he removes the shewbread from the oven he again places the loaves in a mold so that their shape will not be ruined.
אֶחָד שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וְאֶחָד לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים, לִישָׁתָן וַעֲרִיכָתָן בַּחוּץ, וַאֲפִיָּתָן בִּפְנִים, וְאֵינָן דּוֹחוֹת אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם בִּפְנִים. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם הֱוֵי רָגִיל לוֹמַר, שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וְלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים כְּשֵׁרוֹת בָּעֲזָרָה, וּכְשֵׁרוֹת בְּבֵית פָּאגִי: In the case of both the two loaves and the shewbread, the kneading of their dough and the forming of their loaves take place outside the Temple courtyard, but their baking takes place inside the Temple courtyard. And their preparation does not override Shabbat. Rabbi Yehuda says: All of the procedures involved in their preparation take place inside the courtyard. Rabbi Shimon says: One should always be accustomed to say that the two loaves and the shewbread are fit if they were prepared in the Temple courtyard and they are also fit if they were prepared in Beit Pagei, outside the Temple Mount, as he maintains that they may be baked outside the Temple courtyard.
חֲבִתֵּי כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, לִישָׁתָן וַעֲרִיכָתָן וַאֲפִיָּתָן בִּפְנִים, וְדוֹחוֹת אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. טִחוּנָן וְהֶרְקֵדָן אֵינָן דּוֹחוֹת אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. כְּלָל אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, כָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לָהּ לֵעָשׂוֹת מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, אֵינָה דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת. וְשֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָהּ לֵעָשׂוֹת מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, דּוֹחָה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת: With regard to the twelve loaves of the High Priest’s griddle-cake offering, of which six are offered in the morning and six in the evening, their kneading, the forming of their loaves, and their baking take place inside the Temple courtyard, and all types of labor involved in those actions override Shabbat. These labors cannot be performed prior to Shabbat, as once the loaves are consecrated in a service vessel they are disqualified if they are left overnight. Grinding their flour and sifting their flour do not override Shabbat. Rabbi Akiva stated a principle: Any labor that can be performed on Shabbat eve does not override Shabbat, but one that cannot be performed on Shabbat eve overrides Shabbat.
כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת יֵשׁ בָּהֶן מַעֲשֵׂה כְלִי בִּפְנִים, וְאֵין בָּהֶן מַעֲשֵׂה כְלִי בַחוּץ. כֵּיצַד. שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם אָרְכָּן שִׁבְעָה וְרָחְבָּן אַרְבָּעָה, וְקַרְנוֹתֵיהֶן אַרְבַּע אֶצְבָּעוֹת. לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים, אָרְכָּן עֲשָׂרָה וְרָחְבָּן חֲמִשָּׁה, וְקַרְנוֹתָיו שֶׁבַע אֶצְבָּעוֹת. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁלֹּא תִטְעֶה, זד"ד יה"ז. בֶּן זוֹמָא אוֹמֵר, וְנָתַתָּ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן לֶחֶם פָּנִים לְפָנַי תָּמִיד, שֶׁיְּהֵא לוֹ פָנִים: All preparatory procedures of the meal offerings that take place inside the Temple courtyard, e.g., kneading and forming the High Priest’s griddle cakes, involve the use of a service vessel that consecrates the offerings. But any preparatory procedures that take place outside the Temple courtyard, e.g., kneading and forming the two loaves and the shewbread, do not involve the use of a service vessel. With regard to the two loaves, their length is seven handbreadths, their width is four handbreadths, and they have hornlike protrusions made of dough that is attached to each of their corners, which are four fingerbreadths high. With regard to the loaves of shewbread, their length is ten handbreadths, their width is five handbreadths, and each loaf’s hornlike protrusions is seven fingerbreadths high. Rabbi Yehuda says: The following letters are a mnemonic so that you will not err and forget the dimensions of the two loaves: Zayin, dalet, dalet. The numerical value of the letter zayin is seven and the numerical value of the letter dalet is four. The mnemonic therefore represents the length of seven handbreadths, the width of four handbreadths, and the height of four fingerbreadths, respectively. The following letters are a mnemonic for the dimensions of the shewbread: Yod, heh, zayin, which stand for the length of ten handbreadths, the width of five handbreadths, and the height of seven fingerbreadths, respectively. Ben Zoma says that it is written: “And you shall set upon the Table shewbread [leḥem panim] before Me always” (Exodus 25:30). The term leḥem panim indicates that it should have vertical sides [panim] rather than a rounded shape.
הַשֻּׁלְחָן, אָרְכּוֹ עֲשָׂרָה, וְרָחְבּוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה. לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים, אָרְכָּן עֲשָׂרָה וְרָחְבָּן חֲמִשָּׁה. נוֹתֵן אָרְכּוֹ כְּנֶגֶד רָחְבּוֹ שֶׁל שֻׁלְחָן, וְכוֹפֵל טְפָחַיִם וּמֶחֱצָה מִכָּאן וּטְפָחַיִם וּמֶחֱצָה מִכָּאן, נִמְצָא אָרְכּוֹ מְמַלֵּא כָּל רָחְבּוֹ שֶׁל שֻׁלְחָן, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, הַשֻּׁלְחָן אָרְכּוֹ שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר וְרָחְבּוֹ שִׁשָּׁה. לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים אָרְכּוֹ עֲשָׂרָה וְרָחְבּוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה. נוֹתֵן אָרְכּוֹ כְּנֶגֶד רָחְבּוֹ שֶׁל שֻׁלְחָן, וְכוֹפֵל טְפָחַיִם מִכָּאן וּטְפָחַיִם מִכָּאן וּטְפָחַיִם רֶוַח בָּאֶמְצָע, כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּהֵא הָרוּחַ מְנַשֶּׁבֶת בֵּינֵיהֶן. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר, שָׁם הָיוּ נוֹתְנִין שְׁנֵי בְזִיכֵי לְבוֹנָה שֶׁל לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, וַהֲלֹא כְבָר נֶאֱמַר (ויקרא כד), וְנָתַתָּ עַל הַמַּעֲרֶכֶת לְבֹנָה זַכָּה. אָמַר לָהֶן, וַהֲלֹא כְבָר נֶאֱמַר (במדבר ב), וְעָלָיו מַטֵּה מְנַשֶּׁה: As for the Table, its length is ten handbreadths and its width is five handbreadths, as the Torah states that the Table is two cubits long and one cubit wide (see Exodus 25:23), and Rabbi Yehuda holds that the cubit used as the unit of measurement for the construction of the Temple vessels was equal to five handbreadths. With regard to the shewbread, its length is ten handbreadths and its width is five handbreadths. The priest places the length of the two shewbread arrangements across the width of the Table, which leaves five handbreadths of each loaf protruding from the Table. And he folds the protruding two and a half handbreadths upward on this side of the Table, and the protruding two and a half handbreadths upward on that side of the Table. One finds, therefore, that the length of the shewbread covers the width of the Table. Similarly, since the width of each loaf is five handbreadths, the width of the two loaves filled the entire length of the Table. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Meir says: With regard to the Table, its length is twelve handbreadths and its width is six handbreadths, as the measure of a cubit used in the construction of the Temple vessels was equal to six handbreadths. Concerning the shewbread, its length is ten handbreadths and its width is five handbreadths. Rabbi Meir continues: The priest places the length of the shewbread across the width of the Table, which leaves four handbreadths of each loaf protruding from the Table. He folds the protruding two handbreadths upward on this side of the Table, and the protruding two handbreadths upward on that side of the Table. The width of the two arrangements of shewbread occupies only ten of the twelve handbreadths of the length of the Table, and this leaves a space of two handbreadths in the middle, between the two arrangements, so that the wind will blow between them and prevent the loaves from becoming moldy. Abba Shaul says: There, in the space between the two arrangements, the priests would place the two bowls of frankincense that accompany the shewbread. The Sages said to him: But isn’t it already stated: “And you shall place pure frankincense upon [al] each arrangement, that it may be for the bread as a memorial part, an offering made by fire to the Lord” (Leviticus 24:7)? The verse indicates that the frankincense is placed upon the shewbread and not next to it. Abba Shaul said to the Sages in response: Isn’t it already stated: “And next to him [alav] shall be the tribe of Manasseh” (Numbers 2:20)? Just as the preposition “alav” in this verse means that the tribe of Manasseh pitched camp next to the tribe of Ephraim and not upon it, so too, the preposition “al” means that the frankincense was placed next to the arrangements of the shewbread.
אַרְבָּעָה סְנִיפִין שֶׁל זָהָב הָיוּ שָׁם, מֻפְצָלִין מֵרָאשֵׁיהֶן, שֶׁהָיוּ סוֹמְכִים בָּהֶן, שְׁנַיִם לְסֵדֶר זֶה וּשְׁנַיִם לְסֵדֶר זֶה. וְעֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁמֹנָה קָנִים, כַּחֲצִי קָנֶה חָלוּל, אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְסֵדֶר זֶה וְאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְסֵדֶר זֶה. לֹא סִדּוּר קָנִים וְלֹא נְטִילָתָן דּוֹחֶה אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, אֶלָּא נִכְנָס מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְשׁוֹמְטָן וְנוֹתְנָן לְאָרְכּוֹ שֶׁל שֻׁלְחָן. כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁהָיוּ בַמִּקְדָּשׁ, אָרְכָּן לְאָרְכּוֹ שֶׁל בָּיִת: The mishna continues to describe the shewbread Table: And there were four panels of gold there, which stood on the ground and rose above the height of the Table, and they split up at their upper ends, above the Table, so that the rods upon which the shewbread was placed could rest upon the panels. In this manner the panels would support the shewbread. There were two panels for this arrangement and two panels for that arrangement, and there were twenty-eight rods, each of which was shaped like half of a hollow reed. There were fourteen rods for this arrangement and fourteen rods for that arrangement. Neither the arranging of the rods for the new shewbread, nor their removal from the arrangement of the old shewbread, overrides Shabbat. Rather, a priest enters the Sanctuary on Shabbat eve, i.e., Friday before sundown, and removes each of the rods from between the loaves. And according to Rabbi Meir he then places each rod in the space between the two arrangements, along the length of the Table. Then, on Shabbat, he places the new shewbread on the Table without the rods, and he inserts the rods between the loaves at the conclusion of Shabbat. The mishna concludes: All the vessels that were in the Temple, including the Table, were placed so that their length was from east to west, along the length of the Temple.
שְׁנֵי שֻׁלְחָנוֹת הָיוּ בָאוּלָם מִבִּפְנִים עַל פֶּתַח הַבַּיִת, אֶחָד שֶׁל שַׁיִשׁ וְאֶחָד שֶׁל זָהָב. עַל שֶׁל שַׁיִשׁ נוֹתְנִים לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ, וְעַל שֶׁל זָהָב בִּיצִיאָתוֹ, שֶׁמַּעֲלִין בַּקֹּדֶשׁ וְלֹא מוֹרִידִין. וְאֶחָד שֶׁל זָהָב מִבִּפְנִים, שֶׁעָלָיו לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים תָּמִיד. אַרְבָּעָה כֹהֲנִים נִכְנָסִין, שְׁנַיִם בְּיָדָם שְׁנֵי סְדָרִים, וּשְׁנַיִם בְּיָדָם שְׁנֵי בְזִיכִים. וְאַרְבָּעָה מַקְדִּימִין לִפְנֵיהֶם, שְׁנַיִם לִטֹּל שְׁנֵי סְדָרִים, וּשְׁנַיִם לִטֹּל שְׁנֵי בְזִיכִים. הַמַּכְנִיסִים עוֹמְדִים בַּצָּפוֹן, וּפְנֵיהֶם לַדָּרוֹם. הַמּוֹצִיאִין עוֹמְדִים בַּדָּרוֹם, וּפְנֵיהֶם לַצָּפוֹן. אֵלּוּ מוֹשְׁכִין וְאֵלּוּ מַנִּיחִין, וְטִפְחוֹ שֶׁל זֶה כְנֶגֶד טִפְחוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כה), לְפָנַי תָּמִיד. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ אֵלּוּ נוֹטְלִין וְאֵלּוּ מַנִּיחִין, אַף זוֹ הָיְתָה תָּמִיד. יָצְאוּ וְנָתְנוּ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן שֶׁל זָהָב שֶׁהָיָה בָאוּלָם. הִקְטִירוּ הַבְּזִיכִין, וְהַחַלּוֹת מִתְחַלְּקוֹת לַכֹּהֲנִים. חָל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, הַחַלּוֹת מִתְחַלְּקוֹת לָעָרֶב. חָל לִהְיוֹת עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, שָׂעִיר שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים נֶאֱכָל לָעָרֶב, הַבַּבְלִיִּים אוֹכְלִין אוֹתוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא חַי, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדַּעְתָּן יָפָה: There were two tables in the Entrance Hall, on the inside of the Entrance Hall, next to the entrance to the Temple, i.e., next to the entrance to the Sanctuary. One was of marble and one was of gold. On the table of marble, the priests place the new shewbread that has been baked, before its entrance into the Sanctuary, so that the loaves may cool a little from the heat of the oven and not spoil. And when the old shewbread is removed from the shewbread Table it is placed on the table of gold upon its exit from the Sanctuary, where it remains until the frankincense is burned on the altar. The reason the shewbread is placed on a gold table when it is removed, rather than on a marble or silver table, is that one elevates to a higher level in matters of sanctity and one does not downgrade. Since it is set on the gold shewbread Table all week, it cannot be downgraded to a marble or silver table upon its removal. And there was one Table of gold within the Sanctuary, upon which the shewbread is always found. The mishna describes the manner in which it is ensured that the shewbread is constantly on the Table: And four priests enter, two with the two arrangements of the new shewbread in their hands and two with the two bowls of frankincense in their hands. And four priests precede them, entering the Sanctuary before them, two to take the two arrangements of the old shewbread from the Table, and two to take the two bowls of frankincense. Those bringing the new shewbread into the Sanctuary stand in the north and their faces are to the south, and those removing the old shewbread stand in the south and their faces are to the north. These priests draw the old shewbread from the Table and those priests place the new shewbread on the Table, and for each handbreadth of this old shewbread that is removed from the Table a handbreadth of that new shewbread is placed upon the Table, so that the Table is never without loaves upon it, as it is stated: “And you shall set upon the Table shewbread before Me always” (Exodus 25:30). Rabbi Yosei says: Even if these priests were to remove the shewbread from the Table entirely, and only afterward those priests were to place the new shewbread upon the Table, this too would fulfill the requirement that the shewbread always be on the Table. It is unnecessary to ensure the uninterrupted presence of the shewbread upon the Table, as long as it does not remain a single night without shewbread upon it. The mishna describes the manner in which the shewbread is distributed: The priests who carried the old shewbread loaves came out of the Sanctuary and placed them on the table of gold that was in the Entrance Hall. The priests then burned on the altar the frankincense that was in the bowls. And the loaves were subsequently distributed to the priests. This occurred on Shabbat, the day that the priestly watch that served in the Temple during the preceding week was replaced by the priestly watch that would serve during the following week. The shewbread was distributed to the priests of both watches. If Yom Kippur occurs on Shabbat, the loaves are distributed at night, at the conclusion of the fast, since they may not be eaten during the day. If Yom Kippur occurs on Friday, i.e., when the holy day begins on Thursday evening, the goat sin offering of Yom Kippur is eaten by the priests at night, i.e., on Friday night, as it may be eaten only on the day that it is sacrificed or during the following night, until midnight. And since there is no possibility of cooking the meat, as one may not cook on Yom Kippur or Shabbat, the Babylonians, i.e., priests who had emigrated from Babylonia, eat it when it is raw, due to the fact that they are broad-minded with regard to their food, i.e., they are not particular and will eat meat even when it is not cooked.
סִדֵּר אֶת הַלֶּחֶם בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֶת הַבְּזִיכִים לְאַחַר שַׁבָּת וְהִקְטִיר אֶת הַבְּזִיכִים בְּשַׁבָּת, פְּסוּלָה, וְאֵין חַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶן מִשּׁוּם פִּגּוּל, נוֹתָר וְטָמֵא. סִדֵּר אֶת הַלֶּחֶם וְאֶת הַבְּזִיכִין בְּשַׁבָּת וְהִקְטִיר אֶת הַבְּזִיכִין לְאַחַר שַׁבָּת, פָּסוּל, וְאֵין חַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶן מִשּׁוּם פִּגּוּל וְנוֹתָר וְטָמֵא. סִדֵּר אֶת הַלֶּחֶם וְאֶת הַבְּזִיכִין לְאַחַר שַׁבָּת וְהִקְטִיר אֶת הַבְּזִיכִין בְּשַׁבָּת, פָּסוּל. כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה. יַנִּיחֶנָּה לַשַּׁבָּת הַבָּאָה, שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ הִיא עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן יָמִים רַבִּים, אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם: If one arranged the bread on the Table on Shabbat but arranged the bowls of frankincense only after Shabbat, then if he subsequently burned the frankincense placed in the bowls on the following Shabbat, the loaves are unfit for consumption, since the frankincense had not been on the Table for the entire week. Since the burning of the frankincense did not render the loaves permitted for consumption, one is not ever liable for eating them due to violation of the prohibitions of piggul or notar, or for partaking of the shewbread when one is ritually impure. One violates these prohibitions only if the frankincense is burned in a manner that permits consumption of the shewbread. If one arranged the bread and the bowls of frankincense on Shabbat but then burned the frankincense that was in the bowls after the following Shabbat, that burning of the frankincense is not valid and the shewbread is unfit for consumption. And since the frankincense was not burned in a manner that permits consumption of the shewbread, one is not ever liable for eating them due to violation of the prohibitions of piggul or notar, or for partaking of the shewbread when one is ritually impure. If one arranged the bread and the bowls of frankincense after Shabbat and burned the frankincense that was in the bowls on the subsequent Shabbat, the burning of the frankincense is not valid and the shewbread is unfit for consumption. How should one act to prevent the shewbread from being rendered unfit? One should not remove the shewbread and frankincense from the Table on the subsequent Shabbat. Rather, he should leave it on the Table until the following Shabbat, so that it remains on the Table for a full week from Shabbat to Shabbat. It is permitted to leave the bread and frankincense on the Table beyond seven days, as even if it is on the Table for many days there is nothing wrong with that, i.e., it is not rendered unfit.
שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם נֶאֱכָלוֹת אֵין פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁנַיִם, וְלֹא יָתֵר עַל שְׁלשָׁה. כֵּיצַד. נֶאֱפוֹת מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וְנֶאֱכָלוֹת בְּיוֹם טוֹב, לִשְׁנָיִם. חָל יוֹם טוֹב לִהְיוֹת אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת, נֶאֱכָלוֹת לִשְׁלשָׁה. לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים נֶאֱכָל אֵין פָּחוֹת מִתִּשְׁעָה, וְלֹא יָתֵר עַל אַחַד עָשָׂר. כֵּיצַד. נֶאֱפֶה בְעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְנֶאֱכָל בְּשַׁבָּת, לְתִשְׁעָה. חָל יוֹם טוֹב לִהְיוֹת עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, נֶאֱכָל לַעֲשָׂרָה. שְׁנֵי יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, נֶאֱכָל לְאַחַד עָשָׂר. וְאֵינוֹ דוֹחֶה לֹא אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְלֹא אֶת יוֹם טוֹב. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן הַסְּגָן, דּוֹחֶה אֶת יוֹם טוֹב וְאֵינוֹ דוֹחֶה אֶת יוֹם צוֹם: The two loaves that are brought on Shavuot are eaten by the priests no less than two days and no more than three days after they were baked. How so? They are generally baked on the eve of the festival of Shavuot and they are eaten on the day of the Festival, which is on the second day. If the Festival occurs after Shabbat, on Sunday, the loaves are baked on Friday, in which case they are eaten on the third day. The shewbread is eaten no less than nine days and no more than eleven days after it is baked. How so? It is generally baked on Shabbat eve and eaten on the following Shabbat, which is on the ninth day. If a Festival occurs on Shabbat eve the shewbread is baked on the eve of the Festival, on Thursday, in which case it is eaten on the tenth day. If the two festival days of Rosh HaShana occur on Thursday and Friday, the shewbread is baked on Wednesday, in which case it is eaten on the eleventh day. And this is because the preparation of the two loaves and the shewbread overrides neither Shabbat nor a Festival. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says in the name of Rabbi Shimon, son of the deputy High Priest: Their preparation overrides a Festival but does not override the fast day of Yom Kippur.